Skip to main content

Full text of "The Life And Life Work Of Pope Leo XIII Mcgovern"

See other formats


St. Peter was born in Bethsaida, a small town of 
Galilee. He was the son of Jonas, and a fisherman 
by occupation. He received from Jesus Christ the 
Supreme Pontifical Power to be transmitted to his 
successors; resided first at Antioch, then at Rome, 
where he was martyred June 20, in the year 67, 
having governed the Church from that city for 25 
years, 2 months and 7 days'. 



The- above picture shows the posture of the Popes 
as they bless the City of Rome and the world from 
the balcony of St. Peter's Church, Rome, on Easter 
Sunday of each year. 







Endorsed by the Entire Catholic Hierarchy of 










rev james j. McGovern, d.d. 




334 Dearborn Street, - - CHICAGO, ILL,. 


JAMES J. McGOVERN (All Rights Reserved) 

JUN - 3 A 4 

3famea Cardinal (gibbons 


©niteD States? anD CanaDa 

Dolt Catholic CQutcI) 


’The Life and Life Work of Pope Leo XIII.’ by Rev. 
James J. McGovern, D.D. 



Dei et Aposiolicae Sec/is Gratia 

9trcl)trpt6copufii Clj tcajpcnflts 

The above official "Imprimatur" (Let it be printed) 
is affixed by his Grace, the Most Reverend James 
Edward Quigley, Archbishop of Chicago. 


These memoirs comprise the life and life-work of 
the late Sovereign Pontiff of the Catholic Church, 
Leo XIII., his splendid achievements as a 
churchman, a statesman, and a scholar. He lived 
through the greater portion of the nineteenth 
century, and was well into the twentieth before he 
died. He left the stamp of his magnifi- cent genius 
upon the present age in such a pronounced way that 
it will be known for generations to come as the 
Leonine Century. 

At various periods of his Pontificate, especially on 

the occasions of his jubilee celebrations, 
biographies have been published in many 
languages. All the principal events of his youth, his 
growth into manhood, his studies in preparation for 
the priesthood, his priestly career, his labors as 
delegate to Benevento and to Umbria, his nun- 
ciature at Brussels, Belgium, his episcopal labors 
in Perugia, his cardinalate, his successful services 
in behalf of the Church as its Sovereign Pontiff, 
and his wonderful work through his Encyclicals, 
have been told and retold. 

The writer of this biography has endeavored to 
condense within these pages a multitude of facts of 
the Holy Father’s eventful career gathered from 
oral traditions, personal reminiscences, and a 
knowl- edge of local environments. 

A student in Rome during the first decade of the 
second half of the nineteenth century, singular 
opportunities were afforded the writer to meet the 
principal personages of the century and their co- 

It was found an impossible task to include the 
writings of Leo XIII. within the limits of this 
volume. His Encyclicals make a most 


interesting collection — healthful, strong, religious 
— and should be made attainable to all. 

The late Pope's poems, charades, and inscriptions 
have been translated into English and published by 
the Rev. H. T. Henry, Over- brook Seminary, Pa. 
Selections from said book have been inserted at 
the end of this volume. I acknowledge with grateful 
appreciation Father Henry's admirably accurate 
translations. They deserve to be read by everyone 
who loves the true and the beautiful. 

My thanks are also due many others, especially 
some "beyond the sea," who have made it possible 
for me to obtain facts and remi- niscences of our 

late beloved Pontiff whose life was, and ever will 
be, an inspiration to the human race. 

>Q A y&- A y"S 

A i A t-mc-0 




r* S lift 4 J*j?k A s AAAA <c AAAAA i 

'• JPv / ,A Wv %fC *X AA :.'?* A "* > ‘sl&st x *r - it*A 

7 *£ ~<Vamvrriflr \ 

?A Si A f T A 

'<*?« ..V •* ’* •• -.Bit % TVhji" P 

^ a 4^f X \ * 1 A ;J III 

■ ■ A tofrnuui.- 

.Aj ?'<i;->. 1 

. * •• .Ai.U..;n«» 

.. tea rPK/tuini’t-Sto _ ,-».iv 

* /At " 

y V A h&oiilone 


J VrP 

V" .% 

"i„ I 

\ f7avn/rnt 

•If L 

"/*» l>«M/>< 

K.l /" 

.K, r , r y 

i- ;/ 
i A 

y ,sy A wtv/iu\° 
(sift.'/ it Yifttl 
J'iihtJt Men 

i tsu ) e> 


i,\., A /A. AA l A *' -«* A - 



Birthplace of Leo XIII. (See lower right-hand 


AS a promoter of public weal Pope Leo XIII. was 
by all serious men held in highest esteem. If 
advance in good morals is the paramount, as it 
certainly is, then society owes him a debt. In 
accord with his office he discovered its wounds 

and poured in the balm. 

Progress in the sciences, increased comforts of 
life, have wounded while they led to victory. Pope 
Leo did not lose sight of attendants on modern 
civilization; the pages that usher every newcomer 
into the twentieth century are closely studied by 
him. Abuse and self- sufficiency, provoked by 
prosperity and forgetfulness of the "Giver of all 
good," he deprecated in season and out of season. 
He was not a self-appointed critic nor a praiser 
merely of times past, but a teacher, physician, and 
judge, established by Christ to perpetuate His 
loving care and administer His grace, which He 
bought by the price of His blood, "to every man 
that cometh into this world." 

Pope Leo never failed to appreciate the advantages 
of our age. Toward the close of the last century the 
echoes of protest against the old Church were 
gradually lost amid voices of discontent coming 
from newborn conditions of social life; which 
were instrumental in stirring up attention to 

methods disastrous to all Christian discipline. 

In his letters to the world, since the day he was 
crowned Pope to this auspicious year of his 
jubilee, by word of mouth as well as by such 
action as he could control, he kept eye and hand on 
tendencies that boded good to the social body. 


There are those, of course, who differed from him. 
But the difference arose either from a refusal of the 
faith of which he was the foremost exponent, or 
from a supposition that the present life 


only is worth a thought. The division in 
Christendom had gone to the depth. The cleavage 
separated views of the here and the here- after, of 
God and man, of the Redeemer and the redeemed. 
Accord- ing to his standard the grace of Christ, the 

bond of union between heaven and earth, is 
ministered to men forever by divine appoint- ment 
through the Church. That does not eliminate the 
natural ability of man to provide for his well-being 
on earth, but is to infuse into the inhabitants of the 
earth the virtues of a citizen of heaven. Ever- 
readiness to carry the cross which fails no child of 
Adam, to be content in search after happiness in 
every social circumstance, are enduring only by the 
gospel of Christ and its observance. 

Some think the Pope lamented only the loss of the 
prestige of the Church in ages long past, and 
promised salvation by a return to con- ditions that 
made generations of bygone centuries prosperous. 
But they mistake his point. Fixed and stagnant life 
is not according to divine Providence. The eternal 
destiny of man, and his moral development, 
proceed by the force drawn from the fountain 
which the Saviour provided. His doctrine and 
grace are to be woven into the web and woof of 
human life on earth, to give color and reflect the 
justice and charity, the purity and integrity, that 

make for heaven. Hence, the principles and 
practices of Christian doctrine must be inculcated 

Thus Pope Leo was a power for common good. He 
found and made it his privilege to teach and 
admonish the world. 


Catholics, however, whose spiritualities were his 
immediate charge, are justified by additional 
reasons to honor him. His solicitude for all the 
churches, his care to hold marriage sacred, to keep 
home and family in accord with God-given law, to 
maintain labor and capital within bounds of justice 
and charity, are known to every member of his 
universal flock. His urgent request to promote 
sacred science ip 


schools; and exhortations to dare the best in all 
branches of learn- ing which furthers the cause of 
Christ and of His Church, are repeated and 
followed by the noble phalanx of those who have 
enlisted their life and labor in the welfare "against 
principalities and powers." By his own example he 
went before in obedience to the Master s call. He 
was a sign of God's continued vigilance over His 

Catholics look back with pride on a long line of 
Pontiffs. They see the divine in the human shapes 
and forms through which their Church has passed 
since the days of Peter. They are co nf irmed in the 
belief that the Holy Spirit, whom the Father sent in 
Christ’s name, still suggests the truth to those 
commissioned to teach it. They know that Leo was 
but an instrument, in the hands of God, who 
deserves their filial devotion for duty well done. It 
was a sad day indeed when he was laid with the 
Fathers, but the same Providence that sent him, 
will secure the Church against emergencies in the 


It is impossible to sketch the policy of- Leo in 
arranging the rela- tions of the Church with the 
powers of the world, and it would be useless to 
venture "a view of its results in a short 
introduction. Yet it can be safely said his successor 
will find preparations for coming events wisely 
and wonderfully apt for service. Of his private 
life, of his study and spirit of prayer, no one 
privileged with knowledge can have but an exalted 
idea. Leo will be remembered as a model dis- 
ciplinarian, a man of God buoyed by the noblest 
aspirations, rilled with a true ecclesiastical spirit. 
Indeed, he was like a vessel laden with the 
choicest remnants of classic learning; he was a link 
that united the chain of modern thought with ancient 

The traditions of the Fathers were gathered in him, 
and he bequeathed to our time the select lore of 
scriptural and patristic 


teaching. With eagle eye he peered into his time, 
and yet burdened with years, he counseled and 
directed for present needs. The faith- ful of his 
flock will ever cherish his memory, the world will 
admire his personality, and every well-meaning 
man pray God for his speedy reward in heaven. 

Professor of Theology at St. Francis's Seminary. 



Sickness — Fortitude — Cheerfulness — Last 
Words — Death — Burial — Temporary Vault — 

Last Resting Place, Etc iq 


Location of Carpineto — Simplicity of the People 

— Delights of the Climate — The Pecci Palace — 
The Family Genealogy — Leo XIII., a Great 
Benefactor to His Native Town 33 



Birth and Baptism of Leo XIII. — Joachim 
Vincent's Boyhood — Home Education — Old 
Time Customs and Pleasures — Home 
Reminiscences — Countess Pecci's Great Dream 

— Outdoor Life — Training in Love and Sympathy 



Separation of Mother and Sons — Overwork and a 
Short Vacation — Tonsurate and Minor Orders — 
Early Scholarship) — The Mother's Death and 
Burial — The New Aim — Finishes College at 
Viterbo 53 



The Serious, Thoughtful Student — First Honors in 
the Roman College — Second, Third, Fourth and 
Fifth Honors in the Roman College — No Time for 
Society or Amuse- ment — Vacation Sports — 
Pious Acts in Carpineto — The Jubilee of 1825 — 
A Clever Anecdote 63 



Entrance to University Sapienza — Again 
Distinguished Himself — Death of Ferdinand — 
Referendary to the Court of Signatura — Heroism 
Displayed by Monsignore Pecci — Ordained as 
Priest — Celebrated First Mass . 76 





Condition of Affairs at Benevento in 1838 — 
Monsignore's First Work at Benevento — Over- 
come by Typhoid Fever — Monsignore Pecci's 
Will — Death of Count Pecci — Great Courage 
and Determination — Amending of Taxes — 
Improvement of Public Roads — Appointment to 
Umbria — Educating the Masses 85 



The Appointment Brings Joy — Consecrated 
Archbishop of Damietta — Mastering French — 

Arrival at Brussels 100 



Warm Reception by King and Queen — Quick at 
Repartee — The Defense of the Church — Raising 
the Educational Standard — Great Tact and 
Diplomacy — Appointed Bishop to Perugia — 
Grand Cross of the Order of Leopold 109 


Greeting in London — Daniel O’Connell and 

Cardinal Wiseman — Faithful to the Old 

Church — The Tractarian Movement — Visit to 
Paris 120 



Modern Perugia — The People of Perugia — 
Archbishop Pecci's Reception — Work in the 
Parishes — Work in Behalf of Education — 

Higher Education for Women — Seizure of Church 
and School Property — Founding of the Magdalen 
Asylum — Tutelary Con- gregation of Holy Places 



Preparing to Meet Opposition — Archbishop 
Pecci's Method of Correction — The Burden of 
Military Service — Appeal for Funds — The 

Conscription Laws — Relief Funds for Aged and 
Infirm — Suppressing the Monasteries of Umbria 



Removal to Avignon, France — Early Life of Pope 
Pius IX. — Ferre tti as Cardinal and Pope — The 
Decree of Amnesty — Lurking Enemies — Great 
Discontent in Rome — Rossi — Minister of State 
— Arrival in Rome •. 163 





Work of Restoration — Restoring Harmony — 
Ferretti Pastoral Letter — Free from Preju- dices 



Postponement Result of Circumstances — 
Complimentary Words — Reception at Perugia — 

Dogma of Immaculate Conception — Work in 
Behalf of Charity iq6 



Overthrow of the Papal Power — Cardinal Pecci's 
Work — Marriage Ceremony Made a 

Civil Act 207 



The Church the Kingdom of Christ — The Holy 
Father — The Subject of a Government — 

Temporal Power versus Spiritual Power — 
Cardinal Pecci's Second Letter 215 



Food for Thought — To Regulate Abuses — The 
Work of the Council — Description of the Council 
Hall in St. Peter's — Number Present at Vatican 
Council — Archbishop Purcell on Infallibility — 
Text of the Dogma of Infallibility 227 



A Golden Opportunity Lost — Terms Which the 
Pope Refused to Accept 244 



Vigilant Watch Kept — The Act of Guarantee — 
Cardinal Antonelli's Communication 252 



Address of Cardinal Pecci — New Duties for 
Cardinal Pecci — The Duties as Chamberlain.. . 






First Steps after Death of Pius IX. — Lying in State 

— Calling the Conclave — Cardinals 

Present at Conclave 274 


Reading of Pontifical Laws — Casting of Ballots 

— Choice of the Cardinals — Vestec 7 in Papal 
Robes — First Appearance as Supreme Pontiff — 
An Extraordinary Phenomenon 28 1 



How the First Pope was Crowned — How Pope 
Leo XIII. was Crowned — Triple Benediction 292 



How Rome is Divided — The Vatican Palace — 
The Wonderful Sistine Chapel — Impressive 
Service at Sistine Chapel — Greatest Pictures of 
All Times — The Great Library — Musical 
Manuscripts 290 



A Grand Appeal 311 



Letter in Brief — Interest in Behalf of Labor — 
Consistory in Ducal Hall 322 



Work in the Schools of Rome — Work Done by the 
Enemies of the Church — Expressions of the 
Faithful — Establishment of Special Classes for 
the Priests — Academy of St. Thomas — Pope 
Leo's Fiftieth Anniversary 341 



Leo XIII., the Friend of Labor — Pope Leo's 
Encyclical on Labor — The Practical Side of 

the Question ,350 

Jfc^M -I* /<*ji.,«> : J/ 1 , 

1 1 j M. If, Stormy f . W* AAA ’ A «* A 
•S A ' i ( Ij*<Jf VW f r ’ * " ■ •’■>'>" 

V i taseu.fifitulcct** f a T\ =* ■fMcrnir A ne 

V- » % =»• ' — ' . "V A 1 ?k. -4- nrs3uatii - 

Jlai't-itrcse \ \ „ , „ .. A t"- AA „ 

%< A f. \ -no,,.. V ■ (*: : ,-, AAA - 

■"■•V „ %"**■*'*'. jT" fa*£V"a.\\ Pajna.t)t/, 
T A JAt- «>*"' 

• b. a — ? . JV/W/ ' / «■’ '* ; * t , 

/so/a Sarin _ A »V Aw/-;-. ■ , > A _/ A „ rt „. 
Caei A l.Mi//:,.- 

.. A » IWcieliaiui Tor*.:., « 1 A ,- v 

&S& s*sr-f.- 

I .u f\niirnia , , / A ,. 


rv. } Z u „« n <">«i: n > r "<"»1 LfirH, 


From the Leonine Tower Pope Leo XIII. delighted 
to view his beloved Rome and 



The above picture is' from a recent photograph of a 
scene in the main street of Carpineto — the 
birthplace of Pope Leo XIII. As will be seen, the 
streets are narrow, gloomy and unpicturesque. The 
town has about 5,000 inhabitants. 

Pope Leo, then known as Vincent Joachim Pecci, 
lived here until eight years of age, at which time he 
was sent to school at Viterbo, never returning, 
except on brief visits, to his old home. 





The Slave Trade at Beginning of Pope Leo's Reign 
— Publishing Crimes of Slave 

Trade — Pope Leo's Gift to the Slave Cause 364 



Political events — Effect of Bismarck's Speech — 
Leo. XIII. 's Letter to German Emperor — 

Visit of Prince Imperial to Rome — Termination of 
Conflict 268 



Leo XIII. *s Appreciation of America — Letter to 
Cardinal Gibbons — Progress of the Church in the 
United States — Leo XIII. 's Tribute to 
Workingmen — Temperance — Educa- tion — 
Apostolic Work in Canada 384 






Ruler of Nations — Cardinals — Archbishops — 
Bishops — Protestants — Laymen, Etc., Etc.., 



The Conclave — Cardinals Present — Manner of 
Election — Sketch of Life of Successor,, 



ON MONDAY at 4 p. m, July 20th, 1903, three 
momentous words, "He is dead," were flashed 
from the little chamber of death in the Vatican to 
the sad, expectant world. The nations, already 
bowed in grief, now mourned. In city and hamlet 
the Christian, the Jew and the Gentile gave 

expressions of sorrow mingled with praise: "Leo 
XIII., the Beloved of all men, is at rest." "A good, 
man." "A holy man." "A Saint." "Our Holy Father 
is dead." "Peace to his soul." 

"In the death of Leo XIII. I have lost a dear friend 
and father," said Cardinal Gibbons. The American 
people, one and all, regard- less of creed, joined 
with his Eminence in words of personal bereave- 

As the last moments of the Holy Father 
approached, during which his confessor, Mgr. 
Pifferi, was reciting the prayers for the dying, the 
Pontiff, appearing to follow him, murmured his last 
words — "Father," "Mother" — then, turning his 
eyes toward the great cruci- fix on the wall, his 
soul passed into eternity. 

The solemn silence in the death chamber then was 
broken by Cardinal Vannutelli intoning the 
Requiem Aeternam (rest Eternal). Cardinals, 
Prelates, relatives and the faithful Pio Centra burst 

into tears. Each knelt and in turn kissed the hand of 
the deceased Pon- 



tiff — "that hand which had dispensed so many 
benefits, charities and benedictions to all men." 


It had been evident to the Pontiffs most intimate 
friends for some time that he was failing rapidly. 
His marvelous vitality, how- ever, enabled him to 
refute all rumors of a serious nature. 

At the consistory held on June 22, 1903, his 
Holiness seemed wan and emaciated as, dressed in 
his full vestments, he was carried in the sedia 
gestatoria through the kneeling thousands, on whom 
he bestowed his blessing. 

At the end of the religious ceremony the Pope 
placed the red cap on the new cardinals present 
and blessed them. He then announced the fourteen 
appointments of bishops, including those in 
America, which had been already announced. 


Pope Leo became seriously, if not alarmingly, ill 
Friday, July 3, 1903, with senile pneumonia, which 
developed from a cold contracted during a drive in 
the Vatican gardens. 

His Holiness became worse toward evening, 
making it impera- tive for his physician to remain 
at the Vatican throughout the night. 

Losing confidence in his own strength, the Holy 
Father asked for the Blessed Sacrament. This was 
administered to his Holiness, all the Cardinals in 
Rome and all the members of the pontifical court 
being present. 

All present were in tears as the Pontiff, raising his 
feeble voice, with a great effort, pronounced in 
scarcely audible words: "Lord, 1 am not worthy!" 

When Cardinal Ferrata reached the bedside, Leo 
exclaimed in joyful tones, waving his hand: 
"Good-by, Ferrata; we are leaving for eternity." 

When the Holy Father's lips moved slowly in 
prayer there came 


that splendid word "Courage" to those about him 
He was praying, also, to the Great Master of all to 
spare his life, not because he wished to live for 
himself, but because he wanted to live to work for 
the Church. 

"Let me but see another sunrise," he pleaded 
feebly. And lo, his prayer was answered! 

Feeling his responsibility, Dr. Lapponi requested a 
consultation with a commission in Rome, but the 
Pope absolutely refused to agree to this. He said he 
had entire confidence in Dr. Lapponi and added 
that he would allow only one person to be called 
and that was Dr. Mazzoni, a noted surgeon who 
had treated him with great skill in 1899. 

Dr. Lapponi remarked that Dr. Mazzoni was a 
surgeon, and that his professional services were 
not needed. The Pope replied: "It does not matter; 
it is not for his profession that I want him, but 
because I like him." 

It was therefore decided that Dr. Mazzoni should 
visit the Holy Father on the following morning. 

The condition of the Pope, on the whole, was 
found satisfactory, yet serious apprehension was 
entertained, considering his advanced age and lack 
of physical strength, which had continually 
decreased since 1899. He was urged to refrain 
from all undue mental work. 

"But," the Pontiff exclaimed, "how can I command 
my brain not to work?" 

Professor Mazzoni in the evening again begged the 
Pope not to wear himself out, but to obey the 
doctor's orders. 

The Pontiff replied: "If it was only of any use. But 
I don’t believe it. The remainder of my life I must 
give to God’s Church, not to my own poor 

The Pope's wonderful activity of mind wore upon 
his body, adding to the difficulties with which his 
doctors had to contend. Every waking moment was 
marked by this mental restlessness. When his 


Holiness was not considering his own symptoms 
and the probable course of his illness his mind 
turned back to his early days or he looked forward 

to the future of the Church. He spoke a great deal 
of his school days and recalled his studies in 
philosophy, canon and civil law. He appeared to 
see also the thousands who honored his long 
pontificate and spoke of how emphatically the 
review testified to the strength and devotion of the 
Catholic Church. 


His thoughts reverted frequently to his struggles as 
apostolic delegate at Benevento and Perugia, 
where his great patience, firm- ness and ability 
were instrumental in putting an end to the 
brigandage that infested those provinces. He 
declared he got the foundation of his power in 
those days and that he could not express his 
gratitude to God for the light that shone steadily on 
his path from Heaven and led him aright through 
many perplexities. 

He vividly recalled the conclave of 1878, when he 
himself was made Pope by acclamation of the 

sixty-two cardinals present. "That was a 
momentous hour for me," said His Holiness. "It 
lives in my memory with the distinctness of events 
of an hour ago. Few expected such an issue of the 
deliberations of the conclave until a very short 
time before the result was proclaimed from the 
Loggia of St. Peter's." Then he cried aloud in 
prophetic mood: "Greater zeal, higher spirituality, 
less attention to amusements, more prayer, more 
faith, wider missionary effort — these are the 
things we need. It is a glorious privilege to take 
part in the work of leavening the masses with the 
spirit of Christ." 

On the following day the outlook was that the 
Pope's life might be prolonged more than could 
have been expected thirty-six hours before, but the 
hopes of his recovery were still very small. 

Dr. Mazzoni, after approaching the bedside of the 
Pontiff, asked: 

How does your Holiness feel? 


f do not feel as well. I am weaker," replied the 

"Perhaps you did not sleep sufficiently?" 

"No, no," answered the Pope. "I was better last 
night. I am sorry, because to-day should be a day 
of great work." " 

"Surely," Dr. Mazzoni replied, "your Holiness 
does not intend to work?" 

"Certainly," answered the Pope. "I have so many 
things to do, but I am afraid I have not the 

Part of this work referred to by the Pope was to 
say a prayer to the Madonna of Mount Carmel, as 
the nine days' preparation — the Novena — for the 
feast began that day. The Pope was a very devout 

member of the order, enrolled in his boyhood, and 
he always carried the scapular about his neck. 

The doctors then proceeded to convince the Pontiff 
of the neces- sity for rest, urging him not to place 
obstacles in the way of his recovery. 


It is difficult to describe the interest, excitement 
and perturbaL A which prevailed within the Vatican. 
While the Pontiff in his quiet chamber was 
assiduously and affectionately watched and 
attended by his favorite physician. Dr Lapponi, and 
his trusted valet, Pio Centra, the rest of the vast 
palace was in a state of continual unrest. 

One of the most remarkable features of the sick 
room was the absolute simplicity and the entire 
absence of the usual elaborate equipments found in 
the sickrooms of distinguished patients. There 
were no trained nurses, the only attendants besides 
the doctors being the Pope's valets, Pio Centra and 

De Castro. The doctors were without a corps of 
assistants, and there was none of the modern 
appliances for refrigeration and other means of 
ameliorating the con- dition of patients. 

Telegrams and cablegrams came by hundreds from 


presidents, archbishops, bishops, priests and 
people in all parts of the world, anxiously 
inquiring for the latest information in regard to the 
Pope's condition. 

Outside the Vatican the scenes of excitement were 
even greater. The Swiss Guards, in their brilliant 
black, red and yellow uniforms, paced up and 
down before the portals, receiving the eager 
inquiries with their customary imperturbable 

The gravity with which the Italian government 
viewed the Pope's condition was clearly indicated 
by the orders that had been issued by King Victor 
Emmanuel II. He directed troops in the nearby 
posts to be ready at a moment’s notice to hurry to 
Rome and guard the Vatican, in order that affairs 
might be conducted without disturbance and with 

The assembly of people outside was enormous. 
The vast piazza in front of St. Peter's was densely 
packed with devout Catholics, all eager to hear the 
latest intelligence from the sick-room. 

Every day carriages drove up to the court of St. 
Damaso, which opened into the apartments of the 


His Holiness all this time seemed to be failing. 

The doctors then proceeded to make a most minute 

examination of the patient, and decided upon an 
operation for puncturing the pleura. 

The calmness with which the Pope underwent the 
ordeal of the operation was characteristic of his 
whole life. 

July 12. So marked was the improvement in Pope 
Leo's condi- tionthat some of his attendants began 
to predict his ultimate recov- ery. The Pontiff's 
physicians however did not share in this hopeful 

The tremendous superiority of the Pontiff's mind 
over his frail frame can be judged from his actions 
regarding the death of Monsig- 


nore \blponi, secretary of the consistorial 
congregation. Tired of the insistent efforts made by 
those who were trying to conceal this fact by 

saying that the prelate was ill, Pope Leo 
exclaimed, "Then we must appoint a coadjutor," 
and he thereupon solemnly declared that 
Monsignore Marini should act as assistant. 

Another incident showing the wonderful vitality of 
his Holiness occurred when the Pope was told of 
the postponement of King Vic- tor Emmanuel's 
visit to Paris on account of the predicted death of 
the Pope. 

"Ah," said the Pontiff, "we know how chivalrous is 
the House of Savoy, even to its opponents." 

During the afternoon the Pope arose, dressed 
himself alone, and went to his armchair, where he 
remained for some time. Late in the afternoon he 
received Cardinals Mathieu, Steinhuber, Agli- 
ardi, and Casali. The Holy Father showed his 
usual brightness and lucidity of mind, and spoke to 
each without showing any perceptible fatigue 

During the interview the king of Spain telegraphed 

about the Pope's health and asked for the Papal 
benediction. His Holiness directed Cardinal 
Rampolla to grant the request. 

At times the Pope seemed quite like himself, but 
the Vatican world had fully made up its mind that 
the demise of the Pope was only a question of 
days, at the most, and probably only of hours. 

On Thursday, July the 16th, the Holy Father's 
condition again assumed a grave aspect. Besides 
the continuance of the Pontiff's extreme weakness 
the doctors indicated the ominous prospect of 
another operation for the removal of the pleuritic 
liquid. The Pope continued restless, but had 
several periods of comparative ease. During one 
of these he gave another evidence of his 
remarkable vitality by taking holy communion 
during the celebration of mass in honor of the 
Madonna of Mount Carmel. The ceremony was 
held in the chapel close by. 


On July 17th the Holy Father seemed to rally, but 
those who knew him best felt it was only 

"To-day," he said, "is the feast of St. Leo. I have 
never failed to assist at mass, since, when almost a 
boy, I came to Rome to partici- pate in the jubilee 
of Leo XII. I wish to hear mass to-day." 

The Pontiff's desire was immediately gratified by 
Mgr. Marzolini celebrating mass, as he did the day 
previous, in a chapel adjoining the sick room. 

At 3.05 o'clock Sunday morning, July 19th, the 
Pontiff dropped into a sleep which seemed half 
coma. Hope was now given up. 

Although twice rumors of the death of the Pontiff 
had gained cir- culation, still he clung to life. 

On Monday morning Mgr. Marzolini celebrated 
mass in the chapel adjoining the Pope's apartment, 

but the Pontiff could follow it only with the 
greatest effort. 

As the day wore on the Litanies and prayers for the 
dying were recited. A few minutes before 4 p. m. 
His Holiness raised his trem- bling right hand and 
in an almost inaudible voice, between long pauses, 
gave all present the pontifical blessing. The effort, 
however, appeared to have been too much for him, 
and he fell back into a condition of 

Soon after Pope Leo XIII. passed to his reward. 


The events in the death chamber immediately 
following the Pope's death were of impressive 
solemnity. Cardinal Oreglia, the dean of the Sacred 
College, immediately assumed full power. He gave 
orders to Mgr. Righi, master of ceremonies, to 
send the Swiss Guards to close all the entrances to 
the Vatican and dismiss all per- sons, except those 

in charge of the remains of the deceased, from the 
death chamber. 

The emaciated and lifeless body which until 
recently had held so 


brave a spirit was hidden from view by a red 
damask coverlet. In the hands which had blessed 
so many thousands was placed a cru- cifix. By the 
side of the low bed burned a number of candles, 
and from above looked down the picture of the 
Madonna, with the infant Christ in her arms. 

The only sound now heard was the measured 
chanting of the psalms by the Franciscan monks, 
penitentiaries of St. Peter's, who knelt beside the 
couch of death. Two noble guards stood at the foot, 
rigid and silent as statues, with swords drawn and 
reversed, pointing to the floor. 

The death chamber presented indeed a sad picture, 
for although fronting on the splendid piazza of St. 
Peter's, the window command- ing a view of the 
tall obelisk and playing fountains, with Rome 
stretching off beyond the Tiber, yet the light which 
had made the place so brilliant had left it forever. 

An hour after life had been pronounced extinct 
Cardinal Oreglia entered the death chamber and 
observed the ceremonies attending a Pontiffs 
death. He lifted the cloth from the face of the dead 
and in a rising inflection called three times, 
"Joachim! Joachim! Joachim! answer." Then, in an 
impressive voice, he said, "The Pope is indeed no 

After this ceremony, the fisherman's ring, the 
Pope's insignia of office, was removed from the 
late Pontiffs finger by Mgr. Bisleti and handed to 
Cardinal Oreglia, whose duty it was to see that it 
was destroyed. 

Then took place the work of embalming the body, 

after which it was removed to the throne room. 


The first of the great ceremonies of Pope Leo's 
funeral com- menced Tuesday morning, when the 
body lay in state in the throne room All the 
diplomats accredited to the Vatican, the Roman 


princes, dukes, barons, and other representatives 
of ancient families remaining faithful to the papacy, 
all the high dignitaries of the Church, the 
archbishops, bishops, patriarchs, and heads of the 
religious orders passed in solemn procession 
before the bier of the dead Pontiff. 

The papal throne had been removed, and in its 
place, under the famous red silken canopy, on a 
small bed lay the body of Leo XIII. Over the bier 
was thrown a red damask covering, on which the 

body reposed, robed in white vestments, with the 
red rochet and camauro hood, and on the feet 
slippers embroidered with gold. 

The thin hands, clasped over the chest, held tightly 
a small ivory crucifix. Around this was entwined a 
rosary of mother of pearl set in gold. 

On the third finger of the right hand a large emerald 
pontifical ring sparkled. 


At 8 p. m July 23 all was in readiness to take the 
body of the pope from the throne room of the 
Vatican to the basilica of St. Peter's. The mournful 
procession gathered around the bier, which was 
lifted by the sediari, who in the lifetime of Leo VIII 
had carried him in the sedia gestatoria. 

The dead pontiff was clad in all the pomp of his 
holy office. Lead- ing the procession as it passed 
out of the throne room came grooms carrying 

lighted torches. Behind them, walking with 
measured tread, were the aged mace-bearers and 
other domestics of the papal house- hold. The 
noble guard and all the clergy of the Vatican, 
wearing their surplices, followed. 

Immediately in front of the bier the pontifical 
silver cross was held aloft. Behind the bier came 
the three nephews of the late pope — Counts 
Ricardo and Camillo Pecci and Count Canarli. At 
the hall of the Palafranieri the cortege came to a 
standstill. Here the cardinals, who had been 
waiting in the hall of the consistory, took 


their places immediately behind the nephews, 
Their scarlet had been put aside for the purple 
robes, which are worn when princes of the church 
are in mourning. 

They then slowly entered the Sistine chapel, where 
the chapter and clergy of St. Peter's awaited the 
procession. The latter formally received and took 
possession of the body. From the Sistine chapel the 
procession wound out around the loggia, encircled 
the court of SanDamaso and descended the Royal 
stairway, through the Charlemagne doorway, still 
chanting, into the great Church of St. Peter and 
placed the body on the catafalque which had been 
erected for this purpose in the chapel of the 
Blessed Sacrament. 

Masses were offered up for the repose of the soul 
of the dead Pontiff in all the chapels in St. Peter's 
from sunrise until the noon hour on Thursday, 
Friday and Saturday mornings, by Cardinals, 
Bishops, and Priests, while thousands of the 
citizens of Rome and strangers in the Eternal City 
visited the Church and prayed before the 
catafalque upon which the body of the late Pope 
was lying in state. 

A line of electric globes had been placed over the 

gates of the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament, the 
rays falling directly on the face and illuminating it 
with great clearness. 

The diplomatic corps at the Vatican awaited on the 
College of Cardinals Friday afternoon. The 
Portuguese Ambassador, M. Martin d’Antas, was at 
the head of the body. He advanced and delivered 
an address expressing the sorrow of all the powers 
at the death of Pope Leo, who had acquired the 
universal esteem of the world. He said: 

"The diplomatic body accredited to the Holy See 
wish to present to the sacred college their 
profound condolence on the occasion of the 
sorrowful and irreparable loss it has sustained and 
which puts all Christianity in mourning. The virtue 
and high wisdom of the Sover- eign Pontiff Leo 
XIII. will leave a luminous track in the history of 
the world. The diplomatic body beg Your 
Eminences to accept their 


condolences, while we express the hope that God, 
in His divine wisdom and great bounty, will 
inspire the sacred college in choosing a Sovereign 
Pontiff destined to maintain the prestige of the 

Cardinal Oreglia, dean of the college of cardinals, 
answered. He thanked the diplomats in the name of 
the sacred college for the part all the governments 
had taken in the mourning of the Church. 

He eulogized Pope Leo and his work during his 
long pontificate and ended with expressing the 
hope that God will suggest to the sacred college a 
worthy successor to Leo XIII. 

He spoke as follows: 

"Your Excellency, as dean of the diplomatic body 
accredited to the Holy See, has nobly interpreted 
the feeling of all your colleagues in the sorrowful 

circumstances of the death of the venerated pontiff 
His Holiness, Leo XIII., of glorious memory. The 
whole world weeps with us at such an irreparable 

"The sacred college, feeling in a special manner 
this terrible circumstance which has struck the 
apostolic Holy See and the Catholic world, hi gh ly 
esteems the condolences received from the 
sovereigns and rulers of states and this new proof 
of sympathy which the diplo- matic corps has 
offered to-day to us is profoundly appreciated. 

"We are extremely grateful to Your Excellency and 
to each of your worthy colleagues for your sincere 
participation in our sorrow, while the condolences 
expressed with so much delicacy through the 
intermediary of Your Excellency in the name of the 
diplomatic body are true consolation for our 
afflicted hearts. 

"The sacred college is preparing to elect him who 
will govern the Church as Vicar of Jesus Christ. In 

such a grave and solemn moment God will 
certainly grant us the special help and grace 
necessary to accomplish the heavy task imposed 
upon us." 

The Cardinal Chamberlain decided that the last 
obsequies should take place on Saturday night, July 
25. At noon on Saturday the lying-in-state of the 
body came to an end. The doors of the 


great Basilica were closed and the preparations 
for the solemn cere- monies attending the final 
placing of the remains in the niche to the left of the 
choir chapel were commenced. At the hour when 
the bells tolled the Ave Maria the Cardinals met in 
the Vatican and in solemn procession entered the 
Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament. The great gates 
of the chapel were then opened by Cardinal 

Cardinal Rampolla, as archpriest of the Basilica, 
was waiting out- side surrounded by the Chapter of 
the Cathedral, which was led by Monsignore 
Cepetelli, who conducted the service. The bier 
was too heavy to lift, so the bearers slowly slid it 
onto a low car with noise- less wheels. 

Then chanting the Miserere and the Psalms of the 
dead as pre- scribed in the ritual, the procession 
left the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament and 
slowly wended its way up the great nave of the 
church, passed to the right of the Confessional on 
to the great altar and turning to the other side 
passed down to their chapel, where the bier was 
wheeled into the center while the Cardinals took 
the seats on either side. 

Besides the Cardinals, about 1,000 persons were 
admitted by spe- cial invitation. To all others the 
great Church was closed. Except for the lighted 
lamps around the Confessional, about the bier, and 
the tapers carried by the officiating ecclesiastics 
during their proces- sions the great building was 

unlighted. The heavy shadows, the chanting of the 
priests, and the consciousness of the sad purpose 
for which the assemblage was gathered, made the 
services deeply impressive. 

The Libera was intoned by the choir, the body was 
then sprinkled with the Holy Water and incensed. 
During this solemn part of the service the major- 
domo covered the venerated features with a white 
silk veil bordered with gold. Over this the prefect 
of ceremonies spread a large red silk veil, which 
covered the whole bier. 

Monsignore Bartolini read a eulogy of the dead 
pontiff, and 


Notary Poponi, 84 years old, read the burial 
record, a service which he performed upon the 
occasion of the deaths of Pope Gregory XVI. and 

Pope Pius IX. 

The canons of the Basilica, aided by the noble 
guard, then laid all that was mortal of Leo XIII. in 
a cypress coffin lined with red satin and bearing on 
the cover an inlaid cross. 

When the body had been put in the coffin it was 
concealed with the red velvet covering which 
before had been on the bier. The major-domo put 
beside the body two silk purses containing coins of 
silver and a bronze medal struck during Leo's 

The eulogy, written on parchment, inclosed in a 
metal tube, was also interred with the body. 

The second coffin was of lead. On the cover at the 
head was a cross, just below which was a skull 
and crossed bones, while below these were the 
arms of the late Pope, with the triple crown, but 
without the keys, as they signify living victory. At 
the bottom was a plate bearing the following 


"Corpus Leonis P.M. Vixit AnXCIII. M. IV D. 
XVIII. Eccles Uni vers Prefuit An XXV Menses 5. 
Obiit Die XX, Julii An MCMIIL" 

These two coffins were enclosed in a third casket 
of polished oak without decorations. 

When the last solemn moments came the heavy 
coffins, weighing in all 1,322 pounds, were rolled 
out of the chapel, preceded by mace bearers, the 
choir singing as they went, followed by all the 

Pulleys were attached to the coffin and soon, to the 
chant of the Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel, it 
was hoisted and placed into the stone sarcophagus, 
where it will remain until the Cardinals created by 
the late pontiff shall erect a suitable tomb in the 
Basilica of St. JohnLateran, which Church was 
chosen by the Pope himself as his final resting- 














► — > 



0 ) 

cd en 

1 ) 















cd ft 









cd ,G 

1 -. 


c CD 








S-c Cd O 

c a 












I J 










'J: CD 






fl 1TH 












*4-1 fl) 








(-. -fl 

2 ! 







- 4 -> 










1 — i 

- 4 -» 







o i- 1 

< 1 ) 


t-1 1— 1 


7 ) 


| A 




w s 








3 0 ) 



■« ch 







above me of 


o en 

1 » 


- 4 -» 






J A 





*• 0 









Where the Pecci family attended service. 


The above chapel is a faithful reproduction of the 
place where Vincent Joachim Pecci first attended 
mass with his parents. The statue to the right is that 
of Leo XIII., placed there by His Holiness as a 
memorial gift to the citizens of Carpineto. 



CARPINETO, a mountain town of five thousand 
inhabitants in central Italy, situated in a cleft of the 
Monti Lepini, a spur of the \blscian Mountains, 
became famous in a day. On Wednesday, February 
20, 1878, the news was flashed throughout the 
world that Cardinal Joachim Pecci, Archbishop of 
Perugia, had received the unanimous vote of the 
Cardinals assembled in conclave at the Vati- can, 
Rome, and that he, "bowing to the divine will, 
accepted the burden placed upon his shoulders." 
When asked by the sub-dean of the Sacred College 
what name he would assume in the Pontificate, he 
replied, 4 Leo"; and as Sovereign Pontiff of the 
Holy Roman and Apostolic Church, he has been 
known by that name ever since, 

"Leo XIII." 

Great joy was manifested in Rome at the 
announcement of Cardi- nal Pecci's election. In 
Carpineto, the birthplace of the newly-elected 

Pope, and its environs, the joyful cry, "Long life to 
his Eminence created Pope! Long life to Leo 
XIII. !" burst forth from every throat, and soon the 
mountains resounded with gladsome evvivas, 
while the shepherds took their pipes and made 
merry in valley and plain. The people of the 
ancient city of Perugia, where he had been Bishop 
for more than thirty-two years, of one accord 
exclaimed, "’God has honored a holy man in this 
world by elevating him to the greatest’dignity on 

Carpineto was little known at this time. The town 
was not even mentioned in tourists' itineraries, 
although one of the ancient cities 

of the Hernici, celebrated in Roman history. 
Hidden among the 



ragged fastnesses of the Lepine Hills, it was 
seldom visited by trav- elers, and therefore when 
the question arose with the intelligence of Cardinal 
Pecci's elevation to the Pontificate of the Catholic 
Church, "Where is Carpineto?" few beyond its 
suburbs could answer. 


The now historic town is in that part of central 
Italy well known to Italians as the Ciociari, a word 
derived from Ciocia meaning sandals worn by the 
peasants, bound by leather thongs to the foot and 
leg over linen strips which serve for stockings. 
Carpineto signi- ties a forest of yoke-elms. 
Tradition has it that before the town was built, the 
mountain was covered with these trees 

The town, aside from the battle which took place 
in 1379 between the troops of Pope Urban VI. and 
those of the antipope Clement VII., has no special 

history, Occasionally the leading families strug- 
gled with each other for social supremacy, but 
soon quieted down and forgot their troubles The 
peasants in the environs, as well as the. common 
people in the town, have been noted for their 
peaceful relations among themselves and their 
neighbors. Separated from the world in their 
mountain fastnesses, reached by tortuous and diffi- 
cult by-paths, they had little intercourse with 
outside peoples, and therefore lived in rustic 
simplicity. Their wants were few; their dress was 
of homespun; and their speech was a dialect 
closely akin to Latin. 


The inhabitants of Carpineto were generally poor, 
but they sup- ported their poverty courageously. 
The crops in some years failed, and during these 
years bread made from chestnuts was the main 
food. It is told as a great event, that more than five 
hundred Car- pinetians at one time emigrated to 

Probably there is not a place in all the world 
where the simple 


religious faith of their fathers is so loyally 
observed as in this birth- place of Leo XIII. All the 
ancient pious customs of the locality are treasured. 
For instance, to show the great faith of the people 
in the intercession of the Madonna, at harvest time 
every man goes at nightfall to the parish church 
with a sheaf of grain from the field in which he has 
labored since sunrise, and places his offering at the 
foot of the Blessed Virgin's altar, while the vaulted 
roof resounds to the time-honored shouts of praise 
— "Viva Maria! Viva la Madonna!" 

As to exact location Carpineto is on one side of 
Monte Capreo ; and on the opposite side is a 
monastery occupied by the Augustin— ian order of 
priests, built by Pope Leo XIII. Semprevisa A the 

sum- mit of the peak, offers one of the finest views 
in central Italy; to one side can be seen at a 
distance the Mediterranean, and closer still the 
Roman Campagna, spreading out like an immense 
arena, with Rome in the foreground. On the other 
side can be seen far off the beautiful blue Adriatic 


The town of Carpineto is built on two elevated 
table-lands; on the one nearest Monte Capreo is the 
Pecci Palace and the church of St. Leo, an edifice 
in Greek style of architecture, built by Pope Leo 
XIII. On the other the most conspicuous building is 
an old prison in ruins. The town is still mediaeval 
in appearance. A lumbering stage-coach passes 
through its streets, and ancient as that vehicle is, it 
forms a welcome part of the day's life and routine. 
To reach the elevated portion of the town from the 
railroad station is a difficulty which but few 
travelers care to undertake on foot, but a drive in 
early spring or late autumn up the narrow cleft in 

the moun- tain side is one of unmingled delight. 

The trees and shrubs of every shade of green, as 
well as the wild flowers that bloom along the path, 
all tend to fill one's soul with rare and exquisite 
pleasure. A lumi- 


nous haze, filling the air in November as well as 
March and April, shrouds distant objects with a 
veil of blue, often making them appear as if 
enwrapped in purple clouds as they fade from 

About a mile from the railroad on a sloping 
expanse, stands the country house of the Pecci 
family, amid clumps of mammoth chestnut ‘trees. 
The location is beautiful, and one can fancy how 
happy parents, surrounded by a band of joyous 
children, could develop, during their stay there, 
both peace and quiet. Vincent Pecci, having almost 

a passionate fondness for hunting, in his periods of 
vacation and when a young man, was frequently to 
be seen with his gun roam- ing about this rustic 

The village of Monte Lanico is passed on the way 
up the hill; in Its public square is still an elegant 
work of art — a fountain, built of precious 
marbles, from which flows a limpid stream of 
cool, refreshing water. Passing on, new beauties 
are presented at every turn. Here and there are 
bleak spurs of rock and barren walls of ruined 
struc- tures, telling of life which has been and 
gone. Here, too, are groves upon groves of olive 
trees rising from the plains to the highest peak of 
the mountains. These are covered with a solemn 
and severe fob- age, forming a strange contrast to 
the yellow-green hue of the grape- vine leaves 
scattered here and there. 


Soon appears the town home, the abode of the 

Pecci family for centuries. It is surrounded by a 
beautiful lawn, lined with box-wood, dotted with 
flower-beds, presenting a most charming picture to 
the visitor of to-day. 

The palace does not present on the exterior an 
attractive style of architecture. It is a long, two- 
story and attic building without adorn- ment except 
a massive arched doorway. Above the doors are to 
be seen the coat of arms of the Pecci family, and 
about the house are ‘barred windows, making it 
appear like an asylum for the sick or a 


prison for criminals. On either side are narrow 
alleys; at the rear is. a large garden, through which 
a path leads to the foot of the moun- tain, losing its 
way in a thick woods. 


Entrance to the palace is made by the use of bronze 
knockers A which are as old as the mansion. The 
interior, unlike the exterior, is. palatial in all its 
appointments. The heavy carved oak furniture o£ 
vestibule and library shows to the tourist of to-day 
the exquisite taste displayed by the members of the 
Pecci nobility in past generations The living rooms 
show a comfortable elegance of more recent date 
The outer hall leads to a vast salon, around the 
walls of which are massive gilded chairs, and in 
the center a handsome marble table, or& which 
repose a group of tropical birds. At the farther end, 
between two windows, hangs a life-size portrait of 
Leo XIII., clad in his Pon- tifical robes. The noble 
and expressive countenance of this sainted person 
is admirably portrayed; the lips seem as though 
ready to utter words of greeting. 


Hanging on the walls to the right and left are the 
Pope's ances- tors. Those of his Holiness' father 
and mother occupy the places of honor. Colonel 

Count Louis Pecci, the father, is painted with a 
wig: powdered after the fashion of his time; his 
coat is of blue velvet,, braided with gold and faced 
with red; the buttons are stamped with the 
Pontifical tiara and keys. 

Countess Anna, the mother, looks charming in a 
double-caped robe cut open at the neck, set off 
with jewels and lace. She sits erect, her right hand 
resting on a fan, while in her left she gracefully 
holds the brim of a plumed hat. The nobility, the 
grace, the devo- tion, the love, the legitimate pride 
expressed in the features of thi- noble woman 
almost tempt one to salute her with the words 


by the angel to the Blessed Virgin, mother of our 
Lord, 4 nineteen centuries ago: "Blessed art thou 
among women." 


A door to the left of the salon opens into a spacious 
room, no doubt at one time the family reception 
room On the wall opposite the door hangs a large 
damask tapestry — a magnificent work of art, 
painted from life, representing Leo XIII. on his 
Sedia Gestatoria, surrounded by his court, passing, 
from the Sistine Chapel to the ducal ball. 


From the tapestry room, for such is the name it 
bears, access is bad to the library, a large room 
with a historic table in the center. The walls of this 
room are covered with well-laden shelves, some 
of them bearing priceless volumes. Underneath are 
many closed cases. In these are rare editions, with 
illuminated covers, wrought by hand. The largest 
of these cases, standing under the only window, 
contains the Pope's copy-books and letters dating 
from his eighth year. 


To the right of the library is the Monsignore's 
room, so named because Joachim Pecci, when 
Archbishop of Perugia, in visiting Car- pineto, 
preferred this room to all others. His preference is 
made known by an inscription in Latin placed 
therein, of which the fol- lowing is a translation: 
"Stranger, in this chamber of his parental abode, 
Leo XIII., prelate, delegate, Bishop, Cardinal, 
several times abode." Count Ludovic Pecci, in 
honor of his august uncle, had the room furnished 
in splendor, A.D. 1884. 

Hanging here on the wall is a portrait of the 
Blessed Margaret Pecci, a sainted and dearly 
beloved member of the family. Here too is the 
letter, modestly framed, in which Cardinal Pecci 
announced to 


his family his elevation to the Pontificate. The 
following is the text of the note: 

The Vatican, Feb. 20, 187S. Dear Brothers: I write 
to tell you] that the Holy College of Cardinals has 
this morning raised my unworthiness to the chair of 
St. Peter. This is the first letter which I write as 
Pope. It is intended for all my family, for whom I 
pray to heaven for all happiness, and to whom I 
send in love my apostolic benediction. Pray 
ardently for me to the Lord. 

Leo XIII. 

Here, also, are to be seen the following Latin 
inscriptions: "Pope crowned with the triple 
diadem, who was glorious on earth as the 
thirteenth Leo." ’The man who has devoted himself 
to the study of Thomas Aquinas and has won 
eternal honor of being among the purple clad, and 
who shines more for his wisdom than for his 

Opposite the Monsignore’s room is the family 
private chapel. It was in this chapel that Leo XIII. 
was baptized. 


Passing from the chapel and ascending a white 
marble stairway one comes to the second story. 

The first door at the top opens into the room where 
Leo XIII. was born. Here are found the material 
things which came into his life during his infancy 
and childhood. Everything he used is preserved 
even to his cradle. Close by is the room he 
occupied as a boy and young man. Here are to be 
seen his narrow iron bed, his writing table and 
pictures of him which were made at various 
periods of his life. 

The next apartment is in reality a museum of family 
relics Here are tall glass cases filled to the very 
top. Among the relics are to be seen the Pope's 
sporting gun, one of his white papal cassocks, and 
his cardinal hat. Here, too, is his brother Joseph's 

cardinal hat. Brocaded robes and silken coats of 
other members of the family all have a place and 
are most interesting as to their use and date. 


The genealogy of the Pecci family, according to a 
manuscript pre- served at Carpineto, the work of 
Joachim Pecci, compiled from the documents and 
traditions handed down from its first Tuscan 
origin, is to the effect that the name Pecci appeared 
for the first time in the thirteenth century in the 
history of Cortona. 


The influence of the Pecci family was later felt at 
Siena in the fourteenth century.* The Sienese 
placed one Paul Pecci in power as general of the 
army in order to suppress the revolutionary move- 
ments that then prevailed in the republic of Siena. 

One Bernardino Pecci was made Bishop of 
Grosseto in the beginning of the four- teenth 
century — a renowned poet and the author of a life 
of St. Catherine. Selio Pecci, during the reign of 
Charles V, was an ambassador to the court from 
the republic of Siena. He left sev- eral memoirs of 
his travels through Flanders. Later, James Pecci, a 
wealthy landholder, entertained in his palace in 
Siena, Pope Martin V, loaning him 25,000 florins, 
taking in security the Castle of Spoleto.f 

A family tradition, transmitted orally in the Pecci 
home at Car- pineto, indicated the close affinity of 
the Peccis of Carpineto with the house in Siena. It 
was one Anthony Pecci, who, according to the 
notarial acts which appear in the archives of Count 
Pecci's family, bought, in 1531, the Carpineto 
properties — and is held as the founder. Leo XIII. 
belonged to the eleventh generation of the Peccis 
of Carpineto. 

In 1582, Paschal Pecci built a votive chapel in 
honor of the Blessed Virgin, and richly endowed it. 

This was done in gratitude to the 

*The family is one of the noblest and oldest of the 
Siena nobility ; its escutcheon displays a green 
pine-tree, a bar, two lilies, six roses and a coronet. 
Not a few members of the family have 
distinguished themselves in the various walks of 

f The Pecci palace near the Cathedral Square, and 
tombs of members of the family are still to be seen 
in the citv of Siena. 











• *_> 






# a 

















ti i 







• 4 -> 





















1 - 


4 -> 






»— * 




























’3 ex 











0 . 









► - 














The original of this picture was painted when 
Archbishop Pecci was made Cardinal in 1854. 
This painting now hangs in the library of the 
Episcopal Palace at Perugia. 


Mother of God, who by her prayers had caused the 
disappearance of a fearful plague that ravaged the 
country around Carpineto. John Baptist Pecci was 

Bishop of Sequin; Ferdinand Pecci was an emi- 
nent lawyer and a particular friend of Benedict 
XIV; Joseph, uncle of Pope Leo XIII., was a 
distinguished prelate in Rome, and honored with 
the co nf idence of Pius VI., from whom he received 
a gold ring as a mark of esteem. The ring is still 
preserved in the Pecci palace at Carpineto. 

Charles, grandfather of Leo XIII., was married in 
1733, to Ann Mary Jacovacci, of Valle Corsa. This 
union was not fruitful of any issue for some years, 
when a son was born to them, whom they 
christened Louis Dominic in honor of St. Louis of 
Toulouse. Louis Dominic was" the father of Leo 
XIII. On the mother's side, Leo XIII. was closely 
related with a family celebrated in the history of 
Rome during the Middle Ages. Anna Prosperi, his 
mother, was a descendant of Cola da Rienzi, the 
Roman tribune. Cola da Rienzi, a direct ancestor, 
was an impassioned student of the Bible and the 
classics. He believed that he had a divinely 
inspired mission to revive the ancient glories of 
Rome. He did not, however, succeed, but became 

so. violent an agitator among the people, exciting 
them to rebel against lawful authority, that he was 
finally put to death. His son, Angelo, after his 
father's death, fled to Cori, where he lived under 
the name of Prosperi, according to the chronicles 
of the seven- teenth century still preserved in the 
archives at Cori — "The Prosperis were formerly 
called Rienzi from Nicola Rienzi, a tribune of the 
Roman people." 

Count Louis, as he was ordinarily styled, married 
Anna Prosperi Buzi, having chosen her as a 
helpmate because of her splendid quali- ties and 
strength of character. Her home was situated on the 
western crest of the Monti Lepini, and not far 
distant from Carpineto. The Prosperi family were, 
in their \blscian stronghold and its districts, in the 
same esteem as the Peccis were in their native 


town. The Countess Anna brought to her husband a 
notable amount of property, which the family holds 
to this day. 


Count Louis Pecci was somewhat above the 
middle height, with a lofty forehead and large 
sparkling eyes, in which there appeared at times a 
slight expression of melancholy. He was a man of 
cultivated mind and simple tastes, possessing 
always the talent of graceful and engaging 
conversation. He bore the title of colonel, having 
been placed in command of the military forces of 
the Pontifical govern- ment. The diploma, dated 
September 12, 1792, and signed by Prince 
Aldobrandini Borghese, is, among other things, 
preserved in the archives of the Pecci palace. In 
1809, Count Louis was appointed mayor of 
Carpineto by the Imperial French government. The 
people of Carpineto, however, honored him more 
as a civil magistrate than a military official. The 
high esteem in which he was held caused the 

citizens of the town to have recourse to him as an 
arbiter in all their disputes, and his decisions were 
accepted without controversy. It was by his 
judicious intercession that so much harmony 
prevailed among the people of Carpineto during 
his time. Immense piles of law papers, preserved 
in the archives of the palace, testily to the high 
consideration with which he was honored by the 
ecclesiastical and civil authorities of the districts. 


Leo XIII., like his father, has been a great 
benefactor to his native town. He founded the new 
parish of St. Leo, he erected the churches of St. 
John and St. James, he established the nuns of the 
Blessed Sacrament in an educational institution, he 
erected the mon- astery of the Franciscan Fathers, 
he founded a library containing thou- sands of 
volumes, and built a hospital tor the sick and aged, 
placing over the latter the Brothers of Mercy, 
whom he called Irom Belgium 


Leo XIII. also constructed a meteorological 
observatory in the Pecci palace, and there founded 
a museum of natural and ethnographic history. 

During the time he was Archbishop of Perugia a 
good supply of water from a crevice in the 
mountain was obtained for the town of Carpineto, 
but the source afterwards became exhausted, and 
the inhabitants again suffered for good water, and 
most seriously in dry seasons. After he was 
created Pope he endeavored to find a remedy, and 
with wonderful success. Two splendid fountains 
now attest his generous gift to the city of his birth, 
one is situated in the public square before the 
principal church, and the other in front of the Pecci 
palace. Carved on a slab of marble on the side of 
the fountain in the public square are the following 
couplets in Latin. Translated they read: 

I am a silvery fountain, at whose brink The flowery 
meadows love to drink. 

And yet they shall not! It belongs to you, Ye friends 
— my widely scattering dew ! 

On the fountain in front of the Pecci mansion the 
following verses appear in Latin. The translation 

After a journey long and drear, 

Ye Carpinetians, I am here, 

A fount unfailing, cool and clear. 

For Leo, who on Peter's throne As shepherd of his 
flock is known And loved in every Christian zone, 

What time to fair Italia' s shore, The trembling 
wings of Rumor bore Rumblings of European war, 

Praying with deep solicitude 

For peace, before the altar stood, 

The Priest whom lustres ten had viewed. 


His heart had never yet outworn Love for the spot 
where he was born And balmy airs of life's young 

'Twas then, ye Carpinetian folk, He bade me come 
to you, and broke Gently my immemorial yoke, 

And taught my dancing feet to spurn The heedless 
hill-top, and sojourn For your sake in this chiseled 

Clearer than crystal to the view, From the high 
rocks I scatter dew, And sing the livelong day for 

Ye suffered long in fruitless quest Until I came — a 

welcome guest — With amplest largess in my 

And who shall all my uses tell? Here in your very 
midst I dwell, For poor and rich, for sick and well. 

Come, then, ye all, and freely take While I 
perpetual music make Of thanks to Leo for your 

Carpineto, since the elevation of its most honored 
citizen, has obtained historic fame, and it will be 
known to future generations as the birthplace of the 
great Sovereign Pontiff, Leo XIII. 



T~?ROM the happy union of Count Louis Pecci 
and Anna Prosper! A Buzi resulted the following 
offspring: Charles, Anna Maria, Catherine, John 

Baptist, Joseph, Joachim Vincent, and Ferdinand. 

The two girls in time were married and became 
mothers of large families. Of the sons, Charles 
remained single, while John Baptist married and 
four sons were born of the union. Joseph studied 
for the priesthood, entering the "Society of Jesus," 
and was subsequently elevated to the Cardinalate 
by his brother. Ferdinand died in his nineteenth 


The sixth child that blessed the Pecci family, and 
the subject of these memoirs, was born March 2, 
1810. Carpineto being in the dio- cese of Anagni, 
the parents requested Bishop Tosi of the episcopal 
city to baptize their new-born child and to act as 
godfather. The Bishop promised to do so, but 
diocesan affairs claiming his attention on the day 
designated, he could not assist at the ceremony. 
The baptismal register of the cathedral of Anagni 
shows the following record: "In the year of our 

Lord 1 8 1 0, on the fourth day of March, at the six- 
teenth hour (about ten o’clock in the morning) the 
Very Reverend Michael Catoni, Canon of the most 
holy cathedral church of Anagni baptized, by 
permission of the undersigned, a child born two 
days before, to the most illustrious lord and lady 
Louis Pecci and Anna Prosperi, residents in this 
parish of St. Nicholas (Carpineto), m the 

names of Joachim Vincent Raphael Louis. The 
sponsors were the 



most illustrious and most Reverend Joachim Tosi, 
Bishop of Anagni. who appointed as his 
representative the Reverend Hyacinth Canon 
Caporossi, If om whom I have received his 
authority in due form; and the most illustrious Lady 

Candida Pecci Calderozzi. In witness, whereof, I, 
Zephirin Cima, vicar of this parish, place my 
signature and the seal of the Church." 

The ceremony took place in the chapel of the Pecci 

The mother, having a particular veneration and 
devotion for her patron saint, St. Vincent Ferrier, 
requested the Canon to bestow among other names 
that of Vincent upon her son. He complied with her 
request, and as that name was nearest her heart, he 
was called Vincent during her lifetime, but after 
her death he assumed his first name in honor of his 
godfather, Bishop Joachim Tosi, which name 
followed him through life. 



From his home, shut in by mountains, Joachim 
Vincent first imbibed the ideas of an orderly and 
self-controlled existence. Happy the boy whose 
childhood is passed without superfluity and 
without want, permeated by an ideal! Happy the 
horizon of his thoughts and life in his first youth! 
Joachim Vincent grew up in an atmosphere full of 
earnestness and prayers. Any boy who rises with 
God and the saints on his lips, and retires to rest 
with the same inspiration, will, if his mind unfolds 
at all, develop a zeal which will enable him to 
tread the paths of religion in such wise as to take 
shape and form in his spirit. A boy cannot fail to 
succeed, who prays before the altar and holds 
solemn intercourse with God in the days of his 

The first mention recorded of Joachim Vincent 
after his baptism is when his mother, w r riting to 
her brother-in-law, Antonio Pecci, said: "Little 
Vincent can already walk alone. He finds his way 
all over the house. He has a great passion for 
horses; although he is hardly 


big enough to be seen, he gets astride of the chairs 
without holding on. Yesterday when out with one 
of the servants, he insisted on leading your saddle- 
horse by the bridle to the fountain. He led the horse 
quite unaided and we were in fits of laughter at 
hearing him admonish the horse with a A ’Whoa."' 

The child is father of the man, and it would not 
perhaps be too much to say that one of the most 
characteristic habits of the remark- able Pope was 
discernible in the little boy who insisted on 
leading his uncle's horse "all by himself." 


The first lessons taught Vincent were in the home 
school, presided over by his mother. She was a 
finished scholar, capable in more ways than one to 
take charge of the instruction of her children. Their 

aptitude in mastering the letters and in reading and 
writing was a source of great pleasure to their 
teacher who fitted them, spiritually, mentally and 
morally to occupy high positions in life Through 
her influence and training Joseph and Vincent were 
enabled to enter that magnificent career which 
finally elevated one to the dignity of a Cardinal, 
the other to the throne of St. Peter, Sovereign 
Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church. 

"It is pleasant to recall those happy days spent in 
the home class- room at Carpineto," said Joseph 
Pecci years afterward. "Each of us had a desk, and 
mother had a small table opposite. In regular order 
we were called to recite our lessons and hear 
explanations. Our teacher always took the greatest 
pains in having us understand the matter before us. 
Sometimes our father would drop in and help her, 
lend- ing by the charm of his presence sympathetic 
encouragement. Being an accomplished Latin 
scholar, he took upon himself the task of teaching 
us the rudiments of the Latin language so 
thoroughly that when we entered the college at 

Viterbo, we were enabled to make most rapid 
progress in our studies. Sometimes the good 
Bishop of 


Anagni would visit our home, remaining several 
days. It was his delight to spend hours in our 
classroom, closing his visit with religious and 
moral counsels. These simple talks took deep root 
in our hearts, proving to be of incalculable 
advantage to us years afterward. 

"In winter, or when the days of spring or fall were 
chilly, the big hearth in our schoolroom was filled 
with blazing faggots. In sum- mer our mother- 
teacher transferred her pupils to the lawn, in the 
shade of a large chestnut-tree, where Nature lent 
her aid to enrich our minds. This tree is still living, 
and is a source of great venera- tion to us." 


In looking up history we find that the nobility of the 
Roman provinces, as a rule, dwelt a century ago 
much as they do to-day, on their estates, living 
broad and cultured lives. Their families settled 
around them, carrying on social intercourse with a 
freshness and fullness closely resembling the days 
of the patriarchs mentioned in Holy Writ. Notable 
gatherings frequently took place. On these 
occasions the people met at some of the homes 
designated; here they would discuss literature, 
philosophy, religion, politics, and all great 
questions then agitating the home life and outside 
world. Dry debates were interspersed with 
poetical effusions and musical selec- tions. Not 
age alone took part, but youthful talent was often 
given opportunity to participate. 

"Our father," said Cardinal Joseph, "took us in 
hand on such occasions and trained us for the day." 
Possessing, as we have stated, a highly cultivated 
mind, and well versed in the classics, he wrote 

original poems and prose compositions in Latin 
and Italian. "He obliged us to commit these to 
memory, so that when the appointed day came, we 
were able to take full part in the exercises, much to 
the delight of the elders. Vincent was a boy whose 
sweetness of charac- ter naturally made him the 
cynosure of all eyes. On these occasions 


Consecrated Archbishop of Dammietta when 
thirty-two years of age. The original of this 
painting hangs in the Hall of Paintings in the Pecci 
home at Carpineto. 

w > 

H < 







0 . 






his manner of speech and his sallies of wit 
invariably brought forth well deserved applause." 


Speaking of their home life on another occasion, 
Joseph said, "It was a treat to us when our mother, 
animated always with an inex- haustible fund of 
charity, permitted us to accompany her on her 
visits to the poor and sick in the neighborhood, 
carrying hampers of pro- visions and medicine." 
And again, referring to their early life, Joseph 
wrote, "When business matters took father to 
Anagni, fre- quently he would take his children 
along, leaving us at the episcopal palace, where 
we were welcome guests of good Bishop Tosi. 
These were great events in our young lives. Once 
Vincent was missed from the palace, and 
immediate search was made for him. An old man 
just coming from the cathedral, on being 
questioned if he had seen a boy anywhere in the 

vicinity, replied that he was in the church. There 
we went without delay, and found him standing just 
as he had risen from his knees, still gazing, as if 
riveted to the spot, at a cele- brated painting of the 
Blessed Virgin." 

In the early part of the nineteenth century, 
desolation due to war, had made considerable 
inroads into the wealth of the great landed 
proprietors of the Roman states, and the Pecci 
family fared no better than the rest of their 
neighbors. They were obliged to deny them- 
selves, to a considerable extent, in order to 
provide for the education of their children. As the 
Countess was a woman of rare courage and great 
intelligence, instead of giving way to useless 
lamentations over the weaknesses of humanity and 
the hardness of the times, she cur- tailed expenses 
by personally attending to the everyday needs of 
the family, even to the most exacting household 


As Joseph and Vincent grew into boyhood they 
became a source of great joy to the pious mother 
by showing signs, not only of a pro- 


nounced taste for study, but of an unmistakable call 
for a religious life. M. Boyer d’Agen, a French 
author, in speaking of the early life of Vincent, 
relates that Count Louis one day took him for a 
walk, showing him a spot on which Thomas of 
Aquin was supposed to have stood, and farther on 
pointed out to him on a distant hill the great 
Monastery of Monte Cassino. 

"Yes," observed Vincent, "Aquin is where the 
learned St. Thomas was born, and Monte Cassino 
is where he learned to read and write. Papa, shall 
we not go there and learn to read and write like he 

The Count returned to the palace somewhat 
disappointed. Vin- cent's expressed wish that he 
might learn to read and write like the great St. 
Thomas was quite contrary to his own plans for the 
future of his son. 

"I want to make a general of Vincent," said the 
Count, sadly, to his wife one day, during a 
conversation on their children's future. 

"Well," replied the Countess, "you will make a 
Pope of him." 

Count Louis was at this time far from pleased with 
the prospect of his son taking Holy Orders. "I can 
understand," said he, "that Joseph will never be 
anything but a Jesuit, but I cannot reconcile myself 
to the idea that Vincent may come back to us a 
village cure. 

To this the Countess, who, from the first, held fast 
to her belief in her son's vocation, rejoined: 
"Imagine, my dear Louis, that Vincent will be Pope 

and Joseph a Cardinal, and rest easy as to the 
future of our children." 


The Countess ever took pleasure in participating 
with her pupils in their outdoor sports and walks in 
the woods. In the springtime together they gathered 
the sweet wild violets that grew on the moun- tain 
side, and the roses that bloomed in profusion in 
their, gardens. She went with them of evenings to 
the vantage ground on the moun- tains to view the 
sun as it disappeared beyond the Adriatic Sea, 


casting in grandeur its departing rays over the 
Roman plain. Wherever they chanced to be at the 
even hour, when the bells in the churches rang out 
the Angelus, she stood with them in prayerful 
attitude and repeated the Angelical Salutation. Can 

we imagine a more beautiful picture? 

Often, seated on a bench in the park, she would 
repeat to her chil- dren traditions of the Pecci 
family. She had made a thorough study of these, 
and so interesting were they'to the children that 
Vincent, when he grew to manhood, decided to 
gather all available letters, manuscripts, and data 
which he could find and embody them in a family 
chronicle or, as we would say to-day, a chronology 
of the Pecci family. This work, as we mentioned in 
the preceding chapter, is now preserved in the 
Pecci palace at Carpineto. 

The hours spent by the family underneath the 
canopy of heaven were useful in giving a taste for 
outdoor exercise which Leo XIIL made a rule of 
his life. In his declining years his one great joy 
was to spend his hours of recreation in the gardens 
of the Vatican, watch- ing the growth of plants and 


’There is one part of our training to which our 
parents devoted much of their attention," said 
Joseph on another occasion, referring to the home 
days. ’"It was the work of developing sympathy in 
us for one another, and extending that sympathy to 
other children with whom we were permitted to 
associate. Our parents fully understood that real 
sympathy consisted in making life's interests 
mutual; rejoic- ing with the joyous, sorrowing with 
the sorrowful, and doing unto others as we would 
have them do unto us." 

A common brotherhood is assuredly the distinctive 
mark of an educated person, and the one great 
prerequisite for a religious, polit- ical, and social 
leader. This object lesson, acquired in youth, 
became the foundation stone manifested in Leo XI 
1 1 , in behalf of all work- 


-ers, creating in him an appreciation of the true 
dignity of labor. It is a well-known fact that he took 
real pleasure in extending a helping hand to the 
working classes. That sympathy taught him at his 
mother's knee made him not only the strong 
defender of honest 'toil, but the patron and 
supporter of art and literature. 

"Love the poor, the orphan, and the aged, was a 
lesson taught us by our mother," said the Cardinal 
(Joseph Pecci) in his colloquial reminiscences. 
"One day we were entering the Church of San 
Lorenzo in Carpineto to assist at the celebration of 
the feast of a patron saint. A few mendicants were 
seated in the vestibule, holding alms boxes, in 
which the faithful put their offerings. Our mother 
gave each of us a coin, saying, 'Give it to the one 
you consider most in need.’ On this occasion 
Vincent singled out an old lady, and solemnly 
walked over to where she sat, half hidden behind a 
pillar. With a charming smile of childish simplicity 
he deposited his piece of money in her time-worn 
box. The aged woman’s face kindled with pleasure 

as she exclaimed, ’Thank you, my little signor, God 
will reward you for this act of charity to an old 
woman. You will one day become a great, a holy 
man, much admired and venerated in the 'Church of 
God.’ " 

The woman did not claim to be a prophetess, but 
her words were prophetic nevertheless, for this 
child of benediction reached the very -zenith of 
human greatness and holiness. In a poem written by 
him- self, entitled "Life and Fortunes," Leo XIII. 
refers in the follow- ing couplet to the happy days 
of his childhood: 

A child — what happiness thy bosom fills Beneath 
thy father's roof, 'mid Lepine Hills. 



A ~\ THEN the Countess Pecci saw that she could 

no longer conduct. * * the education of her sons, 
who she felt were divinely called tt> an 
ecclesiastical career, she took them to Viterbo, a 
city not far from Rome, and placed them in the 
College of the Jesuits, where they entered upon a 
course of study embracing Latin, Italian and 
Greek.. Count Pecci, overcoming his early 
objections, yielded to the good judgment of his 
wife and freely consented to this step. 

At this time Vincent was eight years of age, a 
bright, clever boy, with a maturity of expression 
beyond his years. He had a refined and intellectual 
face, and possessed a fascination in his remarkably 
bright eyes, which made them in truth "the 
windows of his soul." He was manly in his 
bearing, even at this tender age, and his great 
capacity for absorbing knowledge made him the 
admiration of his; companions, the majority of 
whom were his elders. 


The Countess suffered keenly as the result of the 
separation front’ her sons, and at one time it was 
thought her strength would not be equal to the 
.sacrifice. Writing Canon Cavellucci, her spiritual 
adviser, she said, "The separation is a great trial to 
me; who knows, whether I will be able to endure 
it? Can it be, God will not give me courage?" 

As time wore on the Countess became happily 
reconciled, and by means of frequent 
correspondence kept in close touch with her boys.. 
To a relation she wrote, "The letters I am beginning 
to receive from 



Viterbo are excellent. The boys are happy, and the 
Fathers are sat- isfied with their work. I have a 
feeling that they will be a great comfort to me. At 

present they are stopping at a villa a mile from 
Viterbo, playing to their hearts’ content and eating 
well. I hope they will remain in good health and do 
themselves credit." 

That they acquitted themselves to the most sanguine 
wishes of their mother we have testimony in a 
letter written about this time to the Countess by 
Father Ubaldini, rector of the college: "I well 
know how great is a mother's love, and I am not 
surprised to hear that the separation has been most 
painful to you, but you can take consolation in the 
thought that some day you will derive great joy 
from it, for so excellent are the natures of the two 
boys entrusted to my care, that I anticipate for them 
a great future. I love them much, because they are 
good and so early bearing the fruits of a wisely- 
directed education." 


When Joseph and Vincent entered college each 
enjoyed excellent health, but shortly Vincent began 

to show signs of decreasing strength, owing to his 
close application to study. As he grew worse 
instead of better, he was ordered home for a 
vacation. As a boy he was a great walker and 
climber. Besides he was exceedingly fond of 
birding, not only with guns but by means of nets. 
Indulging in these sports with companions, and 
nursed by the watchful eye and tender care of his 
mother, he soon regained his former vigor and 
returned to school. 

The rector of the college wrote shortly after to the 
Countess: "Vincent recites admirably, and is quite 
a little angel. Joseph is rather more lively, 
developing more into a first-class rogue; not that I 
have any reason to complain of him, but he keeps 
me constantly on the alert, and makes me stand 
sentry in spite of myself. 


’In a good education,' writes the illustrious Bishop 
of Orleans, Monsignore Dupanloup, 'The pupils' 
very defects are often means of strengthening 
character. Little by little these defects succumb to 
virtue.' Let us hope that Joseph will demonstrate 
the soundness of this theory, by becoming a model 
of ecclesiastics and an honor to the Church." 


In 1S20 Countess Pecci took up her residence for a 
few months in Rome in order to be near Vincent 
and Joseph. 

As they approached the turning-point in their lives, 
she appreciated the fact that, if they were to adorn 
the life for which she had hoped, no time should be 
lost in placing them in paths of safety. When 
Vincent attained his eleventh year she wrote the 
papal delegate at Viterbo as follows: 

Dear Monsignore: Permit me to make an humble 
request of you. I wish to place my two sons in the 

Church, and to start them on their ecclesiastical 
career. If later they do not wish to continue in this 
path they will be at liberty to follow theirown 

My husband requests me to say that it will also 
meet his wishes to haw them accept the tonsure. 
Will you not give this satisfaction to their fath A i 
and mother? 

The rector's answer is still preserved in the Pecci 
palace. The following paragraph has been taken 
from it: 

Nino and Peppino (pet names for Vincent and 
Joseph) are evidently afraid of being the only boys 
in the school to wear the priestly collar and 
capello and of being called Abbes by their 
playmates, but everything will be all right in time. 
You will be satisfied with your sons; their conduct 
is excellent, and their health is still better. In the 
meantime do not fail when you write to urge upon 
them to reflect how necessary it is that there should 

be clerics in the Pecci family in view of the 
benefices and prebends to which their noble 
descent gives them a claim. 


Soon after Vincent wrote the following letter to his 
mother in an- swer to a letter from her: 

Viterbo, March II, 1821. 

Madame and Very Dear Mother: Your presents 
have pleased both me and my brother very much. 
This mark of your attachment can only make us 
strengthen our own for you, as it is our duty to do, 
in proportion to your desire. Yes, we will do this, 
but we need your prayers to help us in order that 
we give you full satisfaction, so grant us those 

For some time you have kept us in hope that you 
would come and embrace us, but the moment has 

not yet arrived. Imagine how sad your absence 
makes us. 

Images of saints, whoever they may be, will 
always be pleasing to us, but the prettier they are 
the more we shall like them. 

Remember me to papa ana others. Give me your 
blessing and let me kiss your hand with tender 
affection, and sign myself, 

Your most affectionate son, 


We glean from this letter that Vincent possessed 
inherent love for the beautiful. Is it any wonder that 
Leo XIII. became the most dis- tinguished patron ol 
art of his time? 

About this time Monsignore Lotti, who assisted at 
the distribution of prizes at the college, having 
noted how the two Peccis conducted themselves, 
wrote a letter full of comfort to the parents. Among 

other things, Monsignore Loth predicted a great 
future for them. "These two boys, if the Lord 
preserves them in good health, will," he said, "be 
an honor to themselves, to their family and to their 

In the Pecci collection is another letter, written to 
the Countess by Vincent about this time. The 
following- extract was taken from it: 


Yesterday Monsignore, the delegate, invited 
Joseph and me to dinner. After dinner he told us he 
had decided finally to confer clerical tonsures on 
us. We were both surprised and hesitated a little. 
However, we did not 


neglect to recommend ourselves to Our Lord and 
the Blessed Virgin in order to receive light to obey 
the will of God. 

Vincent received his first communion on the 2 1st of 
June, the fete- day of St. Louis Gonzaga. He 
celebrated the occasion by composing; a Latin 
sonnet in honor of the young saint, whom 
successive genera- tions of pupils in the Jesuit 
colleges had been taught to hail as one of the 
celebrated stars of the illustrious order. For many 
years the sonnet was hidden among the archives of 
the Pecci palace. Some years ago it was brought to 
light, and although much effaced by time was 
placed, on the 22d of June, 1896, in the hands of 
Pope Leo XIIL Leo slowly perused the verses, 
written exactly seventy-five years previous. When 
at last he looked up a big tear had fallen upon the 
time-stained paper, a tear perhaps no less precious 
in the sight of God than was the smile of the 
youthful communicant as he penned the sonnet 

nearly eight decades earlier. 

The Countess, in writing to Count Pecci, on July 
5th, after Vin- cent's first communion, says: 

I persuaded Vincent to put on the priest's cassock 
and mantle. The three-cornered hat suits him 
admirably. He hesitated at first but, like the good 
boy that he is, he appeared very glad afterward. 
Joseph would have put on clerical garb too, but he 
said it would be an unnecessary expense for us, as 
he had resolved to be a Jesuit. 

Thus was it permitted this noble woman to see, as 
through a glass darkly, the fulfilment of her dream 


Every teacher at Viterbo soon discovered the 
superior traits of character and genius in young 
Pecci, and bent all their energies toward the 
cultivation of his splendid mind. It was here he 
formed that exquisite taste for the Latin language, 

which men of letters so much admire in the 
encyclicals of Leo XIII. 

On one occasion the distinguished scholar, Father 
Vincent Pavani, 


S. J., made a visit to the college. This visit of his 
namesake orompted Vincent Pecci, then a lad of 
twelve years, to write an epigram in Latin, which 
has elicited much praise from Latin scholar’- • 

Nomine, Vincenti, quo tu, Pavane, vocaris, 
Parvulus atque infans Peccius ipse vocor. Quas es 
virtutes magnas, Pavane, secutus O utinampossem 
Peccius ipse sequi." 

In English it is as follows: 

Dear namesake, Vincent, from my nonage too, E'en 
as Pavani, Pecci bears that name; 

Ah, that Pavani’s wealth of merit too, 

Following that Vincent's light may Pecci claim 

Soon after he was elected to deliver a Latin 
oration on the subject of "Political, Social and 
Religious Changes of the Century." This effort 
demonstrated to the faculty of the college his rare 
mental endowments and won for him the "prize 
medal" for excellence. 

Among other advantages Vincent embraced the 
opportunities afforded him to walk in and around 
the historical city of Viterbo and to visit its 
churches, libraries and museums. In a letter to his 
father he wrote: 'The students take a walk every 
afternoon on school days. On Thursdays we have 
the entire day free, and some of us have made a 
practice of visiting places of interest in and around 
Viterbo, wan- dering among the Etruscan, Roman 
and mediaeval remains of this ancient city." 


Vincent’s last vacation to the old home with his 
mother was in 1823. The following year the 
Countess' health declined to such an extent that 
Count Louis took her to Rome that she might avail 
herself of expert medical attention. 

Despite the most careful precautions the disease 
developed rapidly. Poinding recovery impossible, 
Count Pecci sent for Josenh 


and Vincent. The revered wife and mother now 
realized that she must leave those she loved. Her 
abiding faith and enlightened piety stood by her to 
the last. She had long made her own will conform 
in all things to the divine, and accepted the final 
announcement of her confessor with perfect 

She died on the 5th day of August, 1824, blessed of 

God and man, as do all who live for love and duty. 
Her body was dressed in the brown habit and cord 
of the Franciscan Tertiaries, and by them taken to 
the Observantine's Church of the Forty Martyrs, 
and buried amid the tears and prayers of her 
family, the nobility and the poor of Rome. All had 
learned to love her as a friend and benefactor. 
Count Pecci and his children were almost 
inconsolable, the latter being quite old enough to 
estimate the greatness of their loss. 

Marking the spot where this noble woman was 
buried is a plain marble slab which reads: 


of cori: 

A mother to the poor, 

Most devoted to her children, 

A matron of the olden piety, 

A model of domestic virtue, 

Provident and generous. 

Mourned by all good people. 

She departed this life 
Aug. 5th, 1824, 

Aged 5 1 years, 7 months, n days. 

To this dear and incomparable woman. 
Her husband, Luigi Pecci, 

And her weeping children 
Have erected this monument. 

Farewell, thou purest soul! 

Rest in Peace! 


With saddened hearts Joseph and Vincent returned 
to college to continue their studies. 


This first dark shadow to flit across Vincent's life 
had cast a gloom over his spirits, which was not 
dispelled for months. He had loved his mother 
with a passionate, yearning devotion. She had 
filled the niche in his heart to the exclusion of 
everyone else. Father, brothers and sisters he 
loved, but not with that same ardor as that which 
bound him to his mother. Her constant solicitude 
for his welfare and her concern for his moral, 
intellectual and spiritual advancement had always 
been the "fire" which spurred him on toward 
greater achievements. 

Now that this incentive for heroic endeavor was 
gone — what was to be his aim? Her cherished 
memory suggested continuance in present methods. 
He accordingly resolved to'attain the heights 
defined by her even though she had passed on to 
her reward. 

A classmate of Vincent's at Viterbo wrote of him 
shortly after his election to the Pontificate: "I 
assure you that when he was at Viterbo his clever 
mind and straightforward conduct made him a great 
favorite. We were together in the class of 
humanities, and though we fought each other t for 
the honors, we were always good friends. He 
seemed the picture of goodness. 

"At Rome he never had many intimate friends; he 
was most retiring in his nature, and shunned sports 
and games. His world was- around his desk; 
science and learning were his paradise. He wrote 
Latin prose and verse with marvelous ease and 

All of a sudden Vincent seems to have changed. 
His let- ters, written mostly to his father, contain 
descriptions of the country about Viterbo showing 
that he was taking a deep interest in history. With 
others of his class he was wont to make the ascent 
of the wooded heights, a two hours' walk from the 
college, where a 


magnificent view of the Roman Campagna could 
be obtained. Writ- ing about the scenery he said: 

'This great undulating plain, which spreads on all 
sides around Rome, is about one hundred miles in 
length, while its greatest breadth from the 
mountains to the sea is thirty-five miles. It is 
bounded on the north by the volcanic group that 
surrounds the Lake of Bracci- ano, from whence 
one of the greatest water supplies comes by aque- 
duct to the city of Rome. The Sabine Mountains 

surround, like an amphitheater, the whole expanse 
of the Campagna to the northeast. 

"In the foreground on the one side are the ruins of 
all that made Rome once the ruler of the world, the 
city of the Caesars; on the other are the churches, 
monasteries and palaces of the modern city, the 
city of the Popes. 

"In the chain of hills toward the southeast (the 
Alban Mountains) is Mount Cavi, where was once 
a temple erected to Jupiter Latialis. To the left is 
the great plain, celebrated in Roman history as the 
position taken by Hannibal, the Carthaginian 
general, during the siege of Rome. At the foot of 
Mount Cavi lies the village of Rocca di Papa, the 
Pope's Castle, supposed to mark the place 
mentioned by Livy, where the Gauls were repulsed 
in their attack on Rome. 

"Along the ranges of the Alban Hills is Tivoli, 
surrounded by orange groves and vineyards. From 
this point the Arno flows into the plain toward its 

junction with the Tiber, separating Latium from the 
country of the Sabines." 


To Vincent these historic scenes were fraught with 
deep meaning. His interest in Roman history grew 
apace with the visits to historic grounds. The 
influence of -the past gave impetus to his genius, 
and we find him at the age of fifteen leading his 
class in the history of Rome, already a master of 
Latin and Italian, and a Greek scholar of wonderful 
promise. At the close of his school days in the 
college of 


Viterbo he was awarded first prize for a Latin 
oration and a Latin poem. 

Count Anthony Pecci, an uncle residing in the Muti 
palace, Rome, had offered to reward his nephew, 

provided he carried off the honors at college. 
Judging by a letter which Vincent wrote to his 
brother Charles we infer he came out victorious. 
The following is an extract: "As to the honors my 
poor efforts have obtained for me, not without 
some trouble, you would please me very much by 
mentioning them to papa and particularly to Uncle 
Anthony, who promised me a watch on his word of 



i" N THE autumn of 1825, after the Roman College 
had been restored * and solemnly inaugurated by 
Leo XII., among the fourteen hundred students who 
filled its halls, we find Joachim Vincent Pecci. 

Joseph Pecci, impressed by his mother's death, and 
attracted by the lofty ideals of self-sacrificing 

virtue and zeal in the divine service, followed by 
his Jesuit masters, had, with his father's consent, 
cast his lot with them and entered the novitiate at 
St. Andrew on the Ouirinal. 

The Roman College, which enrolled among its 
students the name of Joachim Pecci, was built in 
1582 by Gregory XIII. This institution of learning, 
sometimes known as the Gregorian University, was 
first presided over by Jesuits brought from Spain 
by St. Ignatius. The course of instruction embraced 
the study of humanities, the classics, rhetoric, 
natural philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, 
philosophy and theology. Attached to the college 
was the great Gregorian observa- tory, once 
celebrated throughout Europe. Here was also a 
renowned library and museum. 

Among the distinguished professors who taught 
within its walls from the time of Gregory XIII. to 
its confiscation by the Italian gov- eminent, were 
Bellarmin, Saurez, de Lugo, a Lapide, Kircher, 
Tolomei, Boscovich, Maffei, Perrone, Secchi, 

Marchi, Tongiorgi and a host of others of the Jesuit 

Nine Popes finished their philosophical and 
theological studies 

under its roof: Gregory XV, Urban VIII. , Innocent 
X., Clement 



IX., Innocent XU., Clement XL, Innocent XIII., 
Clement XII. , Leo XIII. 


Joachim Vincent, at the Roman College as at 
Viterbo, gave him- self up to study. His enthusiasm 
was constantly fed, not only by the genius of his 
masters, but by the prizes offered in order to 

encourage perfection. 

His vocation for the priesthood was a settled 
question; he had brought with him from Viterbo and 
the tomb of his mother the true spirit of a young 
candidate. He showed a complete detachment from 
the world, a deep respect for his superiors, and a 
love of truth and all things holy. He had acquired a 
taste for solitude and a reserve in all his relations 
with the world. In every way he consecrated him- 
self to the service of God. 

The Holy Scriptures were a matter of deep thought 
to him He gave a portion of each day to the 
reading of the inspired books. "I find this my daily 
spiritual food," he said. 

He regularly visited the sanctuaries of Rome, and 
spent hours in deep prayer and silent meditation 
before the Holy of Holies. His classmates 
frequently urged upon him, after the fatigue of the 
class- room, the necessity for relaxation in athletic 
sports. To these he replied that "in the presence of 

the Blessed Sacrament he found relaxation and 

When in attendance at the Roman College, he 
resided in the Muti palace with his uncle, Anthony 
Pecci. It is said that his life even out of school was 
that of a recluse, so closely did he give himself to 
his studies. His expenses were light, consisting 
principally in the purchase of books, or a cup of 
coffee made by an old retainer of his father’s 
formerly at Carpineto, which he obtained by 
walking to the Piazza di Spagna. It may seem 
strange that one so young should give himself up to 
such self-denial, yet it is not strange that Joachim 

<D V 

Q 'fc 



to o 

r A 

to *" 


2 C 

3 O 



. to 



0 43 


42 0 


.52 3 

i o 




to — i 



o3 o3 



2 -a 



4> 5 




**> o3 

o o 




& « 


1 — ( 

*f 43 





•3 fll 




js "3 









< o 

a <u *n -3 




« i 



A 2 


4 _* 





u. t> 


0 ) 



43 to 


X 3 




TJ 43 


ndre Urn 



0 ) 


O ui 



0) is 



3 •*-. 43 O 



r— D 

0 ) 0 ) 


05 u 
-g 03 
0) .3 

> > 

fr 13 


0) o 

to 1- 

bo A 



3 4) 

'J 43 
03 * J 



13 A 




- A o3 

•o .5 

0 > £ 



3 .*! 
- 5* 
3 oJ 

(i T3 





A 4) 

’o A 

0 0 


3 43 

’S, S 



4) T3 




> 'to 
°1 to 

03 A 

0> A 



to +-» 

e_i <o 
C A 03 


• A o3 






03 43 


4 ) 

3 ,** 


01 PL, 


be < 

1 > 



1 ) 



D W 

0 0 

p a! 

a* <utn 
0 ) 



» — I 


t— i 




o o 

° s 

a 2 
’3 -5 

1/3 ctf 

C A-' 

CL) rt 

< is 




Vincent Pecci should, for he was taught from his 
earliest years to revere and love the teachings of 
the humble sons of Loyola. The apostolic virtues, 
the eminent learning and the still more eminent 
holiness of the life of the first generation of the 
restored Jesuits, who were his instructors at 
Viterbo, as well as at Rome, together with the 
noble examples of Pius VIL and Leo XII., were 
more than enough to inspire and direct a nature 
already religiously inclined. 


During these years the young man earnestly 
endeavored to grasp the full significance of the 
political, social and religious changes tak- ing 
place on every side. We have prooffif this in a 
Latin oration which he wrote and afterward 
delivered before the assembled students and 

faculty at the end of his first year of rhetoric. He 
took for his subject, "Pagan Rome as Compared 
with Christian Rome." In the oration he referred to 
the moral and religious triumph of the Holy See. It 
was a grand tribute to Pius VII. 's quiet, unflagging 
zeal in defense of the Holy See as against 
Napoleon's military despotism. 

The honor of delivering this oration was due to the 
fact that the speaker had won the prize of 
excellence in its composition. All stu- dents of the 
class were expected to write a prose composition. 
Joachim’s was so excellent that he was called upon 
to deliver it. 


More remarkable was his success in Latin verse. 
The rule fot those who aspire for the prize of 
excellence in Latin verse was, that they should, 
within the space of six hours and without any 
outside help, write a certain number of Latin 

hexameters on a specified topic. On a special 
occasion the subject given was the "Feast of Bel- 
shazzar." Young Pecci produced, in the time 
allowed, one hundred 


and twenty verses, all of such unquestionable 
excellence that the prize was unanimously awarded 
to him. 

The above, however, were not his only triumphs; 
to him were awarded also the first honors in 

The masterpieces of ancient classic literature 
were, and must ever be, the most perfect models of 
literary composition. To public and professional 
men of every clime and nationality whose sphere 
of influ- ence is speech, oral or written, a perfect 
mastery not only of one's own language, but of that 

of the masters' is indispensable. And experi- ence 
has demonstrated that in our own day, as in the 
past, the men who, in church and state, are the 
leaders of their fellowmen, like a Newman, a 
Gladstone, and a Leo XIII., are men who have most 
assiduously cultivated classic literature of the 


But this is not all. In the printed list of prizes in 
physics and chemistry in the College of Rome at 
the end of the scholastic year 1828, Joachim 
Pecci's name is mentioned for the first prize. In 
con- nection with this it is interesting to note that 
among theTaculty of science in the Roman College 
at this time were such men as John Baptist 
Pianciani and Andrea Carafa, scientists of 
European fame. 

Other honors were still awaiting him at the close 

of the third year in logic, metaphysics and ethics. 
His acknowledged ability caused him to be 
selected to defend certain "theses" against all 
objectors. It was a rule at the Roman College that 
this must be done in the most public manner. These 
"theses" were always chosen from the subject- 
matter of three years' work, and in reality 
embraced the entire field of philosophy. This honor 
was the highest that could be conferred in a 
university career upon a student. Joachim at this 
time-was in his twentieth year. 


Disputations on philosophy, canon law, theology, 
etc., have always been held as important in a 
college course, and especially in the Roman 
College. They were most characteristic of the 
mediaeval uni- versifies, and were adopted by the 
Jesuits in their schools as a power- ful stimulus in 
attaining excellence in philosophy and theology. 

These "academical tournaments," as they were 
called, were frequented by the very elite of Roman 
society, and by the most learned men and highest 
dignitaries. Even the Pope and his court, as well as 
the Cardinals, lent their presence. 

It required both uncommon ability and uncommon 
courage in a student to face such an assembly, not 
to mention the fact of replying, during six entire 
hours, to puzzling and unexpected questions A and 
objections, put forth by men versed in all the 
intricate matters relat- ing to philosophy and 
theology. Yet Joachim Pecci was not feazed. He 
threw himself into the work with habitual ardor. To 
fail now would be to disappoint himself and all his 
professors. That must never be. In this connection 
we must remember he had not, how- ever, at this 
time gotten over the effect of the gastric fever 
which brought him to death’s door at Viterbo as a 
result of overwork. The mental excitement, anxiety 
and fatigue were beginning to be visible in the 
face, and most pronounced upon the physique, yet 
he was deter- mined to make the test. Just then the 

Pecci family physician, learn- ing the cause of 
overwork and knowing Joachim’s nature, stepped 
to the front and prohibited Joachim's exposure to 
the trying ordeal. His professors and classmates 
were disappointed, yet being convinced of his 
mastery of the situation, acquiesced in the 
decision. An attes- tation of Pecci's worth in 
connection with the proposed contest was put in 
writing and placed in his hands. The document is 
still care- fully preserved in the Pecci palace. The 
translation reads as follows: 

Roman College of the Society of Jesus. 

We hereby attest that the distinguished young 
Joachim Vincent Pecci has studied philosophy in 
this Gregorian University during three years, and 


that his proficiency therein was such that in the 

judgment of the faculty, he was chosen as fit to 
maintain a public disputation on a selection of 
theses from the entire philosophical curriculum at 
the close of the year 1829. But inasmuch as he has 
been prevented by illness from so doing we desire 
to bear witness to the fact itself by this written 
attestation, and bestow on a youth of such excellent 
promise the honor and praise he deserves. Given 
in the Roman College, Oct. 30, 1830. 

Francis Manera, S. J., 

Prefect of Studies. 


The regard held by the professors at Rome for 
Joachim Pecci was no less than that which Pecci 
held for his teachers. We find in print, above his 
signature, a fine tribute to the memories of his old 
profes- sors: 

What time Manera's brilliant mind 

And brains with richest knowledge fraught, In 
draughts of learning, crystal pure, God's truth and 
wisdom taught. 

What counsel wise, what generous aid, A prince in 
Rome’s bright purple lent 

To shape thy manhood’s young emprise! Sala the 
good and eloquent. 

At the end of a three years' course in philosophy, 
while still attend- ing the Roman College, he was 
appointed repetitor in the German- Hungarian 
Seminary. The early teaching assisted in shaping 
his life. He was never too young to see or too old 
to learn the bearing which the present had on the 
past and its relation to the future. He was always 
sure of his ground, knew whereon he stood, and 
what course next to pursue. 


Abbe Bertrin, referring to Joachim Pecci in his 

work on "Great Catholics," says: "During Joachim 
Pecci's studies he had neither society nor 
amusement. His desk was his world; scientific 


tion was his paradise. As Basil and Gregory of 
Nazianzus before him, the only roads he knew 
were those that led to church and school. There 
was only one way to lure Joachim Pecci out of 
these chosen paths, and that was to put him on the 
track of some rare books." 

Showing how true Abbe Bertrin was in judgment 
of Pecci, we quote from an old letter Joachim 
wrote his father April 18, 1827: "I thank you 
infinitely for the money you have been so good as 
to send me. Like what I have had from you before, 
it will not be used for anything except the purchase 
of some good book. I may mention that my little 

library has been increased by about twenty 
volumes during the present year." 

In a letter to his brother, John Baptist, written 
about the same time, he said: "I heard that Pope 
Pius VIII. stayed at our house at Carpineto when he 
was vicar-general under Mgr. Devoti, Bishop of 
Anagni. If this were a fact it would be a fitting 
thing to record the happy event on the walls of our 
house. Find out if this is so; papa would remember 


The plans for Joachim's holidays were the same 
year after year. He was as passionately fond of 
shooting as he was in love with study. Shooting 
was his only holiday amusement, just as study was 
his sole object throughout his scholastic year. He 
wrote to his brother, John Baptist, from Rome, 
September 12, 1828: "Do you think it would be 
well to send me the gunlock which I used last 
October, before I return to Carpineto? It seemed to 

be rather defective. I will have it cleaned and put 
in good order." Six days later, writing again, he 
said: "Many thanks for sending me so quickly the 
gun- lock. I shall have it cleaned by the burnisher, 
as it seems rather stiff and rusty. Thanks for your 
warning about gunsmiths; they might, as you say, 
play us one of their tricks, such as palming off an 
inferior gun instead of our own. Thanks also for 
your reminder to buy 


powder and shot in Rome, and to get the best 
quality as cheaply as possible. This is just what I 
intended to do." 

While on this subject perhaps it would please our 
readers to know that an old inhabitant of 
Carpineto, named Salvagni, frequently a 
companion of Joachim Pecci's sporting exploits, 
often related to tourists the good times he enjoyed 

with Vincent Pecci when a young man. As he 
advanced in years he complained that the Pope 
was no longer the jovial sportsman of yore. He 
said, "In bygone days we were all up with the 
dawn and each clambered up the hills to get to the 
hunting grounds first. Ser Nino would even venture 
on the highest slopes where less brave ones feared 
to follow. How many times have we seen the last 
rays of the sun gild our footsteps on these heights, 
whilst the villages beneath gradually faded away 
in smoke. 

"And now-a-days Ser Nino, or Leo XIII., as we 
pompously call him, is the greatest man in the 
world, but the dome of St. Peter's is quite big 
enough to overshadow his prison of a palace, and 
long before nightfall, too! I pity him indeed! 

"Do you know how long it is since the Pope visited 
his birthplace? 

"We have not seen Ser Nino since he came here on 
September 30, 1857, and left us on November 2d 

of the same year. When I went to meet him at 
Montelanico with all the sportsmen of the district I 
fired what was my last salute in his honor. I was 
called up to load his gun, and he fired at a quail, 
but missed it altogether. That was his last shot. His 
gun is at Carpineto, held as a relic only. When we 
are asked to pray for him in church I do it readily, 
for I think what an unhappy Pope he must be, yet I 
can't forgive him for not being the jovial sportsman 
he once was. 

"One day," continued the garrulous veteran, "when 
neither Ser Nino or I had a hair on our chins, we 
were out snaring larks with a net. He leant far over 
the edge of the big ravine you see yonder to stretch 
one of the cords, and rolled right down to the 
bottom. I laugh now when I think of him tumbling 
through the rosemary and long 


grass growing on its bank. He was not hurt, and got 
out easily enough with the help of a stick I 
extended. He was rather ruffled, and jumping on to 
the road safe and sound, exclaimed, ’When I am 
Pope I will have a bridge built here.' Pope is right 
enough, but the bridge isn’t built yet. It doesn’t do 
to commit yourself, you see. You may not be able 
to keep your word." 

The above words by an old-time peasant show 
better than the most eloquent diction possibly 
could the character and nature of Leo XIII. 
Evidently a philosopher was old Salvagni. 


He was fond of visiting the church of Our Lady of 
An nunciation at some distance from the town, and 
in which was a painting of the Madonna held in 
great veneration. He thereupon resolved to place 
on record the memory of these facts, selected a 
monumental stone, fashioned it, and wrote out the 
following inscription, which he cut into the slab 

himself. The translation is as follows: 

To Holy Mary 

The Mother of God, saluted by the Angel, 
This Temple 

Which, placed lower down near a stream, 
was then less conspicuous, 

Caietan Pasquali, 

The ground being given by the Pecci family 
And the money made up by the Carpinetians, 
Here in a loftier and pleasanter place 

A.D. 1777. 

It was his custom to pay the homage of his 
devotion to the incar- nate God, and then to rest 
himself in the shady portico of the church. 


After a well spent vacation, in which, thanks to the 
mountain air, Joachim regained his wonted vigor, 
he returned to Rome to enter 


theology in the Roman College. Eminent Jesuit 
professors were in charge, names handed down to 
this day, such as the Belgian Van Everbroeck, the 
American Anthony Kollman, Perrone and Patrigi 
and others. The last lived to see his pupil elevated 
to the Pontifi- cate, and it was a touching sight 
when the old professor knelt to receive his pupil's 
apostolic blessing. 

A perfect classical scholar, an able philosopher/no 

wonder that he soon proved himself a gifted 
theologian; and yet it would have been glory 
enough for the youth of twenty to have held a place 
among the lesser lights of that brilliant cluster of 
students, who came from many lands to listen to the 
lectures in the Gregorian University. His first year 
in divinity was crowned by such a triumphant 
success that it fully compensated him for his 
accidental failure at the close of his philosophical 
studies. Day by day his little star grew larger until 
its light shone fairer than the brightest there. His 
superiority was openly confessed when he was 
appointed, at the end of the third term of theology, 
to defend all the theses explained in that year. The 
day is always an eventful one in the Eternal City. 
The great hall of the Aula Maxima in the Roman 
Collegi was on that occasion filled with cardinals, 
prelates, dignitaries and nearly all the professors 
in Rome. 

Joachim Pecci had three treatises assigned to him 
for disputation, viz., "Indulgences," "The 
Sacraments of Holy Orders" and "Extreme 

Unction." Three opponents were appointed 
beforehand, whose business it was to argue against 
him and offer knotty points for solution. Pecci's 
success in this affair is chronicled in the Diary of 
the university thus: "The young man displayed such 
ability that it would seem great things are in store 
for him." 

When at last he closed his school career he had 
full command of all he had ever seen or learned; he 
was as perfect as education can make a man, and 
needed only experience to crown the theoretical 
knowledge of books. 

Nor had his books made him a dreamer; what he 
knew of the 


past he was able to apply practically to the 
progress of the present. He was a citizen of the 

world, could discuss with diverse tongues the best 
thoughts of the ages. When dignities and offices 
fell upon him he could bear them gracefully and 


The year 1825, the same year that JoachimPecci 
entered the Roman College, was made memorable 
by the proclamation of a jubilee, the first to take 
place during a period of fifty years. This jubilee 
was during the Pontificate of Leo XII. The 
Catholics of the world eagerly embraced the 
opportunity afforded them of the blessings of the 
holy season. In Rome the jubilee year is the 
occasion of signal favors. Pilgrims assemble from 
all parts of the world to pay homage to Christ's 
Vicar on earth. 

Leo XII. 's great soul was deeply moved, and in a 
sense comforted, by the throngs of pilgrims from 
all countries who visited the Eternal City. He set 
the example of unaffected piety, by visiting the 

privi- leged churches of the city, joining with his 
own people and the pilgrims of every land in 
supplicating the divine mercy in behalf of the 
needs of the Christian world. 

These were days which made strong impressions 
on the young and pure soul of Joachim Pecci. The 
fact that Leo XII., after the proclamation of the 
jubilee," was stricken ill and hope for his recovery 
almost abandoned, and the news that the crisis was 
passed and he was convalescent, was enough to 
make all the Catholic world rejoice and feel that 
God was working in their behalf. Leo XII. had a 
perfect consciousness of the spirit and" tendencies 
of the nineteenth century. He saw the disorders 
which had fallen upon the states of the Church 
during the long, sad years which closed the life of 
his predecessor, Pius VIL He had seen the 
manifold and urgent needs in the Church itself; he 
had displayed the zeal of a saint and the energy of 
a Supreme Pastor during his all too brief 
Pontificate. He 


had borne his part In the sufferings and sorrows of 
Pius VII., thrown his whole energy into 
reorganizing the administration of the ecclesi- 
astical government, had restored order, discipline 
and observances in the monastic bodies, and had 
created graded schools in the Church. Leo XII., 
pale and emaciated, brought back from death’s 
door by a miracle, went from church to church, 
from hospital to hospital, reciting penitential 
psalms and prayers. In this way the Common 
Father of Christendom taught his people how to 
turn away the divine anger from the earth. 

All Rome imitated the example of the Supreme 
Pastor. On one occasion 5,000 students, with their 
respective professors, imitated the touching 
precedent set them by the Holy Father, and made 
the pilgrimage in a body to the seven Basilicas, 
ending with St. Peter's. These young men of all 

nations were then ushered into the Belvidere 
Court, in the Vatican, where Leo XII., appearing on 
the balcony, imparted a blessing to them. 

Following this, Joachim Pecci was chosen to head 
a deputation of students and present to the 
Sovereign Pontiff an address of thanks. This was 
gratefully acknowl- edged by his Holiness, who 
was especially pleased to see the young 
ecclesiastic make the address in so scholarly a 


When Leo XII. died, in 1829, Joachim Pecci 
mourned his demise as a child would that of a 
parent. Pius VUI. succeeded Leo XII. An anecdote 
is told of the early life of these two Pontiffs, which 
we relate as indicative of their characters. In the 
city of Osimo, near Loretto, a grand procession 
was organized, in which the students of the col- 
leges and seminaries took part. Two young 
acolytes, about fifteen years old, each carrying a 
silver candlestick, walked on either side of the 

cross-bearer. They were of the illustrious families 
Delia Genga and Castiglioni. A dispute arose 
between them during the proces- sion, and from 
words they proceeded to blows, rising the 


as weapons. Though they were speedily separated, 
Castiglioni got in a blow on Delia Genga’s head 
that rendered the latter insensible. Fifty years later 
Leo XII. (Delia Genga) opened the jubilee of 
1825. The Cardinal Grand Penitentiary 
(Castiglioni) presented him with a silver hammer, 
with which to strike the first blow on the closed 
door, known as the Jubilee Door in St. Peter's 
Church. Leo XII. said to the Cardinal, with a smile, 
as he handed back the hammer, "Your Eminence, it 
is just fifty years ago to-day that you offered me a 
silver instrument in a much less gracious manner." 
"I remember, your Holiness, the fact," answered 

Cardinal Castiglioni, "and I hope you have 
forgiven me long ago." Cardinal Castiglioni was 
the successor of Leo XII. in the chair of St. Peter 
as Pius VIII. 



A T THE age of twenty-two, Joachim Pecci had 
completed his m A *- theological studies, and found 
himself called on to decide upon a particular field 
of labor in the Church. Having already con- eluded 
to join the secular priesthood, he was obliged to 
choose between parochial duty at Carpineto or a 
career in the administrative service of the Holy 

Unable to determine this important step alone, he 
sought counsel with his father and Count Muti, his 

uncle, both of whom advised him to cast his lot 
with those Churchmen engaged in the civil or 
religious government of the Church. He finally 
resolved upon the course advised by his relatives. 
In order to properly equip himself for the duties of 
his career, he entered upon a course of training in 
the Acad- emy of Noble Ecclesiastics. This 
institution was famed throughout the world for its 
very superior training in the practical 
administration of affairs in the diplomatic service 
of the pontifical government. 


While pursuing his studies here, he also availed 
himself of the lec- tures delivered by world- 
renowned professors in the University of the 
Sapienza. This celebrated seat of learning was 
founded by Pope Innocent IV in 1244, for the study 
of ecclesiastical and civil law. It was enlarged by 
Boniface VIII. in 1295, who added a theological 
school. In 1310, it was further enlarged and 
endowed by Clement V with classes in philosophy. 

Subsequent Pontiffs bestowed upon this 

institution special patronage and endowments, until 
it became one of 



the most celebrated universities in Europe. The 
name, Sapienza, was derived from the inscription 
over the main entrance, " ’ Initium sapienliae timor 

In 1825, Pope Leo XII. reorganized the Sapienza, 
as he did the Gregorian University, and placed it 
under the direction of the Con- gregation of 
Studies, and appointed a rector at the head. It 
embraced five distinct faculties, distributed among 
the schools of theology, law, medicine, natural 
philosophy and philology. Its professors numbered 
forty-two, five of whom were attached to the 

school of theology, seven to that of law, thirteen to 
the college of medicine, and eleven to the 
department of natural philosophy and philology. 
Later it was supplemented with a school of 
practical engineering. 

Connected with the university was the magnificent 
library founded by Pope Alexander VII., and 
enlarged by Leo XII. It con- tained a museum of 
geological, zoological and anatomical specimens, 
a school of fine arts, embracing painting, sculpture, 
architecture, dec- orative painting, anatomy, 
mythology, and costume. 

We can readily understand the motives which 
prompted Joachim Pecci to undertake so extensive 
a course of study, in schools of such renown. He 
was fitting himself for future work in a field which 
required the perfection of detailed technical and 
practical edu- cation in all branches of human 
endeavor. He could not, of course, foresee injust 
what orbit his personal planet would revolve, but 
he was sufficiently intelligent to appreciate the fact 

that the better equipment mentally that he could 
bring to his work, the greater must necessarily be 
his measure of success in any position of trust and 
responsibility to which he might be assigned. For 
three years he applied himself to arduous study, 
struggling with the most profound problems of 
civil and canon law. He was fortunate in having for 
instructor at this period the illustrious Cardinal 
Joseph Anthony Sala, one of the most brilliant 
scholars and literary authorities of the 


age. The Cardinal was not slow to discover in 
Joachim Pecci unusual mental attainments and rare 
executive ability. 

The young student's natural aptitude for solving 
intricate intel- lectual problems, his intense 
application to study, and exceptional reasoning 
powers brought him prominently to the front in a 

very short time. 


At the completion of his term of study he 
distinguished himself by securing the highest 
honors of his class, and a prize in money, 
amounting to sixty sequins, or about one hundred 
and thirty-two dol- lars in our currency. The 
prescribed method for attaining this honor was by 
competition, all students being obliged to present a 
thesis on a subject chosen by the prefect of study. 
One hundred topics, cov- ering the course of 
instruction, were chosen by the professors, from 
which the Cardinal Prefect selected one, which 
was announced to the class. On this occasion the 
subject was: "Immediate Appeals to the Roman 
Pontiff in Person." 

At the expiration of the appointed time Joachim 
Pecci, in com- pany with his classmates, brought in 
his dissertation for examination, and after mature 
and careful scrutiny by the faculty his effort was 

proclaimed the most masterful of the number 
presented. The treat- ment of the subject matter, the 
strong, vigorous phraseology, as well as the keen, 
thoughtful, comprehensive analysis of the various 
phases of the question, displayed in the 
composition, easily won for him the honors. This 
youthful effort of the erudite exemplar of the 
twentieth century’s dawn was often referred to by 
his classmates and teachers, all of whom testified 
to his modest, retiring yet scholarly demeanor. 
Among those who witnessed this particular 
triumph was Dr. Kirby, for fifty years rector of the 
Irish College in Rome. In speaking of the event 
many years afterward, he said: 

"I was not personally acquainted with Monsignore 
Pecci at the 


time, and did not make his acquaintance till long 

afterward, when he was Cardinal Bishop of 
Perugia. Then meeting him one day in the Vatican, I 
made bold to introduce myself, — not a very 
difficult task, for nothing could exceed the 
affability and unaffected goodness of his 
Eminence. After exchanging the first sentence 
required by courtesy I asked if he were the same 
distinguished young jurist who bore off the prize 
on ’Appeals to the Supreme Pontiff in Person.' He 
replied that he was, and I told him that I had come, 
after a long lapse of years, to do homage to him as 
my successful competitor in that contest. 

"It was a very pleasant introduction, as the eminent 
Prelate, renowned throughout all Italy for his 
learning, his eloquence, and his many virtues, 
cheerfully recalled the academical struggles of 
long ago, when he, a young man, contended for so 
paltry a sum of money. After the death of Pope Pius 
IX. and the elevation to the papal chair of Cardinal 
Pecci," Dr. Kirby went on, "I happened to be in the 
Vatican, to pay homage on a certain occasion to his 
Holiness. 'Holy Father,' I said, 'I have found the 

dissertation you were inquiring about, among my 

'Have you indeed?' he asked. 'Well, I should like 
very much to see it, and you must publish it.' 

'Thus it was that my little pamphlet first saw the 

"But," continued Dr. Kirby, "you can see in this 
little trait, the charming humility and simplicity of 
the Pope's character. To those with whom he is 
acquainted personally, or who are in any way 
admitted to his intimacy, he is, on the throne, what 
he was fifty years ago, — a man utterly devoid of 
self-consciousness and self-seeking." 


His studies being completed, he went once more to 
reside with his uncle at the Muti palace, and while 
there prepared for the reception of the Sacrament 
of Holy Orders. His brother Ferdinand also lived 


with his uncle. In 1830, when Ferdinand was 
nineteen years of age, he was stricken with a 
contagious disease, which soon developed 
malignant symptoms, and threatened danger to 
those about him. Tenderly attached to his brother, 
Joachim refused to leave his bed- side. He viewed 
with alarm the increasing virulence of the malady, 
and on the 14th of November, 1830, he wrote to his 
brother, John Baptist: 

"I have to convey to you sad news. Ferdinand, who 
has just recovered from a serious illness which 
attacked him at the beginning of this month, has 
been stricken by a dangerous malady. The symp- 
toms are so aggravating that a fatal termination is 
feared. The violent convulsions make the bed 
shake, and it takes several persons to hold the 
patient down. All remedies have proven useless 
and the disease increases in violence. Poor child! 

It is so hard to see him suffer, and not be able to 
help him. Uncle Anthony and I have not left him a 
moment, but he does not recognize us! His eyes are 
fixed, and he appears in his last agony. What will 
be the result to our dear brother? He has received 
the last sacraments. Alas, I cannot over- come the 
grief that oppresses me, but I beg of you to look 
after father." 

Death came to relieve the sufferer. We learn from a 
letter writ- ten to John Baptist shortly after, what 
Joachim Pecci's feelings were on the occasion. 

The letter dated December 14, 1830, says: 

’I loved him, and it is for that reason that I shall 
follow him into the region of the living, and will 
not leave him until by tears and prayers he is 
placed on the mountain of the Lord, where his 
merits call him, where there is life eternal, where 
no corruption exists, no contagion, no mourning, no 
grief, no association with the dead, a veritable 
region of the living, in which the mortal body puts 
on immortality, and the corruptible, 

incorruptibility.' So spoke St. Ambrose at the death 
of Theodosius, and grief compels me to speak in 
like manner. I have decided to retire for eight days 
to the Mon- 

Repi oduced by ton > /<-.- r of Boch rack <St Bros 
Archbishop of Baltimore. 

By courtesy of F. Gutekunst. 


Apostolic delegate of the Catholic Church to the 
United States from 

1896 to 1902. 


astery of Sts. John and Paul, and propose to start 
the day after to-mor- row, Thursday." 


Gregory XVI., always quick to note special talents 
in aspirants for diplomatic honors, had for some 
time been watching the career of young Pecci. He 
evinced toward him a kind of paternal interest, and 
determined to put to use his valued talents 
whenever a suitable occasion presented itself. On 
March 16, when Joachim was but twenty-six years 
of age, he was appointed Referendary to the Court 
of Signatura, with the title of Prothonotary 
Apostolic, an appoint- ment which indicated that 
the Holy Father had discovered in him rare 
administrative ability. A little later he was 
assigned to a posi- tion among the prelates of the 

Congregation of Good Government (di Boun 
Governo), a department concerned with the 
financial admin- istration of the dependencies of 
the papal government. 

In this capacity Monsignore Pecci was under the 
control of his old instructor and friend, Cardinal 
Sala, who was not only happy but eager to 
welcome the clever student, and do his utmost to 
promote him. In a letter to his brother Charles at 
Carpineto, dated July 3, 1837, Joachim mentions 
the fact that his success has been pronounced, and 
confides to his relative the pride he felt at being 
the means of winning honors for the family name. 
The tone of this letter acknowledges his ambition 
to rise in the pontifical service. The sim- plicity 
and openly expressed pleasure at being honored by 
those in authority is charming. He writes: 

"Your letter of the 1st inst. gave me the utmost 
pleasure, and your prognostications of my 
advancement were a great comfort to me. With all 
the sincerity I am accustomed to use in my affairs, 

and especially in regard to my relatives, I can 
assure you that, since the day on which, to meet my 
father’s wishes, I entered upon my present career, I 
have had but one object in view — to devote all 
my energies 


in following a praiseworthy line of conduct, with 
the purpose of advancing in the pontifical service, 
so that whatever honor and credit is obtained, may 
redound to the credit of our family, which has, 
thank God, hitherto not been without honor. In 
achieving this purpose I believe I shall simply 
fulfill my father's expectations, which it will be my 
care never to disappoint as long as I live. Young as 
I am I cannot fail to do credit to my family, if my 
conduct is irre- proachable, and if I have powerful 
protectors. These two conditions are indispensable 
in Rome, as you know, to safe and rapid advance- 
ment. Although I have been a prelate only five 

months I have already made the first step upward. 
You will, no doubt, be glad to hear that Cardinal 
Sala has openly taken me under his protection, and 
that I have gained the good will, assuredly 
undeserved, of the two secretaries of state. The 
Sovereign Pontiff himself regards me with favor, 
and I had a further proof of this yesterday during an 
audience in which his Holiness, whom I begged to 
accept my grateful thanks, received me with 
special kindness and condescension." 


In 1837 the cholera scourge overtook Europe. 
Every province in the southern peninsula yielded 
up its thousands of victims. In the Eternal City the 
ravages of the plague were fearful. Hospitals were 
everywhere fitted up to receive the patients. The 
priests visited and cared for them. Even the great 
teaching orders, notably the Jesuits, laid aside their 
books and ministered to the spiritual and temporal 
needs. The Holy Father delegated Cardinal Sala to 

superintend all the hospitals in Rome. It became 
Monsignore Pecci's duty to assist in the task of 
caring for the sick. Here he proved himself invalu- 
able, not only as an aid to the Cardinal, but to the 
plague-stricken people who came within range of 
his voice and pressure of his hand. He seemed 
forgetful of self, which was the admiration of those 
with whom he labored. Cardinal Sala was deeply 
impressed with the 


heroic virtues of the young theologian, and later 
recalled the deeds which in this time of need 
manifested themselves. 

During these visits Joachim Pecci came in contact 
with many of his former teachers, the Jesuits. In a 
letter written September 17, 1837, he speaks of 
their self-sacrifice on this occasion: 

"Not one of the Fathers has been attacked by the 
dreadful epi- demic, though they are constantly 
among the patients in all parts of the city, night and 
day. You will be glad to learn that our brother 
Joseph is on duty at all times. He no sooner 
celebrated his first mass, August 27, than he 
commenced immediately to exercise his priestly 
calling with great charity and zeal, hearing 
confessions, assisting and encouraging the poor 
cholera patients, and praying at the bedside of the 
dying. Promptly on hand at every call, he is out all 
day, and I can only have a few minutes’ interview 
with him and kiss his anointed hand." 


About this time Monsignore Joachim Pecci was 
notified to prepare for Holy Orders. He had 
attained his twenty-eighth year, the age established 
by Church law for aspirants to be ordained. 
Accordingly on the 17th of November, 1837, he 
presented himself for the Minor Orders in the 
Chapel of St. Stanislaus, the Jesuits’ Novitiate, on 

the Quirinal. One week later, in the same place, he 
was ordained deacon, and a month afterward, the 
final ceremony admitting him to the priesthood was 
performed by Cardinal Charles Prince Ode- 
scalchi. During the ordinations he was assisted by 
his brother Joseph in the presence of his relatives 
and friends. 


The morning of January 1, 1838, which ushered in 
a new year, Monsignore Pecci celebrated his first 
mass, in the presence of his beloved father and 
family. His fondest hopes had now been realized, 


but amid his exultant joy lurked one regret — there 
was one desired form missing from those who 
came forward to congratulate him. The occasion of 
his elevation to the priesthood, which had been 

from his infancy the dream of his beloved mother, 
was without her pres- ence. The Te Deum of the 
auspicious January i, 1838, was followed by a De 
Profundis for the repose of his departed parent, 
who though denied the earthly sight of the august 
scene, was no doubt privileged to view the 
ceremony from her celestial abode. 

Monsignore Pecci was now eligible to any 
position in the priest- hood. Cardinal Sala used his 
influence to secure his appointment to the 
Congregation of the Propaganda. Father Picirillo, 
of the Society of Jesus, in his "Life of Pope Leo 
XIII.," mentions the fact of Pecci's advancement in 
these words: 

’The deep piety, the quick and ready talent, the 
profound erudi- tion and noble bearing of the 
young priest soon won for him the esteem and 
affection of the reigning Pope, Gregory XVI. He 
con- sidered Monsignore Pecci, even at his age 
(twenty-eight), worthy of administering the affairs 
of the provinces. Throughout the whole career of 

the young man there had been naught but good to 
say of him, not a single shaft of envy had touched 
him, not an unkind word been spoken. He was 
living up to the ideals set for himself, observ- ing 
the precepts of God and the Church, and it was in 
the natural order of things that the rewards should 
come to him." 



A S FORESEEN by Cardinal Sala, Monsignore 
Pecci proved ■**- himself worthy of the position 
in which he was placed by the Holy See, and it 
was not long before he was advanced to a still 
higher position. 

One of the Roman provinces, Benevento, was at 
this time the scene of riot and insubordination. 

causing great concern to the Pope, Gregory XVI. 
One day his Holiness was discussing with the Car- 
dinal the situation of affairs in the above province, 
when the latter ventured the remark: "You need a 
man of energy." ’That is true," replied the Holy 
Father, "and I fear that the present delegate does 
not answer the purpose. It would perhaps be well 
to replace him, but by whom?" "I believe that 
Monsignore Pecci would be just the man, 
notwithstanding his youth," said the Cardinal. "I 
have had the opportunity of seeing what he can do, 
and I feel certain that your Holiness could not 
make a better choice." 

Pope Gregory saw fit to act upon the Cardinal's 
suggestion, and accordingly Monsignore Pecci was 
sent to Benevento in the capacity of governor and 
delegate. The post was one of importance, and, as 
seen from the above conversation, required a man 
of more than ordi- nary strength of character and 
insight to cope with the situation. 



The province of Benevento comprised an area of 
forty-six geo- graphical square miles, and was 
located west and, south of Rome. It 

had seriously felt the baneful i nf luence of 
Napoleon's martial invasion 



of Italy. Napoleon, ignoring the rights of the Holy 
See in temporal concerns, delegated his prime 
minister, Talleyrand, to use his authority in 
overthrowing the governments, a power which he 
was not slow to use. The French troops entered 
upon one of the most notorious campaigns against 
the papacy that the world has ever known. His- 
tory records how they overran the pontifical states, 
despoiled the Churches of accumulated art 

treasures, plundered public and private 
collections, robbed palaces, and devastated 
generally the whole country. 

Happily the dethronement of the emperor resulted 
in the with- drawal of Prince Talleyrand from the 
Roman states. The removal, however, did not wipe 
out the effects of his influence. The people had 
become inoculated with the libertinage and 
political intrigue of the French Empire, and it was 
a difficult matter to convince them that they were 
amenable to law and discipline. Individuals had 
little or no respect shown them; injustice, rapine, 
brigandage and every form of vice prevailed. 
Public morality was at so low an ebb that many 
even of the representative families had relatives 
among the chief malefactors, who carried on 
throughout the province a system of secret 
patronage for the vicious, marauding brigands. 
History in referring to this state of affairs says, 
"Picturesque plundering bands roamed about 
among the mountain fastnesses and caves of the 
land of song." The people lived in a state of terror 

lest they should be attacked by these bandits. 


Monsignore Pecci arrived in Benevento in 
February, 1838. His first act was to replace the 
men in control of government affairs with those of 
sterner character. He then turned his attention to the 
police, changing their code of rules to meet the 
exigencies of the times. He prescribed a method of 
punishment and retribution for 


injuries, not only against the perpetrators, but also 
for the abettors of crime within his domain. 


He was never very robust, and the journey over 
bad roads and in the inclement weather was too 

much for his strength. At the begin- ning of the 
following month he succumbed to typhoid fever. 
This naturally caused great grief among the good 
people of the province, who hastened to offer up 
prayers in the Churches for his recovery. The 
Church also arranged public processions and visits 
to the sane- tuaries for the intervention of Divine 

When the news of Monsignore Pecci’s illness 
reached Rome the Holy Father ordered public 
prayers in the Churches of the Eternal City for his 
rapid recovery. During this illness Monsignore 
Pecci learned of the death of his father at 
Carpineto, March 8, 1838. The news aggravated 
his ailment. Hope for his recovery was about 
abandoned, but the people could not give him up. 
They formed in processions, going to the Church of 
the Virgin of Graces, imploring the Mother of Jesus 
to intercede for their beloved delegate. At this 
juncture the rector of the Jesuit College in 
Benevento, Father Tes- sandori, brought a relic of 
St. Francis of Geronimo to the bedside of the 

patient, and, placing it over his heart, prayed that, 
if it were the will of God that Monsignore Pecci be 
spared to his flock, it might be done. 

Suddenly the sick man showed signs of 
improvement. It was evident that the prayers of his 
friends had been heard. His recovery was rapid, 
and elicited the utmost joy on the part of his 


Before leaving Rome, Monsignore Pecci made his 
will, a copy of which is as follows: 

"In the name of God, Amen, 


"I commend my soul to God, and the most Holy 
Mary. May the Divine Majesty and the Blessed 
Virgin have mercy on me a sinner! 

"I bequeath all my worldly possessions in equal 
shares to my very dear brothers, Charles and John 
Baptist, on condition that they cause fifty masses to 
be said every year for five years for the repose of 
my soul. At the end of that period they may 
consider themselves as relieved of this obligation, 
but I appeal to their charity to increase the number 
of intercessions for my soul. I further enjoin on my 
heirs above named to make one distribution of 
twenty crowns among the poor of Carpineto, my 
native place. As an humble token of respect and 
affection I bequeath to my uncle, Anthony, the 
porcelain service presented to me by his 
Eminence, Cardinal Sala. 

"These are the last wishes of mine, Vincent 
Joachim Pecci, written with my own hand in the 
third hour of the night." 


The death of Monsignore Pecci's father was 
perhaps the most sor- rowful event in his life after 

the death of his mother, yet he met the trial with the 
most edifying resignation. Writing to his brother 
John Baptist in reference to their loss he says: 

"I will begin by calling to mind that whatever 
transpires on the earth, be it ever so sad and 
sorrowful, is regulated by Divine Provi- dence, 
and that in consequence it is necessary in the most 
fatal cir- cumstances to submit to the decrees and 
conform to the will of God. You see, my dear 
brother, that I refer to the last great misfortune of 
our family, a misfortune that is keenly felt by us 
who have lost the best of fathers. You can then 
imagine why our tears and sorrow have been of so 
long duration. But, finally, after having given way 
freely to the feelings of nature, the voice of reason 
tells us that such is the destiny of all who live in 
this world, and that the pilgrimage of this life is 
brief indeed. 


"Then religion, yes, religion, speaks to us most 
eloquently with motives of consolation and raising 
in us hopes that his soul is already in the realms of 
peace, of security, and interminable happiness. As 
to yourself, my dear brother, take courage and do 
not abandon your- self to greater sorrow than what 
nature and kinship exact. Remem- her the words of 
St. John Chrysostom: ’The dead must be helped by 
your prayers, not by tears.’ Now, since I have 
mentioned to you about prayer, I cannot finish these 
lines better than by quoting the words of St. 
Ambrose to the soul of Valentine: 'Happy wilt thou 
be if our prayers have any effect. Not a day of our 
life will pass with- out speaking of thee. No prayer 
will be said without honoring thee. No night will 
pass without our suffrages. We will assist thee 
with offerings of every kind. Who will prevent us 
from accompanying thee with our praises? Ah! 
when I forget thee my arm will no longer serve me, 
my tongue will cleave to my palate, and if words 
cease affection will speak, and if the voice gives 
out the love that is in my heart will not be found 
wanting.’ " Happy will we be if in like man- ner 

we can assist the soul of our father. 


One of the first acts of Monsignore Pecci after his 
recovery was the task of remodeling the Church of 
the Virgin of Graces, the interior of the old 
structure having fallen into decay. The funds for 
this work were easily collected, the people being 
eager to show their gratitude for the restoration to 
health of their delegate, and also in thanksgiving 
for the preservation of Benevento from the cholera 
scourge of the previous year. 

Having sufficiently recovered, Monsignore Pecci 
applied himself now to the affairs of government. 
He studied carefully the grave situation. In order 
that there might be no conflict with the author- ities 
of the surrounding kingdoms and principalities, he 
decided to see the king of Naples, Frederic II., 
whose assistance he deemed 


indispensable in the successful government of his 
own territory, inas- much as the territory joined. 
Jointly the two governments could work 
advantageously for the good of both, in repressing 
violence on their borders. On his arrival at Naples 
he met with a cordial recep- tion from the royal 
family and the people at large. In an interview with 
the king he besought him to assist in restoring good 
govern- ment. He requested him to enjoin his 
subjects from affording refuge to criminals fleeing 
from Benevento. 

The Neapolitan monarch, delighted to find so able 
a delegate in charge of affairs in the neighboring 
province, gladly consented to use every means at 
his command to stop the smuggling of goods and 
the concealment of refugees from Benevento. The 
delegate returned to his post with new hope in his 
heart. He had realized fully the difficulty of his 
task all along the line, but he was ever conscious 
that a power from within dominated the outward 

individual act, and con- tinued his work fearlessly. 
He chose as chief aid in his policy of reform a 
former vice-delegate. Monsignore Sterbini, and 
together they were not long in bringing about a 
change for the better in civil affairs. How well he 
succeeded is proven by a letter written by Don 
Philip Soleno, secretary of Monsignore Pecci, to a 
friend inCarpineto, September 5, 1838. "I can 
assure you," he says, "that the govern- ment of the 
province is reestablished and bettered. Robberies 
have ceased, attempts at murder and all arbitrary 
acts have been less numerous, all of which has not 
been achieved without great labor, vigilance and 
energy." In another letter he says: "Monsignore 
administers the affairs of the province with strict 
exactness, winning the affection of all who strive 
to please him" The delegate himself 
acknowledged the fact of his success, for we read 
in a letter to his relatives at Carpineto, dated 
October 28, 1838: "The affairs of the province are 
in excellent order, and the good will of the 
majority of the people is quite favorable to me. 
Duty is the guide of my actions, and my daily rule 

is not to take action against any individual without 


good cause, and to be on my guard against those 
who are disposed to evil. This method of action is 
not at all satisfactory to the nobility, nor to the 
partisans of the opposite policy, but it has gained 
for me the title of 'friend of justice/ and it satisfies 
the public and my conscience." 

On the 7th of July of the following year 
Monsignore expressed to his secretary his pleasure 
at the great change for the better in public matters, 
in the following words: 'The affairs of the 
province move along with excellent regularity as 
far as I can see. Captain D., as you know, has 
succeeded Captain P., the former having granted 
the enforcement of the law and the preservation of 
public order in the province. I esteem him highly in 
his active work and capability, and, I will add, in 

religious practices. Thanks to his good work, the 
troops of the garrison have undergone, in their 
morals and discipline, a complete reform" 


Many instances are recorded of the delegate's 
determined manner of dealing with violators of the 
law, particularly with those in high places, from 
whom he naturally would look for assistance and 
sup- port in the effort to govern well. We append 
one of the most char- acteristic of these: 

A certain nobleman came to the delegate one day to 
enter com- plaint against some officers of the law 
who had presumed in the course of their search 
after offenders to insist upon searching his princely 
abode, thereby bringing his family name into 
disrepute, and disgrace on his escutcheon. 
Monsignore Pecci, happening to know the 
circumstances of the case, assured the complainant 
that the enforcement of the law by its properly 
appointed officers must have the sanction of all 

well-disposed citizens, and such acts would have 
his emphatic endorsement; that no distinction 
would be made between violators of the law 
whether of high or low degree, and that 


the offenders must be arrested wherever found and 
brought to trial and conviction if found guilty. This 
reply threw the nobleman into a furious rage, and 
he openly defied the delegate, threatening him that 
if the acts were repeated he would personally go to 
Rome, appeal to the Pope for his removal, and rid 
Benevento of his presence. Monsignore Pecci 
coolly replied to this challenge in these words: 

'You may go on your errand to Rome, my good 
Marquis, but I warn you that in order to get to the 
Vatican you will be obliged to pass through the 
Castle of St. Angelo." The Marquis was not slow 
to perceive in this reply a direct threat, for the 

Castle of St. Angelo was the prison at Rome where 
just such lawbreakers as himself were confined, 
and he knew from the tone of the answer that the 
delegate had knowledge of the many covert acts to 
which he had been a party, not only in Benevento, 
but beyond its confines. He did not go to Rome. It 
transpired, however, that Monsignore Pecci 
secured information which warranted entering by 
force into this man's castle and arresting fourteen 
of the most desperate characters, all of whom were 
speedily brought to justice. It is also related that 
one Paschal Coletta, a desperate brigand chief who 
made his headquarters at the ancestral seat — Villa 
Mascambroni — had kept the people of Bene- 
vento in a state of terror and tyrannical subjection 
by means of fre- quent sorties into the country for 
miles, where he and his followers committed acts 
of the most daring nature. 

Monsignore Pecci sent messengers to the chief, 
requesting him to cease his raids, and desist from 
further acts of brigandage, or he would be 
compelled to prosecute him and his comrades in 

crime. To these requests the most insulting and 
disrespectful replies came back, whereupon the 
delegate ordered that the castle be surrounded, and 
the inmates punished. Coletta and his bandit aids, 
twenty-eight in number, were brought in chains 
through the streets of Benevento to a court of 

A court martial was convened for the purpose of 
hearing the testi- 


mony of persons who had been the victims of the 
bandits. After the most detailed investigation, and 
weighing of evidence against the accused, the 
delegate sentenced them to suffer the penalty of 
their deeds by being executed in the public square 
of the city. This extreme sentence was 
administered in the presence of almost the entire 
population, the majority of whom were eager to 

witness the punishment of the men who had had no 
regard for life or property. With the death of 
Coletta and his companions, Benevento once mor e 
entered on a career of prosperity. 


The delegate in his capacity of governor applied 
himself especially to practical affairs, such as 
would redound to the welfare of the people in his 

The French had forced upon the people an 
excessive system of taxation, which had been 
found most oppressive to those whom it directly 
concerned, who openly expressed their 
dissatisfaction against the Pope, who up to this 
time manifested no interest in having the laws 
amended; and many of them were heard to argue 
against the temporal rule of the Holy Father on this 

Monsignore Pecci, knowing that the Pope had no 

definite knowl- edge of the oppression wrought 
against the people of Benevento by the tax system 
in vogue, decided to place the matter before his 
Holiness and ask his consent to the removal of the 
excessive imposts. 

Pope Gregory gladly acquiesced in the proposition 
of the dele- gate, and the laws governing taxes 
were satisfactorily amended. 


The public roads leading to Rome and Naples 
were very much in need of improvement, and to 
this work of building new roads and reconstructing 
old ones, Monsignore Pecci turned his attention. 
The historic Via Appia, leading from Naples to the 
Eternal City, at that 

time almost impassable, became the especial care 

of the Monsignore, who spent liberal sums of 
money in making this interesting thorough- fare and 
its byways model driving roads. This gave the 
people of Benevento easy access to the markets 
and fairs of this and neigh- boring provinces, 
thereby enabling the products of the home markets 
to compete favorably with those of the surrounding 

The king of Naples, viewing with admiration the 
prosperity and success which had come to 
Benevento under the able administration of 
Monsignore Pecci, sought to avail himself of the 
benefits of the reform, by asking the Holy Father to 
exchange Benevento for one of the neighboring 
provinces. The Pope's secretary, Cardinal Lam- 
bruschini, was delegated to confer with 
Monsignore Pecci in regard to the proposition, 
who absolutely refused to entertain for a moment 
the idea of such exchange. He wrote to the 
secretary as follows: 

'The spiritual condition of the people is such that 

under the papal government they enjoy freedom 
and happiness, but to place them under the rule of 
the king of Naples would be a retrograde move- 
ment, and could not but result in ruin to the 
Beneventines." The finances of the province next 
claimed attention. There was prev- alent a system 
of looting, or appropriation by individuals in 
office, of the public funds for personal use, which 
had occurred for many years. These dishonest 
officials looked upon this plundering as per- fectly 
proper, a kind of payment for services rendered. In 
order to correct these abuses. Monsignore Pecci 
established a central adminis- tration bureau, in 
which the public funds should be deposited, and no 
drafts were to be honored in payment of services 
unless counter- signed by the delegate of 
Benevento in person. This remedy was certain to 
meet with condemnation by the individuals directly 
affected, and a loud cry went forth against the 
innovation. The delegate was openly threatened 
with injury if he persisted in carrying out his 
scheme, but with all the courage of his convictions 
that his course was just, he firmly insisted upon his 

policy, and told the objecting 


officials that if they did not conform to the law they 
would have to go to prison, whereupon they ceased 
their opposition. 


The very beneficial change in the financial 
administration of Benevento was the delight of the 
citizens having the good of the province at heart, 
and for many years afterwards the gratitude of the 
people was expressed for the material benefits 
Benevento had received from the wise rule of 
Monsignore Pecci. 

Father Picirillo, the Jesuit, speaking of this period 
in the life of Leo XIIL, says: "Seven years after 
Monsignore left Benevento I was there, and I can 

vividly recall the gratitude and the terms of praise 
with which the citizens mentioned the name of 
Pecci. Indeed, so great was the popularity which 
he had acquired among them by his gentleness and 
nobility of character, and by the prudence and 
impartiality of his administration, thai., though 
many excellent men have succeeded him, his 
absence was keenly felt, and not without regret." 
On the 2d of April, 1841, Cardinal Tosti, pro- 
treasurer general of the papal government, wrote to 
Monsignore Pecci: 

"I have delayed writing to you for the reason that a 
testimonial of acknowledgment of the government 
for the reforms effected by your delegation has 
been in course of preparation for some time past. I 
gave an account to his Holiness of the great 
reformation effected in matters pertaining to the 
government and the general welfare of the people, 
which caused him pleasure and gratification. He 
has accorded to you full credit and praise for your 
efforts. It is a posi- five delight for me to impart 
this good news to you." 


Three years had been spent in arriving at the 
success which placed Benevento among the best 
governed and the most progressive 


provinces of Italy. The Holy Father, deeming the 
work of his dele- gate complete, recalled him to 
Rome, with the intention of sending him on a 
similar mission to Spoleto, where certain affairs 
required investigation. For some reason the 
commission was delayed, during which interim 
grave interests came up in Perugia for the con- 
sideration of Pope Gregory. Without delay he 
decided to send as papal delegate to this city the 
young Monsignore Pecci, who had so successfully 
dealt with the Benevento trouble. Investing him 
with plenipotentiary powers the Holy Father 
commissioned him to leave Rome at once, and use 

whatever means he deemed proper towards 
stamping out the disorders, and resisting the sway 
of insurrectionary movements within the confines 
of the province of Umbria. 


Perugia was the capital of Umbria, one of the 
richest and most prosperous provinces of Italy. It 
had been for centuries the center of the art and the 
industrial life of the Italian peninsula. Here, as 
elsewhere, the unrest and distaste for established 
law, born of the French Revolution, had caused 
serious concern to the authorities. The 
revolutionary party, particularly the branch known 
as "Young Italy," was secretly spreading its vicious 
principles throughout the land, undermining the 
government, and causing intense political dis- 

The Holy Father felt convinced that Monsignore 
Pecci was the one to meet the difficulty fully, and 
he was not mistaken. As soon as the Perugians 

heard that the late delegate to Benevento was on 
his way to their province, they went out to meet 
him and express their grati- fication that he had 
been sent to them at this crisis. Arriving at his 
destination Monsignore Pecci immediately set 
about investigating certain abuses in the 
commercial life of the people. Hearing that a 
monopoly of those engaged in the manufacture of 
breadstuffs were 

DIOMEDE FALCONIO Archbishop of Larissa, 
Delegate Apostolic to Washington, D. C. 




selling loaves of bread underweight, he ordered 
that all of the loaves found lacking in weight 
should be confiscated and brought to the public 
market place, where they were to be distributed to 
the poor. Any resistance to the enforcement of 
these orders was to be punished with 
imprisonment. This decisive method of dealing 
with dishonest merchants soon brought about a 
more just rule of conduct in buying and selling. 

On his arrival in Perugia he forwarded a report of 
the condition of the whole province to the Pope. 
Within twelve months he had succeeded in 
promoting such reforms that the prisons were prac- 
tically unoccupied, incorrigible criminals having 
been exiled, and the penitent ones restored to 
citizenship. To encourage thrift and economy 
among the Umbrians he established savings han ks 
through- out his territory, giving to that of Perugia 
the necessary capital out of his private fortune. 
After his withdrawal from Perugia the Count 

Anatoile Conestabile delle Stafife addressed him a 
letter, dated Feb- ruary 16, 1843, mthe name of the 
magistracy, in which he expressed the universal 
and sincere gratitude of the citizens for having 
founded the savings bank, which had become of 
inestimable benefit to the poor and rich alike. 


Pope Gregory, about this time, announced his 
intention of visiting Perugia while on his tour of 
inspection of the dioceses of Umbria. He wished to 
personally see Monsignore Pecci and thank him for 
the very able manner in which he was then 
conducting the affairs of the government in Perugia. 
The delegate, anxious to learn at just what time the 
Sovereign Pontiff would arrive in Perugia in order 
that a suitable reception might be tendered his 
Holiness, set out for Rome, traveling by stage over 
the roads which the papal party would be obliged 
to take later in the year. Finding these almost 


for vehicles, and discovering that the only road by 
which access to the city could be made was an old 
road at Laon that ran up a steep incline to the 
fortifications, and which was practically 
dangerous for travelers, he at once commanded that 
a new road should be built. Within twenty days the 
work was completed in time for the visit of the 
Holy Father and his retinue. This is known as the 
Gregorian Road, and is one of the best in Italy. 

When Gregory XVI. made his contemplated tour 
through the province of Umbria, the people of 
Perugia turned out in large numbers to welcome the 
Pope, who openly expressed his pleasure at seeing 
the good people enjoying a season of prosperity 
once more, and bestowed upon them the papal 
benediction. Referring to this visit Pope Gregory 
once said: 

"In some places I was received like a monk, in 
others with a cere- mony due a cardinal; in Perugia 
and Ancona I had a reception due a soverein." 
Before leaving Perugia, Gregory said to the 
delegate: "It will not be long, Monsignore, after I 
have returned to Rome until I shall remember you." 

Inspired with new vigor, and sustained by the 
approval of Pope Gregory, Monsignore Pecci 
continued his examination of municipal affairs, 
personally investigating public records and 
prescribing reme- dies for existing evils in the 
political districts of Umbria. He made a visitation 
of the diocese throughout the province, being 
everywhere received with pomp and ceremony by 
the authorities and the people. 


The education of the masses had ever been the 
especial care and pride of Monsignore Pecci, and 
during his administration in Perugia the institutions 
of learning received his material support and 

encour- agement. Schools for the poor were 
opened where tuition was abso- lutely free, and the 
modern kindergarten for young children flourished 


under the charge of the professed Sisters in the 
religious orders. 

The higher schools and those in charge of the 
teaching orders were 

examined into as to their requirements and 
resources, their method 

of discipline and their financial administration. 
The famous College 

of Rossi of Spello received his most generous 
support, and in order 

that the faculty should be complete in every 

department he himself 

taught classes in philosophy. He also contributed to 
its finances, 

reestablished its internal discipline and enlarged 
its teaching force. 

The brilliant success attained at Perugia by 
Monsignore Pecci was 

mentioned by the Abbe Brunelli, professor of the 
Seminary of 

Perugia, in an essay read at the Academy of 
Perugia in September, 

1878. He said: 

"Indeed in Perugia, Monsignore Pecci was not only 
loved, but I 

would almost say adored. You will remember how 
from the very 

beginning he had won the affections of all. It is 
said that under his 

administration our prisons, so much narrower then 
than now, were at 

one time entirely untenanted. To hope for or even 
to fancy such an 

event at the present time would be sheer folly." 



TV /[ ONSIGNORE PECCI had by this time 
acquired so great a -L » J- reputation for executive 
ability, piety and sagacity that Pope Gregory 
determined to confer upon him still greater honors. 

In January, 1843, two months before his thirty- third 
birthday, he received word from the Holy Father 

that he was soon to be pre- conized Archbishop of 
Damietta, in partibus infidelium, in advance of an 
appointment as Nuncio to the Court of Brussels. 

This news came to him as a surprise, causing him 
some appre- hension. He felt that the duties 
imposed upon him by such an office would demand 
almost superhuman ability as well as especial tact, 
neither of which would his native humility permit 
him to acknowl- edge as his possession. 

No sooner had he been apprised of Pope Gregory's 
intentions and the news of his promotion been 
circulated than letters of con- gratulation began to 
pour in from relatives, from friends of his college 
days, and from associates acquired in the circles of 
ecclesi- astical administration. 

In response to a letter received about this time 
from his brother Joseph he wrote under date of 
January 12, 1843: "Oh! if our dear parents were 
still living! I cannot think of it without 
experiencing emotions which rend my heart." His 

aunt, Mother Therese Cher- ubim of Jesus, Abbess 
of the Monastery at Cori, also congratulated her 
young kinsman upon his elevation to the 
Archbishopric, in reply to which he sought to turn 
aside the honor, and readily' granted that the favor 
conferred on him belonged to her, as a co-worker 



the field of religion. To her he wrote: "Oh, how the 
Lord showers graces upon your soul! Oh, what 
great blessings! As the graces increase, so should 
your acknowledgment of them. Let us refer all 
honors to God, as all glory is due Him, without 
whose help we can do nothing, and in whose 
presence we are nothing. Be not elated by the 

vanities of this world that come to us under the 
guise of honors, as they disappear like smoke, but 
do everything with a good intention, for the glory 
of God. Love Him, serve Him with all your heart, 
as He deserves, and at the same time in your own 
interest lay up a treasure in Heaven." 

The appointment of Monsignore Pecci as Nuncio to 
the Court of Brussels surprised the Belgians. They 
had not heard of his singular ability and holiness. 
The appointment gave them some apprehension. He 
was an Italian, and perhaps one whose southern 
proclivities might not be conducive to harmony in 
affairs between the northern disputants in matters 
at that time agitating Belgium 


There was, however, one among those at the 
capital of Belgium whom the news of the 
appointment did delight. This was Canon Theodore 
de Montpelier, formerly a co-disciple of the 
Monsignore at the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics 

at Rome, where both were stu- dents of church 
law. Canon de Montpelier immediately wrote him 
the following letter: "Is it true, my dear 
Monsignore Pecci, that you will soon arrive in our 
country? I frankly confess that I experience the 
greatest pleasure in reading in the public journals 
such interesting news, and you so dear to me. At 
first I could hardly believe it was so, but our 
beloved Count d’Outrement assures me of the fact 
in a letter of recent date. . . . May God be blessed a 
thousand times! Who would have thought it, my 
dear Monsignore, when we were together in Rome, 
that one day I would be rendered most happy in 
seeing you in Belgium In those days of always 
happy and sweet 


memories we were friends. I hope that the Lord is 
reuniting us after so many years, and will restore to 
us our old love, not weakened by long separation, 

but stronger and more durable." 

To these words of cordial good feeling which 
brought much com- fort to the young prelate, 
Monsignore Pecci replied: "Your letter was all the 
more welcome to me, as it was unexpected. It is 
with feelings of joy that I learn from it that you 
entertain for me the same friend- ship as you once 
held, and I confess that I have never lost sight of a 
presentiment, wholly unaccounted for, that I should 
again meet you in life." 

On the 26th of January, the day previous to his 
consecration as Archbishop ofDamietta, 
Monsignore Pecci wrote to the Nuncio at Berne, 
Switzerland, Archbishop d’ Andrea, as follows: 
"Behold me, your companion in the glorious arena 
of church diplomacy. But with what assurances? I 
love to drive away troublesome thoughts with the 
fact that He who has commenced the work will 
deign to finish it, as I have nothing to expect except 
from Him" 

There breathes throughout the entire 
correspondence of the Arch- bishop at this time a 
spirit of humility, of reliance on the assistance of 
God in every undertaking, and of his own 
unworthiness of the favors crowding upon him, 
which characterized the Saints of fore- going ages. 
His humility impressed more than one of his 
friends, who were sure that he would give voice to 
the strength and power which they knew him to 

Father Marie of Jesus Crucified, a passionist, one 
of Monsignore Pecci's oldest and most admiring 
friends, wrote to the newly appointed Nuncio as 
follows: Todi, February 7, 1843, "Most Vener- 
ated Sir: — You must have courage, great courage, 
and you will find it always an advantage to have 
confidence’ in God and diffidence in yourself. God 
has destined you for great things, so courage and 


Monsignore Pecci, in answer to these words of 

advice, wrote: 


"Your affectionate letter came to me at a most 
opportune time. The most honorable appointment 
that has been conferred upon me by my sovereign’s 
condescension is of such a nature that I cannot help 
recognizing the fact that my abilities are far less 
than the duties imposed by the dignity of the office, 
and consequently makes me accept the mission 
with fear. The encouraging letters which I receive, 
however, inspire confidence, and are duly 
appreciated, as I understand well their necessity. 
Of this kind is yours, hence I thank you with all my 
heart. ... I beg you to recommend me to the Lord in 
your prayers, that notwithstanding my 
unworthiness, all my acts may redound to the 
welfare of the Church, and that He will aid me 
with His divine grace in the difficult career upon 
which I am enter- ing." In this same letter, 

Monsignore Pecci expressed the pleasure he 
anticipated in meeting again Archbishop Fornari, 
his predecessor as Nuncio at Brussels, formerly 
his instructor at college. 


Monsignore Pecci was consecrated Archbishop of 
Damietta on January 27, 1843. The consecration 
took place in the Church of St. Lawrence, Rome, 
erected on the spot made sacred by martyrdom. 

The consecrating dignitary was Cardinal 
Lambruschini, who was assisted by Bishops 
Asquini and Castellani. The ceremonies attend- ing 
the consecration of Archbishop Pecci were 
witnessed by all the ecclesiastical personages and 
diplomatic representatives then resident in the 
Eternal City. 

Monsignore Fornari, ex-Nuncio to Brussels and 
Nuncio-elect to Paris, anxious to again see his old 
pupil, determined to defer his departure for his 
new field until after the arrivalof Monsignore 

Pecci. Writing to Monsieur Noyer, in charge of 
Belgian affairs at Rome, he says: "I have learned 
that the Belgian legation attended in a body the 
consecration of Monsignore Pecci, and moreover, I 
have been pleased to hear that the consecration 
ceremonies were 


most edifying, owing to the great piety of the 
consecrator and the consecrated. It cannot be 
doubted but that Monsignore Pecci is a prelate of 
exalted piety, of great talents, and varied 
knowledge. He may appear rather timid, or rather 
his extreme modesty may be taken for timidity, but 
that is fully compensated for by his grandeur of 
soul and his great prudence, thanks to which he 
will not be apt to make mistakes. I do not know 
that he speaks French, if not, the fact may prove 
embarrassing in his intercourse with his official 
subordinates, but he will soon familiarize himself 

with the language of the people with whom he 
lives, and come to the point when he will speak to 
the whole world." These words read like a 
prophecy, for Monsignore did very soon learn the 
language of the Belgians, and has since spoken in 
that tongue to the entire world. 

Monsieur Noyer had already in a letter of earlier 
date expressed to Dr. Wiseman his personal 
admiration for the new Archbishop and Nuncio. He 
said: "Monsignore Pecci is a man of high 
character, of a calm, grave spirit, and exemplary 
piety. . . . With his unusual capability and his 
sincere desire to do right, I doubt not but that he 
will satisfy all the exigencies of his position." 

Cardinal Lambruschini, about this time, speaking 
to Monsignore Aerts, said of the Nuncio: "He is an 
angel. The Bishops will be pleased with him. He 
is my child of predilection." 

After one month's time given to preparation, on the 
Feast of St. Joseph, March 19, 1843, Archbishop 

Pecci left Rome in a private car- riage for Civita 
Vecchia, the seaport of the Roman states. There he 
embarked on a French steamer, the Sesostris, for 
Marseilles, in com- pany with Canon dementi, his 
auditor, the Abbe Pilaja, his secretary, having 
preceded him. 


At the time of his appointment to the Court of 
Brussels, Monsignore Pecci had no knowledge of 
French, but he immediately decided to 


learn the language. To this end he made the voyage 
to France a tour of study, spending every possible 
moment in the task of memorizing the fundamental 
rules of the new tongue. He said of this trip 
afterwards: "I used but two books during my 
journey to Brussels, my Breviary and my French 


The voyage was one of hardship for the 
Archbishop, who suffered from sea-sickness, and 
also from the strange coldness of the weather. His 
physical constitution gave way before the tossing 
of the steamer on the storm-agitated sea, and when 
he arrived at Namur he was com- pelled to rest for 
some time before resuming the journey. Two weeks 
elapsed before he was able to continue it, during 
which period he had acquired sufficient knowledge 
of French to enable him to under- stand those about 
him and to make himself understood. Of this 
progress he wrote to his family: ’The rest was a 
blessing in dis- guise, for it enabled me to put in 
practice what I had learned on the way, and I 
succeeded in making myself understood, and my 
wants known. I was treated with the kindest care 
by our friends in Namur." 

At the expiration of two weeks Monsignore Pecci 
resumed his way towards Brussels, stopping en 
route to present his credentials to Cardinal Stercks, 

Archbishop of Malines, and pay to his Eminence 
his respects as a representative of the Holy Father. 
He brought with him the following brief addressed 
to the Archbishop and his suffragans: "With these 
letters our venerable brother, Joachim Pecci, 
Archbishop of Damietta, will present himself to 
you as our Nuncio, and that of the Holy See. In all 
matters of which he will treat with you it will be in 
our name, and you will listen to him as to us. 
Speaking in your presence and with that devotion 
and respect which you have for the Holy See, you 
will assist him whenever he stands in need of your 
counsel and help him to successfully carry out the 
various charges with which he will be accredited. 
You will find in him a man remarkable for his 
piety, his integrity, his prudence and 


extraordinary qualities of mind, and he will no 
doubt attract your good will by his conciliatory 

acts. He will appreciate the good offices tendered 
him and will acknowledge them as rendered to 
ourselves." His mission to the Archbishop of 
Malines being accomplished. Monsignore Pecci 
set out in a carriage for Brussels. During the 
journey an unfortunate accident occurred, which, 
however, did not prove fatal. While traveling 
along the banks of the Canal Vilvorde, the driver of 
the coach in which Monsignore Pecci was seated 
gave free rein to his horses. Suddenly they began to 
rear and plunge furiously, almost overturning the 
carriage in their efforts to break away. Just at the 
moment when it seemed as though the coach and its 
occupant must be hurled into the canal, a priest 
threw himself in the path of the animals, grasped 
the bridles, thus averting a catas- trophe. 
Monsignore Pecci, deeply grateful to his preserver, 
thanked him for his courageous act, but resolutely 
refused to reenter the vehicle and walked the rest 
of the way. 


A recent writer says of Pecci's feelings about going 
to Belgium; "It was not without misgivings that he 
entered Brussels. It had none of the old Flemish, 
and less of the smart Parisian character that now 
belongs to it. It was a strange, and to some extent, 
an untried field, to one whose horizon had been 
bounded by the states of the Church. The 
personality of the young Nuncio was, however, a 
safe passport for him wherever he went." 

Of these misgivings Monsignore Pecci wrote to 
Cardinal Busi, the new Archbishop of Benevento; 
’This post, though most honorable and, to others, 
most desirable, causes me no little anxiety, 
knowing my insufficiency in presence of the many 
duties it involves. My departure was not taken with 
a presumption of my fitness, but as an act of filial 
obedience to my Sovereign Pastor, and resignation 
to the will of Heaven," 


Arriving at Brussels he was received with most 
welcome demon- strations by Monsignore Pornari, 
the retiring Nuncio, who was about to leave for his 
new nunciature at Paris. He recalled to the young 
prelate how he had directed his studies in canon 
law at the Acad- emy of Noble Ecclesiastics years 
before, and how happy he now was in directing 
him to a few points of interest regarding the 

Monsignore Fornari's experience with the people 
and clergy of Belgium enabled him to justly give 
his successor in office valuable advice. It had been 
Monsignore Fornari's aim to make friends with all 
classes, and to embrace among his warmest friends 
the leaders of the three political parties then 
contesting for supremacy in educa- tional affairs in 
Belgium He expressed the hope that Monsignore 
Pecci might find these friends of his congenial to 
him and aids in carrying out his policy in the 

Belgium, at this time, was prominent in the 

religious, political and industrial life of Europe, 
hence her affairs were carefully scrutinized by 
other nations, who regarded this country as 
exceedingly progress- ive. 

Only twelve years before, the Belgians had 
separated from Hoi- land, and refused to subscribe 
to the new arrangements of the allied states. They 
had called to the supreme sovereignty the skeptical 
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, who was exercising the 
duties of his high office to the satisfaction of all 
classes of his subjects. His election as first king of 
Belgium had been favored by the other European 
coun- tries, because of his many qualifications of 
mind and disposition. He was known to them as a 
liberal in politics, a nominal Protestant and one 
likely to look without dissent upon the effort to 
make the people of Europe non-Catholic. 

There was then going on a great struggle between 
the several political parties on the subject of 
national education, during which controversy 
Monsignore Fornari had conducted himself with 

marked discretion. The question was now, "How 
would his successor act?" 


Monsignore Pecci was tendered a most flattering 
reception by the people of Belgium and by the 
hierarchy and clergy, all of which cheered his 
heart, leading him more than ever to wish that he 
might serve them with benefit. 



/ A \N THE day designated by his Majesty, King 
Leopold, the A - A Archbishop-Nuncio went to the 
palace, and presented his ere- dentials as 
Ambassador from the Holy See to the Court of 
Brus- sels. There he was received with all the 

pomp and solemnity befit- ting his rank. It was 
apparent to all observers that the king was deeply 
impressed with the genial personality of the new 
Nuncio. On his return to the nunciature, the 
Archbishop wrote to his predecessor. Monsignore 
Fornari, giving him in detail a description of the 
recep- tion. In reply the Monsignore wrote: "I was 
convinced that you would be charmed with their 
Majesties, and with their conversation. I hope that 
during the frequent interviews which you will have 
with the king, you will discover his tendency to all 
that is good. Time will disclose its fruitfulness to 
you. Some are of a different opinion. . . . Should 
you be honored with their friendship, which look 
for, you will find much happiness." 


From the moment of his introduction at court, 
Monsignore Pecci was a favorite of both Leopold 
and Queen Louisa Maria. 

They expressed the hope that their relations might 

be happy. Among the nobility who sought in a 
special manner to welcome him was the family of 
Count Frederic de Merode, and that of his uncle, 
the Count de Montalambert, both of whom 
bestowed upon the new Nuncio especial marks of 

Monsignore Pecci entered conspicuously into the 
social life of the 

Court of Brussels, feeling that in no other way 
could he get so extended 



an acquaintance with the social customs and laws 
of the people. The court was one of magnificence 
and pomp. The king and queen invited the Nuncio 
to A the privileges of their royal home, and his 
gracious manner and intellectual gifts made him the 

favorite of all the courtiers. Here he met the 
representatives of every court in the world, whose 
personalities were a source of delight to the young 

The Irish novelist, Lever, then a resident of 
Brussels, was wont to entertain him at his home, 
where he met such men as the English ambassador, 
Sir Hamilton Seymour, Lord Palmerston, and the 
Protestant Archbishop of Dublin, Dr. Whately. 

One Belgian biographer, speaking of him about this 
time, says: ’The affability of Monsignore Pecci, his 
exquisite tact, and his deep learning, led Leopold 
I., a discerning connoisseur of men, to form a very 
high opinion of him He endeavored to make of him 
a coun- selor and friend, and requested him to be a 
frequent visitor at court. The king often conversed 
familiarly with him and took pleasure in 
propounding all sorts of difficult questions. The 
Nuncio, however, was never found wanting in his 
replies, so that the king would end by saying; 
'Really, Monsignore, you are as clever a politician 

as you are an excellent churchman.' " 

It was the special delight of the king and queen to 
make excur- sions on a new railroad, a novelty at 
that time in European countries. On these trips they 
frequently insisted that Monsignore Pecci should 
accompany them. He occasionally accepted these 
invitations, and enjoyed the outings as much as his 
hosts. Speaking of them after- wards he said: "'We 
would make twenty miles an hour, such is the 
wonderful invention that has been made to 
facilitate travel in the nineteenth century." 

The invention referred to above was not adopted in 
the papal kingdom until long afterwards, and then 
by Pope Pius IX. against the will of many aged 
advisers, who were wont to see evil in every mod- 


ern improvement. In a letter to a friend the Nuncio 

wrote: ’The world is making great progress in 
making life more comfortable. We have roads 
going through the country — not through the public 
highways — laid with iron rails resting on cross- 
ties, and carriages of a peculiar make adapting 
these to move along on the rails, and several linked 
together are pulled along at a very rapid gait. It is 
said that the system is carried out in almost perfect 
form in Eng- land. Then there is an illuminant 
called gas, which is produced from coal, and it is 
used not only in the palace of the king and in public 
places, but also in the streets, turning the darkness 
of night into the brightness of day." 

Notwithstanding the work which was made 
pleasant, Monsignore Pecci was made conscious 
of the fact that the climate of the country was 
beginning to undermine his health. This was a sore 
grief, for he felt that he had work, serious work, to 
do in Belgium, and he prayed for health and 
strength to do it. About this time he wrote to his 
family: "During June and July we have had 
weather as cold and depressing as that of the worst 

November in Rome. 

His brothers repeatedly urged him to resign the 
nunciature and return to Italy. In a letter dated 
February 15, 1844, he replied to one of these 
solicitations as follows: "I acknowledge with all 
my heart your prayer to have me once more at 
home, but you must not ignore the fact that before 
that desire can be satisfied a long time must elapse, 
perhaps ten years or more, and who can promise 
themselves ten years of life? In such matters, so 
uncertain and so far away, though the wish is 
always welcome, it will be better to leave all to 
Providence, who rules at His will human events 
and disposes in advance according to His wisdom. 
The engagements and duties which occupy my time 
are extremely difficult and delicate. . . . You will 
readily understand this without my going into 
particulars. I beg of you to have me always present 
in your prayers, in order that the Lord may aid me 
by His grace. Let your morning prayers ascend 


the sides of Monte Capreoto be received into 
Heaven for my welfare and for the advantage of 


It was impossible that a character like the Nuncio 
should not influence the politics of his time, and 
leave an impression upon the Belgians. A high 
sense of morality, and greater caution in the art of 
conversation became the order of the day. As a 
rule Monsignore Pecci avoided the discussion of 
political questions, and refused to be drawn into 
diplomatic controversy, but when it became 
necessary to express an opinion on these subjects 
he displayed so marvelous a knowledge of events 
and the personages controlling them as to make his 
hearers stand spellbound. 

He was not slow to show his disapproval of acts 
of impropriety or insolence, and invariably 

reproved the perpetrator of any attack upon 
religion or good manners. An instance is related of 
a rebuke adminis- tered by the Nuncio to a foreign 
ambassador who sought to have a joke upon the 
churchman in the presence of the king and his 
court: "One day this person approached him at 
court, and offering the Nuncio a pinch of snuff from 
a turquoise snuff-box, called his atten- tion to the 
figure of a pagan goddess which adorned the lid. It 
was a beautiful picture, but lacking in modesty; 
Monsignore Pecci looked at it and without change 
of countenance exclaimed, ’Ah, your Excellency, a 
picture of your wife?’ The ambassador, a count, 
retired discomfited, amid the smiles of those who 
had witnessed the incident/’ 

Happily for the people of Belgium, the queen was 
a woman of stern moral qualities and winsome 
womanly virtues. She was guided n all her actions 
by the consciousness of strict adherence to the dic- 
tates of religion and truth. She had been brought up 
in the knowl- edge and fear of the Lord, amid the 
skepticism and intrigue of French court society, 

and as the wife of a Protestant sovereign. 




















4 -» 

















E- 1 

<H-J O 



A M 

0 > 












cS bo 

T3 0) t/1 







4 -. 










a o O 




J -*-» 















-l — 1 





1 ) 


0 ) 

























A 3 




0 ) 




0 ) 







4 -> 



CO 1) 










H-» «4-l 






’ Ou 




a o 


cd to 


3 3 





a, go 





15 E 




4 -> 







0 . 





0 0 



4 ) > 


0 ) 





3 J2 



0) In 


0 ) 


0 ) 







0 ) 



u- V 



0 ) 








7] -1 — i 



bo G 





co’ bo a 












7 : 











4 -) 



a c ~ d . ,a 

x ° •- 

_ A t« 

« SI 
« A fa3 

g e -fa ■§ rt .fa 

1 b| 

-t-j y in ui 

- &•« 


• *_< 


< *■ J .s 

Hi H 

o o a 








A 15 c £ 


s A 

b/3 A 

e a 
S <u 
0> tn A 
8 «« S o 
% £ 



aj y 

aj O £ *■' 
«) a 

.. -c o 


0 o 


n o I- 



bo o *-> o 


P. +-> d) y 0) 

a o 



t: o 

0 ) 

11 aj 

a> i-. 




in *n 

f J3 £ ° 

4) J) 
bo a aj o 
c fa 
° -5 
s « 

A Gi 


- A fl 



a) A 

3 A d 



3 aj 

a g »fa 4) • 
>-£ 7, 
a o A 3 


understood perfectly well the great responsibility 
resting upon her. She exercised over her consort a 
wholesome influence, designed to benefit her 
subjects, each one of whom she felt as belonging to 
her immediate family. 

To the Nuncio she was of special assistance in the 
outlining ot a plan of conduct, which tended to 
protect the rights of the Church, and at the same 
time to preserve to the state government its 
individ- ual authority. 

Monsignore Pecci was deeply grateful to the queen 
for her kind interest in Church affairs, and her 
condescension to him in making him welcome to 
her home. Long afterwards he referred to these 
incidents publicly. 

While Bishop of Perugia, a certain Belgian priest, 

speaking of the country whence he came and 
particularly of the king of Belgium, heard him say: 
"Yes, I knew well the father of your present king, 
as also his pious mother. I was often admitted to 
the cordial inti- macy of the royal family, and I 
have often held in my arms the youthful Leopold, 
Duke of Brabant. I remember the queen used to ask 
me to bless her eldest child, in order that he might 
turn out a good king. I have often blessed him with 
the hope that he would fulfill his mother’s 


Probably the most difficult task which co nfr onted 
the Nuncio shortly after his arrival in Belgium was 
the conflict then going on between the Belgian 
Bishops and the Minister of the Interior, Mon- 
sieur Nothomb, over the Elementary Education 
Act, which had reached a most critical stage. 
According to Monsignore Fornari, Belgium was a 
condensed edition of the struggles, the successes, 
the aspirations, and the mistakes of social 

organizations. The Minister of the Interior had 
encountered the opposition of the Bishops as he 


had leaned towards the government in its method 
of enforcing the act. This act recognized partially 
the religious character of the pri- mary schools, but 
the government was neutral. The Bishops pro- 
tested against this attitude of the authorities, and 
appealed to the new Nuncio, who, after thoroughly 
investigating the different phases of the question, 
supported the Bishops' claims, thereby incur- ring 
the enmity of the minister, Monsieur Nothomb. 

The determined, vigorous policy of the Nuncio in 
defending the rights of the Church in educational 
matters caused the bill to be rejected in the 
Chambers by a large majority. This first act 
created the greatest enthusiasm in his favor among 
the clergy and the people, and enlisted the praise 

of the Holy See as well as the com- mendations of 
the courts of Europe, who were, eagerly watching 
the outcome of the trouble. 


Later, Monsignore Pecci made a tour of 
investigation into the affairs of the principal 
Catholic schools of the country, with a view to 
finding out their condition, and if possible to raise 
the standard of instruction in each. 

He suggested to the Bishops of Belgium the 
advisability of send- ing their brightest 
ecclesiastical students to Rome for their final 
studies, in order that they might have access to the 
great libraries and museums in the capital of 
Christendom, and where they might imbibe freely 
of the waters of truth at the fountain head of 
Catholic doctrine. He argued that in Rome alone 
could be found the living traditions of the best, the 
highest, and most useful science. He assured them 
that in Rome alone could be found the ablest 

masters of theology, of Biblical lore, of 
philosophy, and that there only, amid the catacombs 
of the early martyrs, and beneath the altars conse- 
crated to the memory of the heroic defenders of the 
faith, could they become imbued with the real 
inward spirit of the one true Church, 


whose teachings were to occupy the days of their 
pilgrimage on earth. 

The result of this plea was the founding of the 
Belgian College in a vacant monastery in Rome 
near the Quattro Fontane, with the con- sent of 
Pope Gregory XVI., an institution which has 
furnished to the Church in Belgium innumerable 
doctors of theology and exemplary disciples of 
Christ elsewhere. 

Monsignore Pecci took a personal interest in the 

College of St. Michael, which was under the 
special patronage of the king and his ministers. 
Here the Nuncio was welcomed with warmest 
demonstra- tions on the part of students and the 
faculty. The occasions of his visits were red letter 
days for the young men, who eagerly awaited the 
masterful discourses which he was accustomed to 
deliver before them. 

About this time a dispute arose between the 
Belgian Catholics and the disciples ofFrere- 
Orban. The first were accused of bigotry, on 
account of their demands that Christian education 
should be main- tained in the schools. The battle 
was fought between the advocates of religion and 
the supporters of godless education, without any 
advantage to either. 


Archbishop Pecci, rinding that this condition of 
educational inter- ests was most detrimental, 
immediately took hold, and, to the satisfac- tion of 

both parties, arranged that henceforth there should 
be free education without intolerance for the 
children of Belgium, and that the Christian school 
system, designed to impart a practical and 
beneficial training to all classes, should be 
perpetuated. In this affair Monsignore Pecci 
displayed a tact and diplomacy which caused him 
to be respected by the enemies as well as the 
friends of religion. 

The University of Brussels, established in the latter 
part of the 


eighteenth century, about the time that the notorious 
States General of France was accomplishing its 
work of social destruction in liberalizing the 
affairs of the nation of King Louis XVI. , had begun 
its career under the disadvantage of a non- 
Christian course of educa- tion. It was the aim of 

Joseph II., emperor of the Low Countries, to make 
the schools of Belgium infidel, in which he 
partially sue- ceeded. The hierarchy of the country 
rebelled at this effort to dechristianize education, 
and they found themselves opposed not only to the 
government authorities, but to a more influential 
power, the Liberal press of Europe. 

In 1834 the celebrated University of Louvain was 
restored to its former standard on Christian lines, 
which action was extended to the universities of 
the whole country, including that of Brussels, 
through the determined efforts of the Archbishops 
and Bishops. 

Two years after Monsignore Pecci's arrival in 
Belgium, in 1845, a serious dispute arose between 
the Jesuits and the University of Louvain. It 
originated in the sudden creation of a special 
faculty of philosophy in the College de la Paix, at 
Namur, the teaching of phi- losopy having, until 
then, been reserved in Belgium for clerical stu- 
dents and for laymen of the Catholic University of 

Louvain. This encroachment upon the rights, as it 
was claimed, of the university, the Archbishops 
and Bishops resented, maintaining that the Louvain 
institution should alone embrace the study of 
philosophy in its curric- ulum. The Jesuits, with 
whom sided the most influential people in Rome, 
claimed it as their privilege to extend their course 
of studies as they saw fit, and, therefore, held to 
their philosophy course. The Nuncio, with his 
calm, reasoning mind, surveyed the case in its 
various phases, but unwilling to take upon himself 
the responsibility of decid- ing the case, suggested 
to the contending parties that they refer their claims 
to the Holy See. Pope Gregory called for the 
individual opinion of all the Belgian Bishops, and 
also invited the presentation of the claims of the 
Jesuits. The result was that a measure of 

mutual satisfaction was adopted, which led to 

peace between the two parties. 

Later a solemn session convened at Louvain for the 
purpose of conferring degrees of theology and 
canon law on worthy candidates. The Cardinal- 
Archbishop of Mechlin presided, and Monsignore 
Pecci delivered the Baccalaureate address. When 
the Nuncio arrived a magnificent reception was 
tendered him by the students, and an address was 
read by one of their number. 

He visited France, Holland, and the Rhine 
Provinces while Nuncio at Brussels, everywhere 
meeting with cordial welcome, and forming strong 
and lasting friendships. 


While engaged in the duties of his office 
Monsignore appeared in the best of health, but he 
was in reality feigning a strength that he did not 
possess. Unable to withstand the excessive cold of 
Belgium any longer, he decided to apply to the 

Holy Father for permission to return to Rome. It so 
happened that the See of Perugia was with- out a 
Bishop, and the Perugians remembering the 
beneficent rule of their former delegate, Pecci, sent 
a petition to Pope Gregory, asking that Monsignore 
Pecci be appointed to the vacant bishopric. 

While it may seem that the transfer of the 
Archbishop-Nuncio to a bishopric was not in the 
light of a promotion, in reality it was intended by 
the Holy Father to be that, as he wrote to the 
Nuncio, explaining the importance of the post, and 
that he alone of all the Church officers was best 
equipped for the position. The announce- ment of 
his transfer to Perugia came as a delightful surprise 
to the Nuncio as he loved the people and the 
customs of the Nuremberg of Italy. 

His departure from Belgium was deeply deplored 
by those who had learned to love the young 
Churchman, and among those regret- ting his leave 
most were the students of the Royal College. In 


to an address made by them. Monsignore Pecci 
said: "I am happy to witness the rapid progress 
made by an institution that owes in a special 
manner its birth to the renowned College of 
Belgium, whose illustrious head I see before me. 
This institution is also the creation of its worthy 
rector, of its learned staff of professors, and the 
whole body of Belgian Catholics. Yes, the 
traditions of the ancient Uni- versity of Louvain are 
still a living thing, and to you, gentlemen, it 
belongs to perpetuate them by your labors. You 
have already shown that you know how to continue 
the work of those who were here before you. 
Henceforth your Church and your country also 
know what they can expect from you. Follow 
persistently the path you are pursuing; it will lead, 
doubt it not, to most fruitful results. For my part I 
cannot help being deeply moved by this 
assemblage of noble and dear young men, whose 

souls are aflame with the love of the true wisdom, 
and with devotion to the Holy Church." 

Monsignore Pecci, while residing at the Court of 
Brussels, made it his duty to extend his 
acquaintance with the people of the surround- ing 
countries, and gain knowledge of their occupations 
and environ- ments. He made it a point to acquaint 
himself with the princes, prelates, and statesmen, 
as well as scientists, whose intimacy he courted 
for diplomatic reasons. Meanwhile he was adding 
to his store of information regarding affairs in 
these parts, which he felt would serve him to good 
purpose later on. He was learning much of the 
motives governing men’s actions, and the obstacles 
which prevented the application of principles in 
the world of politics. Thus was given to the young 
Nuncio the opportunity of seeing many of the 
places and of knowing many of the people over 
whom he ruled as Sovereign Pontiff. 

He had endeared himself in a special manner to the 
king, who regarded him as the most delightful man 

he had ever met. His versatility was so great that 
he could adapt himself to any circum- stances, and 
adorn any society. The king once said of him: "I 


forget that Pecci is an Italian, and his French is so 
fluent that if I were not a German I should certainly 
find myself some day converted by the charm of his 
diction, as well as by the logic of his reasoning." 
The qualities which had attracted the attention, and 
won the favor of Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. , and 
the love of the people of Benevento and Umbria, 
had also endeared him to the Belgians. 


Leopold, as a token of his friendship for the 
Nuncio, conferred upon him before his departure 
from Brussels the Grand Cross of the Order of 

Leopold, and other signal favors from the royal 
court personages were received as marks of the 
esteem in which he was held by his friends. 



ARCHBISHOP PECCI, at the urgent request of the 
king and queen of Belgium, decided to return to 
Rome by way of England. He had entertained for 
some time a great desire to see the people who had 
figured so prominently in the history of the 
Catholic Church. He had also some curiosity to 
learn particulars regarding the great religious 
revolution then in progress in that country which 
was giving to the Catholic Church in Great Britain 
a stronger foot- hold than anything since the days of 
St. Augustine. 

Through the courtesy of King Leopold, Monsignore 

Pecci carried letters of introduction to the most 
prominent people of England, and a special 
recommendation to Queen Victoria. Leopold, in 
bidding farewell to the Nuncio, playfully remarked 
that, as a compensation for not having been won 
over to Rome, he would importune the Holy Father 
to confer upon him a Cardinal's hat. To this the 
Archbishop replied that not even the honor which 
the king mentioned would satisfy him for his 
failure in not making a religious impression on his 
heart. The king adroitly retorted, "I have no heart." 
"Then," said the Nuncio, "I am sorry that I have not 
succeeded in making even an impression on your 
Majesty's mind." 


Archbishop Pecci, on his arrival in London, was 
greeted by the Most Reverend Dr. Wiseman, 
Archbishop of Westminster, who had known him in 
Rome when the two were students of theology in 



Sapienza, and who now entertained him during the 
greater part of his sojourn in London. He was 
favored with an informal audience by Queen 
Victoria, and received with marked consideration. 
He was present at a court ceremonial, and guest at 
a state reception, both functions affording him the 
rare privilege of witnessing the formality and 
magnificence of modern monarchical society. The 
forms and usages that obtained at one of the most 
influential courts of Europe, with their adherence 
to traditional formalities, could not be without 
their effect upon the simple, serious Italian 
Churchman. He never forgot the occasion, and all 
through life it gave him that insight into royal 
customs and manners which has proved so 


Monsignore Pecci remained in London during the 
entire month of June, devoting every moment of his 
time to seeing and learning. The knowledge and 
experience derived from the business and social 
life of the great metropolis, gave him much food 
for contemplation during the long period of 
seclusion in the capital of Umbria. 


As the guest of Archbishop Wiseman he had a most 
favorable opportunity to visit the historic spots of 
the great metropolis, and witness many of the 
exciting sessions of Parliament. It was his good 
fortune to be present in the House of Commons 
during a debate in which the immortal Daniel 
O'Connell took a leading part. He was singularly 
impressed with the sincerity and the 
unapproachable flights of oratory to which the 
great Commoner attained. He later expressed a 

desire to meet him. He took occasion to 
compliment him upon his eloquence, assuring him 
that the Irish people could not fail in their fight for 
freedom with such a leader. Referring to his 
meeting with the famous agitator, Monsignore 
Pecci once said: "What pleased me most was that 
when I spoke in French to O'Con- nell, he 
answered me in the purest Parisian." 


Many years after, subsequent to his accession to 
the Chair of St. Peter, in an audience with the Irish 
Bishops and clergy in Rome, he referred 
particularly to the great oration which he had heard 
while in London, and said: "It can be said in truth 
that the passage of the Emancipation Act was 
obtained principally by the magnificent work of 
two Irishmen, Daniel O’Connell, the leader of the 
Catholic party, and Cardinal Wiseman." 


The Nuncio, while in London, took an intense 
interest in the great agitation which was stirring up 
Anglican Church circles, and the many remarkable 
conversions to the Church of Rome, which were of 
almost daily occurrence. Archbishop Wiseman 
called his attention to the changing phases of the 
controversy, and made him acquainted with the 
prominent men who had taken the important step. 
He pointed out to the Nuncio, during their visits to 
noted places in and around London, how England, 
though she had turned Protestant in the sixteenth 
century, had everywhere kept reminders of the 
ancient faith; even the statue of the Mother of God 
and her Divine Son was allowed to remain over 
the entrance to Westminster Abbey; in the Creeds, 
Canons and Homilies, every doctrine held by the 
Roman Catholic Church was retained in the Church 
of England Prayer Book; again, the entire doctrine 
of the power of absolution conferred by Christ on 
the priesthood was plainly laid down in the 
ordination service; so also was the practice of 

auricular confession in order to receive absolution, 
set forth in the office for the visita- tion of the sick. 


The Nuncio got a good idea of the Tractarian 
movement, one of the most remarkable religious 
movements of the century, which originated with a 
group of university men and students, of whom 


Henry Newman was the leading spirit. The 
members of the group had expressed themselves as 
opposed to Liberalism in Church and state. They 
were anxious to make the Church a greater power 
by sustaining a deeper religious life and spreading 
it among the people. Liberalism, as it was called, 
was the great enemy to spiritual growth. Newman, 
as Cardinal of the Catholic Church, told his friends 

that Lib- eralism was the foe with which he had 
waged a deadly feud for fifty years, and that he 
would resist it to the end with the best of his 

In 1830, Newman was asked to contribute a work 
to a new theo- logical library. His studies for this 
work led him into the literature of the early Fathers 
of the Church. Here he found in the writings of the 
holy men of the first ages of Christianity a response 
to questions long dormant in his own mind. Here 
he found also the Church, and its Bishops, and its 
confessors and martyrs, all contending, in the most 
sublime manner, with the world-power of 
paganism, and triumphing in the very face of 

The month spent in that country amid these exciting 
religious movements was one of minute, careful 
study of the complex prob- lems craving solution, 
and Monsignore Pecci could not but be impressed 
with the importance of the controversy, and foresee 
in the result great possibilities for the Catholic 

Church in England. It was a study which was a 
delight to him, and when the hour of departure 
arrived he thoughtfully bade farewell to Dr. 
Wiseman, declaring that he would remember until 
the end of life the hospitable time and invaluable 
opportunities that had been granted to him while in 
London. He fulfilled this promise when he named 
Dr. Newman Cardinal and a member of the Sacred 


Leaving England with many pleasant memories, 
Monsignore Pecci crossed to France, at Calais, 
thence going to Paris, where for some weeks he 
was the guest of Monsignore Pornari. His stay in 


with the Papal Nuncio enabled him to look into the 

state of public affairs, and the condition of the 
Church in France. His position as diplomatic 
representative of the Holy See at one of the 
European courts which was closely akin to the 
Royal House of France, brought him into close 
touch with the great questions of public policy that 
were agitating the French people. Revolutionary 
methods were undermining the government of 
Louis Philippe, as atheism did that of Louis XVI. 

In conversation with Archbishop Fornari, 
Monsignore Pecci unbosomed himself as to the 
causes of the turmoil and the instability of all 
government in France. He foresaw the approaching 
storm and attributed it to the obstinacy of the 
authorities in not upholding the principles of 
Christian education within their domain, and in 
refusing to the Church the liberty of teach- ing and 
of association, which offered the only counterpoise 
to the increasing flow of evil passions. 

Leaving Paris he journeyed to Marseilles, where 
he embarked for Civita Vecchia. Before he arrived 
at Rome the news had reached him of the death of 

Pope Gregory XVI. This plunged the Nuncio into 
great grief, for he had looked up to him always as a 
father. Before his death Gregory had named the 
Archbishop a Cardinal in petto; the honor did not, 
however, come to him for some time afterwards. 


A NCIENT Perugia was one of the twelve cities of 
the Etrus- -*■ *■ can confederation. History 
records that it was surrendered to Fabius in 309 
B.C., but little else is known about the old town 
until the dawn of the Christian era, when Augustus 
besieged Lucius Antonius within its walls. The 
same general established there a Roman colony, 
from whom the first families of to-day trace their 

Up to the fifteenth century Perugia shared the 

fortunes and the vicissitudes of most other cities of 
Italy and contributed her share to the progressive 
movement of mediaeval times. In 1416 Lord Forte - 
braccio governed the city, and by his wise rule and 
able administra- tion brought the city to a high state 
of prosperity. In 1553 Pope Julius III. accorded it 
many privileges, and it became one of the 
strongholds of the papacy, a position which it 
enjoyed until the Pied- montese invasion of 1869- 


Modern Perugia, to which Archbishop Pecci went 
as delegate governor and where he was destined to 
spend thirty-two years of his life, was, and is to- 
day, one of the most interesting cities of the 
peninsula. As the capital of the ancient province of 
Umbria it com- mands a distinction and prestige 
beyond that of the many smaller 

though not less renowned cities of that province. It 
occupies a 



prominent site on the crest of several hills which 
form a spur of the Apenine range of mountains. 
From its bold heights one can gaze upon a scene 
unrivalled in the world for natural grandeur and 
mag- nificence. 

At the base of the town the Tiber picturesquely 
winds its way- through gorges of moss-covered 
rock, spanned here and there by arched bridges of 
red brick. In the distance loom up the castellated 
towers and pointed Church spires of Foligno, 
Spello, Trevi, Assisi and other villages of the 
Valley of Foligno. The sun-tipped pinnacles of the 
cathedral and the gayly-tinted turrets of the palaces 
of Perugia jut out irregularly against the blue gray 
sky, which, as the autumn day declines, becomes 
suffused with an indescribable glow of russet and 

gold effects, which extends down through the 
fissures of rock into the valley and across the 
plains below. 

The streets of the old town are narrow and 
crooked, following the hill-and-dale path cut out 
for them by mother nature. The city seems to be 
clambering up and down the entire length of its 
street surface with no apparent beginning or end in 
view. To this unevenness the varied architecture 
lends still more irregularity, no two buildings 
being exactly alike, either in construction or size. 
These are frequently built into the rock or perched 
defiantly on the crest of a ragged peak. Sometimes, 
as in the case of the more humble abodes, the 
house seeks the shelter of an overhanging cliff, as 
if anxious to hide itself from view. The exterior of 
the principal buildings, both public and private, is 
embellished quite as much as the interior. 

The city is divided into an upper and lower town, 
the former con- taining the public offices, the 
cathedral, the university, the museum and librarv, 

and the palaces of the nobility. The Duomo, or the 
great cathedral, is the heart of the city, the Corso 
being the chief artery which leads down to the 
terraces of the Prefettura, and from which branch 
off many queer little streets, running in different 


tions, widening with their length till they form 
terraces, banked high with brick walls. 


The people of Perugia are, however, the real 
picture in the scene. They furnish to the visitor a 
continual all-absorbing subject for study. 
Picturesque and interesting, they reflect the ever- 
changing hues of sky and landscape. They live and 
let live, expending little thought on the morrow 
which may never dawn for them, or if it should, 

will take care of itself. They desire only to adorn 
the day and the place in which their lot is cast. Art 
is their inheritance, and every child of the sunny 
land holds tenaciously to the traditions and 
principles of true art, as portrayed by the immortal 
artists who left their ideals on fane and temple — a 
legacy to future generations. Color is the key- note 
to all Perugian beauty. It is everywhere employed 
to empha- size natural charm of form or feature, as 
well as to aid the originality of artistic conception. 
It enters conspicuously into the construction and 
furnishing of their dwellings, it appears in their 
floriculture, and it is lavishly used in their 
personal dress and adornment. 

The fifteenth century, the art century, beheld not 
only Florence, Naples and Venice supreme in art 
creations, but Perugia as well. Perugino 
bequeathed to the people of his native town the 
best of his ideals, in the superb masterpieces 
which adorn both public and private buildings — 
treasures which posterity has been happy to pre- 
serve for the ages yet unborn. Perugia has been 

despoiled of many of its priceless art treasures, but 
happily the chief canvases and frescoes of Pietro 
Perugino and the sculpture of Pisano and Giovanni 
still remain to claim the admiration of visitors. 

The famous city hall, with its merchant’s hall and 
the exchange room, contains some of the noblest 
works of Perugino. There are several very fine 
works of Raphael in the palaces on the Corso. 
Between the governor’s palace and the cathedral, 
is the famous 


fountain designed by Fra Bevignato and 
Boninsigna, with its statues planned by Nicolo 
Pisano and executed by his son Giovanni. In 1274 
Nicolo Pisano went from Pisa to Perugia to design 
suitable statuary for the fountain on the Piazza. 
Twenty-four statues, repre- senting the High Priest 
Melchisedec, Sts. Peter, Paul and John, and fifty 

bas-reliefs, representing the months of the year, the 
signs of the zodiac, the prophets, apostles, 
emperors, kings, and some of the characters in 
yEsop's fables, adorn this fountain, which has 
ceased to play, but from beneath which the water 
gurgles rhythmically. 

The Duomo, however, is the most sacred of art 
shrines to the Perugians. It is a large and imposing 
edifice, the exterior of which has never been 
completed, but whose interior is filled with 
master- pieces of art, the chapels being enriched 
with exquisite stained glass and carved marble 
altars. On the right of the high altar is a marble 
tomb containing the ashes of Pope Innocent III., 
who died in 1216, Urban IV, who died in 1266, 
and Martin IV, who passed away in 1 285, which 
hold special reverence for the people. A bronze 
statue of Pope Julius III., executed by Vincenzio 
Danti in 1555, erected by the citizens of Perugia in 
gratitude for the restoration of certain privileges 
which had been withdrawn by his predecessor, 
stands at the north- west corner of the cathedral. It 

represents the Holy Father in his pontifical robes, 
seated on a bronze chair with his right hand raised, 
as if in the act of pronouncing a benediction on his 
people. Attached to the cathedral is the pulpit from 
which St. Bernardino, in 1225, conducted his 
memorable spiritual exercises or religious 
revivals, which brought so many souls to God, and 
where twenty-three years later Fra Roberto Lucca 
preached the soul-stirring sermons which drew 
from the multi. udes the heart-breaking cries of 
"Mercy! Mercy!" 

This was Perugia, when, on the morning of the 26th 
of July, 1846, Archbishop Pecci entered upon his 
eventful episcopate of thirty- two years. Three 
years previous he had gone forth from a term of 
duty as delegate amid the regrets of all classes of 
the people, crowned 


The above picture shows the Summer House and 
Tower, located in the Vatican Gardens and named 
after His Holiness Leo XIII. 

In the room near the window Pope Leo has spent 
many delightful hours in study and prayer. The 
balcony to the right is a favorite spot in which he 
entertained his special friends. The living rooms 
are to be seen to the left. 

S3 < U 
H < 

O "E, 



u a, o 
( 1,0 
« [i] 

< DC CJ Q 


with their love and good wishes. His return was 
eagerly anticipated, and it was decided to make the 

occasion a magnificent ovation. Immediately after 
the death of Monsignore Cittadini, in April, 1845, 
the city magistrates and the most influential 
members of the nobility, remembering the very 
etficient administration of Archbishop Pecci as 
delegate, had, through Cardinal Mattei, the 
Protector of Perugia, presented to the Holy Father, 
Gregory XVI., a petition requesting that 
Monsignore Pecci be sent to Perugia as Bishop. 

His appearance among them on this feast of St. Ann 
was in response to this petition. 

As soon as it was ascertained that he was on the 
way deputations of civil and religious bodies were 
appointed to go beyond the city gates to welcome 
him, while formal greetings were arranged to take 
place in the town and particularly in the cathedral, 
where he would henceforth officiate as Bishop. 


The reception tendered Archbishop Pecci on his 
arrival in Perugia was one in every way worthy of 

his personal character and high office. No one who 
has not witnessed a public demonstration of 
welcome to some distinguished person in Italy, or 
one of the old countries of Europe, can appreciate 
what an ovation the natural exuberance and 
enthusiasm of the people can plan. The public 
highways and most prominent buildings were 
gaudily decorated in honor of the event; addresses 
by the civil authorities and the student bodies of 
the universities and colleges were delivered; 
bands of music and imposing processions of the 
different charitable societies and of charitable 
workingmen escorted him on the drive from the 
Monastery of San Pietro to the cathedral, where the 
formal ceremonies of installation were to take 
place. The immense concourse of people, 
numbering, it is said, some 85,000 persons, who 
had assembled from all parts of the city and the 
surrounding country, sent up shouts and 


cheers of welcome, and rejoiced in paying their 
beloved Archbishop almost royal homage. 

His replies to the addresses were listened to with 
breathless atten- tion by those fortunate enough to 
be within range of his voice, while those who 
were unable to hear, pressed eagerly forward to 
catch a glimpse of his features. The words which 
fell from his lips were full of kindly regard for his 
new flock, and he repeatedly assured them that 
their interests would be faithfully guarded. The 
gorgeous cathedral, wherein the installation 
ceremonies were held, was on this occasion 
magnificent beyond description. Loving hands had 
toiled for days in the effort to beautify the 
sanctuary and choir already superb in artistic 
decoration. He had chosen the feast of St. Ann as 
the day for his installation out of respect for his 
mother, whose patron saint the mother of the 
Blessed Virgin had been. The evening festiv- ities 
were still more grand than those of the morning, the 
illumina- tion of the streets and houses, the literary 
tournaments and carnival frolics adding to the 

general demonstrations of rejoicing. 

The reception festivities over, Archbishop Pecci 
found himself face io face with the serious duties 
of his high office, to which he imme- diately turned 
his attention, and settled some matters of dispute 
which had arisen between the Church and civil 
authorities. He then proceeded to make a tour of 
investigation of the different parishes in his 
diocese, which duty occupied the autumn months of 
1846. He inquired into the exact condition of every 
parish in his diocese, and wherever he found 
anything requiring correction or change in man- 
agement he did not hesitate to suggest improvement 
and apply remedies for the defects. Wherever he 
found praise well deserved he freely bestowed it, 
and thus it came to pass that there was estab- 
lished at the very threshold of his episcopate a 
mutual confidence and regard between the 
Archbishop and his clergy. Sometimes he 


discovered that not only the spiritual physician's 
hand was needed but the surgeon's knife as well. 
H& found in many places churches neglected, 
schools abandoned, orphanages without the means 
of procuring food for the unfortunate inmates, and 
venerable buildings' fast falling to decay. He 
beheld, with sorrow, the little children growing to 
maturity without the slightest education or a 
knowledge of the first principles of morality. To 
correct these abuses and provide for the neglect, 
Archbishop Pecci determined to bring the great 
power of organized philanthropy to bear upon the 

On these visitations he was particular to make the 
acquaintance of the people of the various parishes, 
especially the obscure and lowly-born who were 
deprived of so many of earth's blessings. He 
delighted in mingling with the peasantry, partaking 

of their humble hospitality and sharing their simple 
meals. He frequently preached to them in simple 
language, illustrating the meaning of his words by 
incidents and anecdotes, thus causing them to 
become deeply inter- ested in the principles and 
the practices of their religion. 


The ancient guilds of Italy, which had 
accomplished so much good in the centuries past, 
suggested to the Archbishop the idea of estab- 
lishing everywhere throughout his diocese 
societies of the people, the clergy and the students, 
for the purpose of pushing forward needed reforms 
in all directions. His long studious career had led 
him to believe that the best possible advantage for 
a people was learning. He placed education as the 
basis of all human progress, and decided that the 
opportunity for extending the benefits of men- tal 
acquirements should be placed within the reach of 
every child in his diocese. The academies and 
colleges received his special atten- tion, for it was 

from these institutions that the teachers of the 
people would go forth, and he desired that their 
equipment should be the very best possible. 


The great Diocesan Seminary, he was wont to call 
the "apple of his eye," as it was the nursery of the 
priesthood, and therefore first in his affections. 
This seminary had been founded in 1571 by Fulvio 
della Corgna, Bishop of Perugia, afterwards 
Cardinal, and had served as the training school for 
the clergy continuously down the ages. 

The seminary during the French invasion and 
political disturb- ance had lost much of its original 
prestige and usefulness. One of Archbishop Pecci's 
immediate predecessors, Bishop Napoleon 
Comatelli, had planned to enlarge the building, but 
was prevented from carrying out his plans. It now 
became the Archbishop's pride to come to the 

rescue of this noble institution with his own patri- 
monial and individual funds, providing the money 
necessary for the support of poor students, the 
housekeeping expenses and provision accounts, the 
necessary repairs and improvements of the 
buildings and school furniture and various other 
expenses. This material aid, as well as his 
personal endeavor to preserve and restore the old 
privileges of the seminary saved the institution 
from utter extinction. It is claimed that in four 
years, from 1846 to 1850, Archbishop Pecci 
expended six thousand crowns for the enlargement 
and endowment of this seminary. 

He incorporated the seminary with the episcopal 
residence in order that he might at all times 
exercise over it a personal supervi- sion. His own 
intellectual activities were also cultivated and per- 
fected within the walls of the seminary, and he 
spent many hours in the ancient library. Herein he 
invited the inspiration of the Muses for his own 
private pleasure; and several of the Archbishop's 
literary efforts of this period of his life have come 

down to us and have gained the admiration of 
learned men. His Latin verse is accorded the 
tribute, that since the days of Caesar and Cicero no 
purer or more perfect example of Latin diction has 

The Archbishop took especial delight in familiar 
intercourse with his seminarians, living among 
them, partaking of their sports and 


pastimes, sharing their frugal meals, and directing 
their studies. An nual retreats, or spiritual 
exercises, prescribed by the great Ignatius Loyola, 
were adopted by Archbishop Pecci for his semi- 
narians, as one of the most efficacious methods for 
disciplining young minds and turning them in the 
direction of God and His works. 

His concern for the good order and discipline of 

the seminary made him especially careful as to the 
character of the men placed in charge of the young 
students, with whom the responsibility of their 
good behavior rested. He sought out the most 
prudent, the most vir- tuous, and the most practical 
men for these positions. Over all, how- ever, he 
himself exerted an ever watchful solicitude, 
requiring from the teachers a daily report of the 
progress and the conduct of each pupil, and 
personally attended to the administering of 
corrective measures, knowing that each individual 
possessed different charac- teristics, requiring 
different means of approach, of intercourse, and of 
remedial measures. 

An instance is related of the strict attention to 
details in connec- tion with his frequent and 
unexpected visits to the schoolrooms while the 
students were in attendance. He never gave any 
notice of his intended visit, and in this way kept 
himself acquainted with what was going on in the 
classrooms at all hours. Professor Jerome Brunelli 
relates an example of one of these visits reflecting 

upon himself: "Neither my scholars or myself," he 
says, "are likely to forget a remark- able incident 
connected with Cardinal Pecci. ... I do not know 
how it happened, but one day I failed to be in my 
place at the appointed hour in my school of belles- 
lettres. Hastening to repair the delay with the 
trepidation of a man who knew that the most likely 
thing in the world was to meet the Archbishop in 
the corridor of the college, watchful over the 
silence and order to be kept there, what was my 
astonishment upon entering the room to find the 
Archbishop seated in my chair and translating for 
the benefit of my rapt pupils a pas- 


sage from Cicero's 'Pro Milone,’ making them feel 
and admire in his own language, elegant and with 
fine taste, the hidden beauties of the Roman 
orator's composition and diction. Confused at first, 
but taking courage presently, I sat down on one of 

the benches among the pupils, and begged the 
Cardinal to continue the lesson. But he left the 
chair, inviting me graciously to occupy it, and 
impressing on his young hearers the importance of 
gathering all the fruit they could from their studies. 
Perhaps in the smile which lit up his countenance 
he conveyed to the professor a silent pleasant 

The Archbishop was extremely strict in the 
enforcement of the rules and regulations of his 
seminaries, which were devised to best guide and 
direct the young men who aimed at some day being 
the exemplars of Christian faith and morals; and 
when an infraction of the law demanded his 
attention he hesitated not to apply rigorous 
corrective remedies. But with his severity there 
was mingled a most kindly and paternal assurance 
that the subject of the needed reproof held his 
affection, and that it was for his own benefit that 
the correc- tion should be made. 

Several days each week the Archbishop was 

accustomed to set aside an hour for this particular 
duty, when the accused students were brought 
before him and personally confronted with the 
charges brought by the professors. Archbishop 
Pecci in this way could arrive at some definite 
idea of the fitness of the student for honorable 
serv- ice in the priesthood. If he found that the fault 
was simply the result of an effervescence of animal 
spirits without vicious tendencies, he would gently 
reprove the young man, and ask him to be more 
cautious in the future, to guard more carefully his 
unruly tongue, and to pray for assistance in 
overcoming himself. The more stubborn cases he 
disposed of in a manner peculiar to himself. In 
addition to a stern insistence upon the rules of the 
college, he would require the student to write 
down on a piece of paper the faults to which he 
was most addicted, and opposite to these he 
required him to write the 


several remedies which he prescribed for 
overcoming the defects. This paper he 
recommended the student to keep upon his desk in 
full view in order that it might continually remind 
him of his intention to mend his ways and conform 
to the duties imposed upon him. 

One of the chief means of attaining a high standard 
of efficiency in the seminary he held was the 
cardinal virtue of humility, and in order that the 
pupils might know and practice this virtue he 
wrote a small pamphlet on "Humility." With 
humility he urged the duty of self-denial, as there 
was no possible way for arriving at the life which 
is synonymous with self-sacrifice but by continual 
acts of self-abnega- tion begun in youth and 
practiced unceasingly throughout the period of 
preparation for the priesthood. In every manner 
possible he aimed to secure on the part of the 
students a willing obedience, a gracious 
compliance and a loving desire to fulfill their duty 
to their professors and the school which fostered 
them. Among the students who came under his 

beneficial guidance at this epoch were many who 
rose to positions of renown and celebrity in the 


In order to stimulate emulation the Archbishop 
prescribed peri- odical examinations and annual 
public scholastic competitions, at which he 
personally presided, and to which the highest 
dignitaries, civil and religious in the Umbrian 
province, were invited. Here the successful 
students were accustomed to present a thesis, 
covering the subjects studied during the school 
term, and to compete for a prize. These events 
were of the greatest importance to the ambitious 
pupils, and happy indeed were those who won the 
coveted distinction, for they were sure to win from 
the Archbishop his warmest commenda- tion. In 
every possible manner the seminarians were made 
to feef that they were the especial care of the. 
Archbishop, and they 


delighted to follow his kind advice. As he labored 
for the good of the ecclesiastical students, so also 
did Archbishop Pecci aim to pro- mote lay 
education among his people. Soon after his arrival 
in Perugia he received from the Holy Father, Pius 
IX., the appoint- ment of Apostolic Visitor to the 
University of Perugia, a position which gave him 
access to the classes and administration rooms at 
any hour that he chose to visit them. The University 
of Perugia was founded in the year 1320, and had 
enjoyed considerable prominence in central Italy 
up to the time of Napoleon Bonaparte, who sup- 
pressed it, but after the fall of that monarch it had 
resumed its classes. Leo XII. interested himself in 
its fortunes, and gave it new life. Now the ancient 
institution was to receive a fresh impetus, and 
regain its former rank. Monsignore Pecci first 
remodelled it, then reorganized the faculty, 
strengthening it by the addition of several world- 

renowned professors to the regular staff of 
instructors; he reformed the text-books, extended 
the course of scientific and pro- fessional studies, 
so that the university once more became a favored 
rallying point for scholars from Italy and other 
parts of Europe. He was a daily visitor to the 
classroom, presided in his capacity as High 
Chancellor at the public exercises, and at times 
filled the chair of an absent instructor to the delight 
of the students. He frequently con- vened the 
professors in council, and practically became the 
head of this flourishing university. Two other 
colleges came under his direction, the Pio della 
Sapienza and that of Todi, and by him were 
restored to their proper position in educational 
circles, and came to be patronized by the very 
finest families of Italy. 


Archbishop Pecci's efforts in behalf of higher 
education were not confined to the institutions for 
men alone, but he concerned himself equally in 

regard to the schools for women. As a matter of 
fact Archbishop Pecci was the pioneer, and might 
be termed the father, of 


the modern higher education for women. As far 
back as 1816 the movement to extend the 
advantages of the sciences and pro- fessional 
studies to women was already in process of 
attainment in Perugia — this, be it noted, in a 
Catholic country, where the Roman Pontiff ruled, 
and under the direction of one of his official 

The Bishop of Perugia and the city authorities 
petitioned Pius VII., in 1816, to grant them the old 
Conservatorio Pio for the pur- pose of founding a 
school for the daughters of the higher classes, and 
also for an elementary free school for the poor. 
The land belonged to two monasteries which had 

been suppressed by the former French government. 
The free school was opened in 1819, and placed 
under the direction of four trustees. Lack of the 
necessary funds had pre- vented the higher school 
being started, but now Archbishop Pecci instituted 
plans for carrying out the original designs and 
establishing a high school for girls in the old 
Conservatorio. He succeeded in this as inmost 
other things which he attempted, and had the satis- 
faction of seeing founded in Perugia one of the 
most progressive institutions of the century, 
attended by children from the nobility, the burgess 
class, and also the talented and ambitious 
daughters of the laboring ranks, pursuing a course 
in the advanced sciences. 


Fifteen years later, when the Italian government 
seized this with other Church property, Archbishop 
Pecci wrote to King Victor Emmanuel regarding 
this institution: "Poverty, the want of a proper site, 

and other obstacles, had for a long time frustrated 
the desires of the public, when the Holy See sent 
me to Perugia. The whole city knows how, within 
the space of a few months, we succeeded in 
making a beginning, having obtained perfect unity 
of purpose and brushed aside all delays. We saw 
in a short time a vast and remarkable edifice built 
up from the foundations in the most lovely 


and delightful site, and of a style and beauty of 
form that can com- pare well with any similar 
provincial establishment. Assisted by the 
unanimous and unwearied cooperation of the four 
directors and by the encouragement given by the 
reigning Pontiff, who took it under his special 
protection, I had the satisfaction of seeing the 
wishes of the people realized in 1857, and of 
giving to the country this new school so long 
desired and so useful. The Sisters of the Sacred 

Heart were called to take charge of the internal 
discipline and the instruction of the pupils." 

This letter unfolds to the reader the laborious 
efforts of the Arch- bishop in the establishment of 
the school, and his great desire that it should 
survive the disintegrating influences of the 
revolutionary policy of Victor Emmanuel and his 
irreligious associates. The school was placed 
under the title and special patronage of St. Ann, to 
whom the Archbishop appears ever to have had an 
intense devo- tion. The Order of the Sacred Heart 
seems to have held for him especial veneration, for 
to these religious he has always turned whenever it 
was necessary for him, either as Bishop, Cardinal 
or Pope, to seek devout, zealous and scholarly 
women to take charge of the education of the 


Another philanthropic movement viewed as 
especially modern, is the protectory system for 
guarding the young women who are by force of 
circumstances compelled to enter the cities and 
towns to earn the means of livelihood. There were 
in the days of the 40’s numbers of little Italian 
children who were obliged to venture forth from 
their miserable homes without comforts of any 
kind, and seek in the larger field of labor some 
work which would procure the neces- sary means 
for sustenance. For these Archbishop Pecci 
founded the 


Conservatorio Graziani, where the little girls might 
have, during their absence from their families, the 
protection of a Christian home and the supervision 
of Christian women, whose duty it was to per- 
sonally look after their material comforts and give 
them the boon of a Christian education. For the 

unfortunate class which it is the fate of every large 
city to be obliged to harbor, the class of women 
who suffer because of man’s perfidy or neglect, 
Archbishop Pecci founded the Magdalen Asylum, 
and placed it and the Graziani establishment under 
the Belgian Sisters of Providence from Cham- 
pion, in the province of Namur. The next need, one 
which seems to a Christian heart the very acme of 
charitable endeavor, was the infant foundling 
asylum, the Antonini, under the care of the Sisters 
of the Stigmata of St. Francis. 


For the victims of incurable diseases and chronic 
ailments he estab- lished the Dornine Hospital; and 
for the young workingmen obliged to work all day, 
as well as the ambitious artisans desiring further 
instruction in their particular trades, he formed 
night schools. We must not omit from the list of 

progressive works undertaken by Arch- bishop 
Pecci at this stage of his career to mention the 
forerunner of our Catholic Young Men's Institute, 
the pleasure gardens of St. Philip Neri. These were 
places set apart for the social intercourse of young 
men, where on Sundays and holidays special 
exercises of an intellectual character, as also 
beneficial sports and innocent pas- times, filled 
their leisure hours, thus enticing them away from 
the frequented paths of vice. The Order of 
Oratorians who had care of the young clergy were 
delegated to supervise these pleasure gardens. We 
have already alluded to the foundation of the Monti 
di Pieta, and the Perugian Savings Banks, two 
establishments of his while 


former civil governor of Perugia. These were now 
in a most flour- ishing state, and it was a continual 
delight to the Archbishop to find the people for 

whose benefit they were established, availing 
them- selves of the means of conducing to their 
own comfort and well-being by the means of these 

The orphanage for boys was at this time sadly in 
need of some reforms, which the Archbishop was 
glad to undertake. Having on one of his visits to the 
charitable institutions in Belgium witnessed the 
very interesting and profitable instruction in 
manual training and agricultural pursuits given in a 
school in charge of the Brothers of Mercy, he 
decided to invite a colony of these religious to 
Perugia to introduce their course of study in the 
Boys' Orphan Asylum This request was complied 
with, and soon the little waifs were being taught 
the useful and healthful branches of soil culture and 
the manufacturing arts. Archbishop Pecci had the 
happiness of witness- ingthe success of his 
endeavors to make the boys of this establish- ment 
proficient in industrial pursuits, and how they were 
continually sought after by the highest class of 
trained artisans and masters in the field of applied 


The Hospital della Misericordia, founded in 1305, 
by Bishop Montemelini, had become an object of 
much criticism and dissatis- faction to the people 
on account of the evils which had crept into its 
governing body. Established for the succor of the 
infirm poor, it had, up to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, fulfilled its aims, but after that it 
lost its charitable character and became an asylum 
for private gain. The citizens, seeing this, 
withdrew their support, and the visiting authority 
of the Bishop ceased. Archbishop Pecci, becoming 
aware of the state of affairs, took it upon himself to 
alter these conditions and went in person to the 
hospital to make inquiries about the situation. His 
tactful and conciliatory methods in his interview 
with the authorities were such that they cordially 
invited him to assume full direction of the 
institution. In this way the 


spiritual and temporal interests of the hospital 
were taken care of and the charity once more 
appealed to the people of the city. 


The Archbishop had been most successful in 
bringing about an understanding as to the 
visitations of the spiritual head of the diocese to 
several confraternities which had hitherto deemed 
themselves altogether exempt from episcopal 
investigation. In order to bring these bodies into 
line with the other Church societies the Archbishop 
carried on a very diplomatic correspondence with 
the leaders, who had defied his predecessor. By a 
decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Council, 
August 26, 1854, it was decided that there had 
been no exemption of the confraternities 
concerned, and once more the members came 
under Church regulations. This accomplished, 

Pecci desired to give the action permanency, as 
also to extend its effects. For this purpose he 
formed the Tutelary Con- gregation of Holy Places, 
composed of prominent laymen and clergy- men, 
whose duty it was to visit pious houses and 
institutions and assist the Bishop in governing and 
protecting them. This action was approved by the 
other Bishops of Italy, who soon adopted it into 
their dioceses, thus bringing the priesthood and 
laity into closer rela- tions with each other in 
charitable work. 

Three years after his accession to the See of 
Perugia, Archbishop Pecci began the work of 
restoring the Churches which had suffered from the 
attacks of invading vandals. He began by ordering 
a new marble pavement in the cathedral, much to 
the delight of the Perugians who loved, better than 
any other earthly possession, their Duomo. He 
prescribed the most careful attention to the rules of 
the ritual, and insisted upon the most beautiful and 
expensive vest- ments and ornamentations in the 
Church service. Nothing was deemed too good for 

the celebration of the Divine service, and in 


consequence of this order the ceremonies on great 
occasions in Perugian Churches surpassed in 
magnificence those of any Church in Italy outside 
of Rome. 

The Archbishop made a noted reform in the 
introduction of the ancient Gregorian music into the 
service of the Church. The execu- five ability of 
Archbishop Pecci was ever the admiration of those 
associated with him during his episcopate at 
Perugia, and his busi- ness acumen was quite as 
conspicuous as his governing faculties. The 
finances of the Church were systematized and 
conducted on business methods. He personally 
drew up a form for the financial department of all 
colleges and communities, and issued laws for the 
guidance of confraternities and other associations 

affiliated with the Church, which were both 
practical and beneficial. Meanwhile his own 
private life was, amid all these conflicting duties, 
one of extreme simplicity and rigorous self-denial. 
He rose early, celebrated his daily mass and read 
most of his office before the rest of the world was 
awake. His official duties claimed his attention 
then till the hour of noon, when a light repast was 
taken. Literary studies and the administration of the 
seminary and other institutions occupied his 
attention till it was dinner time, when he partook of 
the only full meal of the day. He was abstemious to 
a fault, never indulging in the slightest gratification 
of, appetite, and, although seemingly frail and in 
need of wholesome foods, he fasted and abstained 
continually. His hour for retiring both summer and 
winter was ten o'clock. This methodical life 
enabled him to accomplish an extraordinary 
amount of work, and he never neglected any duty 
however trivial pertaining to his office. 



’ A HE scenes of revolt and injustice which 
Archbishop Pecci had -*■ witnessed in Rome 
immediately following the proclamation of the 
Amnesty Act of Pope Pius IX., had prepared him to 
expect at least a partial repetition of the riotous 
proceedings in Perugia, and he was not 
disappointed. Though not so flagrant, yet the 
violations of law and the offenses against 
individual rights were such as to enkindle in the 
hearts of good citizens fears for personal and 
official safety. The spirit of unrest was abroad, the 
revolutionary fever was spreading throughout not 
only the cities but the country districts of Umbria, 
and it required the combined vigilance and 
determined policy of both spiritual and civil 
governors to stamp out the evil even in part. 

Archbishop Pecci realized better than anyone else 
in Perugia the situation at home and abroad. His 

diplomatic career at the court of Belgium had 
brought him into direct contact with the 
representatives of the different countries of 
Europe, and he had learned from the tenor of their 
remarks the exact opinions of the monarchs whom 
they represented, who were all more or less 
jealous of the power and influence exerted by the 
Papal See over the people of Italy. He had definite 
knowledge of the motives which actuated the 
agents of the different governments, and he had 
come to realize that these men were simply tools in 
the hands of unprincipled masters. 


When it became his duty to harmonize the affairs of 
Church and state within his jurisdiction 
Archbishop Pecci was able by virtue of 



this knowledge to act with discretion and 
prudence. He desired to have affairs move 
smoothly and without friction, and to this end he 
labored continuously, expending much thought and 
time on the effort. He determined that, if the 
impending storm should break upon Perugia, the 
people must be encouraged to meet the disaster 
bravely and with all their powers of resistance. 

He made it his first care to insure a strictly 
conscientious, earnest and zealous apostolate of 
the priesthood, whose members could at all times 
present to the people the perfection of virtuous 
living. He aimed to build up in his diocese a 
colony of priests whose lives would reflect the 
spirit and teachings of the Master, to whom the 
people could lookup with reverence. Not only 
sanctity, but deep learning should characterize 
them. In order, therefore, to provide for this 
fundamental training, he established periodical 
retreats or spiritual exercises, arranging them for 

different times to suit the convenience of every 
class of the clergy. Pastors, confessors, rectors of 
colleges, and those priests whose care it was 
simply to visit the sick and say their daily mass 
and office, all found special hours and exercises 
arranged for them by the Archbishop. He 
prescribed monthly con- ferences for the 
discussion of questions which came under the head 
of moral theology. He invited their cooperation in 
pushing forward philanthropic and charitable 
undertakings. Throughout the whole of his 
episcopate he urged the necessity for exceptional 
sanctity and superior intellectual attainments for 
those dedicated to the service of the Church. 

He addressed to the clergy a number of letters 
containing sugges- tions for the attainment of a high 
degree of holiness, and the best means for the 
proper guidance of their various flocks. He urged 
them to be brave and steadfast amid threatening 
surroundings, and never to swerve from the path of 
duty. In one of these messages he says: 

"At all times it is the sacred duty of the man who 
dedicates his 




■ A v.vr 


This beautiful hall was named by Pius IX. after the 
" Definition of the Dogma of the Immac- ulate 
Conception." The famous painting seen to the left, 
painted by Podesti, represents the Pope in the act 
of declaring the Blessed Virgin "Immaculate." To 
the right is the painting known a" "The Dispute of 
the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception," by the 
same artist. 

Most Rev. Joseph Thomas Duhamel, D.D. 
(Archbishop of Ottawa). 

Most Rev.. Dennis O’Connor, C.S.B., D.D. ( 
Archbishop of Toronto). 

Most Rev. Paul Bruchesi, D.D. (Archbishop of 


Most Rev. Cornelius O’Brien, D.l (Archbishop of 


life to the sanctuary to make himself the living and 
visible mirror of good example; but this is 
supremely necessary when social commo- tions 
place God’s minister on rough and slippery ground 
where he may meet at every step snares and 

Again he writes advising that they should devote 
much of their leisure to learning. 

"In our day," he says, "it is strictly the charge of the 
priest to defend doctrine assailed, morality 
perverted, justice ignored. He must stand like a 
wall of brass in the path of inundating error and 
heresy spreading like a pestilence." 

Again his words point out the path to be followed 
by those intrusted with the care of immortal souls: 

"The moral conduct of the priest is the mirror into 
which the people look for a model for their own 
demeanor. . . . Every shadow, every stain is 
remarked by the vulgar eye, and the mere shadow 
is enough to make the people lose their esteem of 
priestly worth. ... It is impossible that a priest 
who lays himself open to such reproaches or 
suspicions, who has the name of being self- 
indulgent, interested, and of irregular life, should 
give forth that fragrance of a pure life, ’that sweet 
odor of Christ,' which witnesses to our worth and 
to our doctrine as well in the estimation of those 
who are saved as in that of those who perish." 

"Behold," he says in concluding, "the path which, 
according to my judgment, should be followed by 
the clergy in our age. This path will lead them to 
the sure attainment of the two great means which 
the Divine Master declares to be indispensable in 
our holy ministry — holiness and knowledge. Let 

every priest be by his example a pure and brilliant 
light, let him be by his teaching the salt of the earth, 
and no difficulties can prevent his fulfilling his 
ministry of repara- tion." 

. On still another occasion he explains to his 
priests how trials and tribulations tend to purify 
men’s souls: 


"No matter how much difficulties and dangers 
multiply in our path from day to day, " he says, "a 
true and fervent priest must not on that account lose 
his way, nor fail to perform his duties, nor pause 
from the fulfillment of his spiritual mission for the 
welfare and salva- tion of the human family and the 
maintenance of that holy religion of which he is the 
herald and minister. For it is in labors and trials 
that priestly virtue waxes strong and gets purified; 
the blessed and all-restoring action of his divine 

ministry shines forth more resplen- dently in times 
of great need and amid social revolutions and 
trans- formations." 


One of the most disagreeable duties which awaited 
Archbishop Pecci's attention was that of 
administering discipline to several refractory 
priests who had placed themselves in antagonism 
to the constituted authorities, and who absolutely 
refused to yield obedience to the Church laws. 
These cases were taken up individually, and in 
each instance the correction was made in such 
kindly spirit and with so much tact that the subject 
of the reproof was brought back into the fold of 
dutiful priests. 

One instance of the Archbishop's unique method of 
bestowing correction is told by one of his 
biographers, which we quote for our readers: 

"A certain priest in one of the rural districts of 
Umbria was accus- tomed to absent himself from 
his post of duty from Monday until Saturday, when 
he would come to town, say mass on Sunday morn- 
ing, then leave the parish for the rest of the week in 
charge of an old, infirm priest. Hearing this the 
Archbishop decided to go in per- son and 
investigate the rumor. He arrived at the Church just 
as the old priest was about to commence mass. 
Robing himself in the clerical vestments found in 
the sanctuary, the Archbishop ascended the altar 
and began to celebrate mass, greatly to the surprise 
of the 


assistant who did not recognize him. At the 
conclusion of the mass he preached a touching 
sermon to the delight of the congregation, and after 
disrobing and making his thanksgiving he returned 
to Perugia without disclosing his identity. The 

following Sunday, upon the return of the pastor, the 
incident was related to him, whereupon he asked 
for a description of the stranger. This being given, 
he immediately concluded that it was none other 
than the Archbishop himself. He hastened to the 
episcopal residence, begged an inter- view with 
the Archbishop, and expressed to him his sorrow 
for the neglect of duty in the past, and pleaded 
forgiveness. The Arch- bishop condoned the 
offense, administered a mild rebuke and sent the 
pastor on his way with words of encouragement, 
after assurances of his future attention to the duties 
which he owed the souls in his charge." 


The priesthood of Umbria had, through the 
diabolical machina- tion of the revolutionary party, 
suffered almost irremediable injury, and the 
country stood in great danger of experiencing a 
dearth of pastors and spiritual advisers. The 
banishment and suppression of the monastic 
orders, such as the Capuchins of Todi, the 

Reformed Franciscans of Cassa, of the 
Observantines and others, without any judicial 
process and under military escort, left the ranks of 
the priesthood depleted. Then the conscription 
laws, which compelled the young men of eligible 
age to years of service in the army, fell heaviest on 
those who were best fitted for the career of the 
priest- hood, thus cutting off the visible supply of 
aspirants for the pastorate of the parishes. These 
things stirred Archbishop Pecci to enter a 
determined protest against these injustices, and he 
issued a circular to the clergy, pointing out the 
dangers which would result from the working of 
the laws, and urging them to make an appeal to the 
people of the diocese to raise a fund for purchasing 
the freedom of 


such poor young clerics as wished to devote their 
lives to the priest- hood. He stated in this circular 

that from 1859 to 1869 there were thirty more 
deaths than ordinations in his diocese. 

"It is easy to see from this moment forward," he 
says, "that the burden of military service must 
inevitably fall on all young men who have devoted 
themselves to the clerical career. We are deeply 
sad- dened by this; we are tortured by the thought 
that so many parishes will ask us for pastors, while 
we shall have none to give them; that so many 
pious congregations will ask for Christian 
instruction and the comfort of the sacraments, and 
that no one will be found to min- ister to them; and 
that such a state of things continuing, there is 
nothing to prevent religion from dying out in these 
country places for the very lack of hands to 
cultivate it." 


Continuing he says of the propriety of making the 

"This work is eminently religious and charitable. . 

. . Even con- sidered in its social aspect it has a 
value and an importance that are unquestionable. 
For there can be no doubt but that the lack of 
priests would seriously injure the religious and 
moral culture of the people on which depend order, 
tranquillity and the well-being of the entire 
community. We expect, therefore, no one among 
sincere Catholics, no matter how straitened and 
burdened financially, will refuse to do what he can 
and what piety and religion suggest. Above all, we 
trust to the zeal and solicitude of our clergy." 

He appointed a commission to execute the work of 
raising this fund, and wrote a letter to his priests 
asking them to aid and facili- tate in every way the 
commission. He writes: 

"I know the straits to which the clergy have been 
reduced, but I also know the spirit of sacrifice and 
charity which animates them. Christian charity 
does not, and should not, know what difficulty is in 
a work, especially such as the present, which aims 

at keeping off the 


pitiless axe with which they strike at the roots of 
our young trees in the nursery of the Church. ... If 
we see lay societies of mutual help making such 
strenuous efforts to succeed in their purpose, how 
can we help making equal efforts to rescue so 
many young men who were being educated and 
trained for the priesthood, and who are dragged 
away to the ranks of the army and the exercises of 
a mili- tary camp? If the good work we have taken 
in hand should not sue- ceed then we may be sure 
that the education of the priesthood and the 
seminaries will be given up altogether." 

The commission had the pleasure of meeting with a 
most cordiai response to their solicitations from 
the Perugians, who, above all things, deplored the 
conscription of their best young men, and who gave 

to the fund what they could spare from their 


A remonstrance drawn up by Cardinal Pecci and 
sent to the king against the conscription laws being 
enforced upon young men desir- ing to enter the 
priesthood is extant, which explains in detail the 
great disaster which was threatened the Church in 
the exactment of the decree. He wrote to the king: 

"Sire: — With souls deeply grieved we come once 
more to bring before your Majesty our respectful 
but serious complaints about the evils which are 
heaped unceasingly on the Churches given us to 
gov- ern. We are willing to hope that our voices 
may yet be listened to, and that justice may be 
done. During each of the last four years we have 
raised our voices with increasing frequency, and 
have given utterance to the grief of our holy 
religion, afflicted and oppressed in so many ways, 
— by the setting aside of ecclesiastical 

immunities; by depriving her ministers of the 
necessary means of subsistence; by preventing all 
free intercourse between the Head of the Church 
and the pastors and people, by withdrawing from 
all dependence on the Bishops both schools and 
institutions of piety which these same Bish- 


ops had themselves founded, or which had been 
placed under their care and government by the 
pious founders; by profaning or even destroying the 
sacred temples; by expelling from their homes the 
religious orders, and by so many other acts which 
it would be too long and too sad to enumerate. 

"The fact that no heed whatever was paid to our 
complaints would have induced us to remain silent, 
contenting ourselves hence- forward with 
lamentations and prayers; but a new wrong which 
is about to be committed against the Church, 

compels us to have recourse to your Majesty, and 
to unite our voice to that of our flocks. 

"Very limited as is at present the number of young 
clerical stu- dents who may at the request of their 
Bishops be exempted from military conscription, 
nevertheless, by a new law it is proposed to annul 
all these exemptions — a measure which would go 
very near extinguishing altogether the priestly 
ministry. They allege, to excuse this law, the 
singular pretext that all citizens are equally obliged 
to support the burdens of the state, no matter how 
these may happen to be felt. But without desiring to 
recall to mind here how little this reason availed to 
save the clergy in other cases, where they were 
made the subject of injurious and odious 
exceptions, we must press upon your 
consideration, that the choice of her ministers was 
not imposed upon the Church by any human law, 
but that it is a sacred right which comes to her from 
her Divine Founder. Where- fore, instead of 
suppressing such right it should in no wise be 
either restricted or diminished. . . . 

. . If the holy ministry could be abolished the 
Church would be destroyed, and this was exactly 
what Julian the apostate vainly attempted to 
accomplish, by commanding that all the subjects of 
the empire, without any distinction whatever, 
should be compelled to bear arms. . . . This 
tyrannical law was soon repealed by Valentinian, 
who, like the great Constantine, recognized the 
right of the Church to choose freely her own 
ministers. . . . 


"We shall not stop hereto recall to your mind, sire, 
what long and important studies are necessary, 
besides the qualities of the heart, to enable young 
ecclesiastics to be thoroughly prepared for their 
most important functions — studies which usually 
have to be made at the very age when young men 
are called away by the conscription law. Hence it 
is that it would be almost impossible for a young 

man, even if he should during this long term of 
military service keep his soul pure and not lose, 
amid so many obstacles and seductions, the spirit 
of his vocation, to afterward undergo a long 
training preparatory to entering the sanctuary. . . . 
The life of a cleric is incompatible with that of a 
soldier. . . . 

". . . Whether it come from the pursuit of temporal 
interests, or from bad education, or from the little 
respect paid in our day to the priestly character, the 
greater number of candidates for the ministry 
come, in our times, from poor families, and they 
have only the means to persevere in and follow out 
their vocation given them by their Bishops. And 
these means are so restricted that we often see, 
with a grief to our fatherly hearts, young men very 
dear to us taken away from study in the midst of 
their course. . . . 

"We are only allowed to purchase the exemption of 
one student for every twenty thousand inhabitants, 
and so these men are forced into a profession 

entirely opposed to their character and wishes. In 
the grief of our souls we could not persuade 
ourselves that, with all we hear about individual 
liberty, such liberty should not be allowed in the 
most serious affair with which man has to deal in 
this life — the choice of his own profession and 
full liberty to consecrate himself to God." 


Another good work suggested by Archbishop Pecci 
was that of raising a relief fund for the maintenance 
of aged and infirm priests. Italy had many good 
priests within her borders who, in their early 


life, had left homes of luxury and refinement to 
enter the priesthood, and who had far into old age 
labored arduously in the vineyard of the Master. 
Now in their decline, through the confiscation and 

sup- pression laws, they had no means of support, 
nor of decent livelihood. To remedy this evil the 
Archbishop made another appeal to the laity, and 
organized a sodality, whose object would be to 
take care of aged and infirm priests. This was 
called the "Pious Union of St. Joachim for Needy 
Ecclesiastics." The members each paid into the 
fund annually the sum of one dollar, and regular 
voluntary contribu- tions from charitably disposed 
Perugians, as well as larger benefac- tions from 
wealthy patrons, made up an amount which helped 
to provide relief for the priests who had been 
stripped of their patri- mony by an unfeeling 
government, and left helpless in their old age. On 
March 5, 1863, King Victor Emmanuel published 
an edict making it imperative upon all the Church 
authorities to submit to the civil authorities the 
names of all appointees to clerical positions, and 
which declared that no legal right to such a 
position would be valid until the same should 
receive the royal placet or exequatur. In the edict 
the Holy See is referred to as a foreign power, a 
fact which shows plainly the desire of the 

revolutionary party to annihilate the pontifical rule 
in Italy. The Bishops of Umbria with their Arch- 
bishop, then Cardinal, at their head expressed their 
indignation at the bold usurpation of ecclesiastical 
power, and Cardinal Pecci personally drew up a 
strong, vigorous remonstrance at the act, to which 
his own and his Bishops' signatures were attached, 
and sent it to the king. 


For eleven centuries the Holy See had been the 
supreme power in these very provinces, not only in 
Church but in civil affairs. The right of royal placet 
had, in several instances, been granted' to certain 
sovereigns by the Holy See in reward for some 
extraordinary favor or service rendered to the 
Christian world. In some kingdoms the 


right had been claimed by the monarchs, but the 
protest of the Church was always entered against 
such usurpation of power. In the concordats with 
the Holy See, the kingdom of Sardinia, and the 
dukedom of Savoy, the nature of the right of placet 
was explicitly affirmed as being a favor of the 
spiritual power through the Papacy. The document 
issued by the Cardinal- Archbishop upheld the 
supreme rights of God and His Church, as opposed 
to the pretensions and claims of the secular 
government. He says: 

"Such a pretension can in no wise be made by a 
government which is, and would continue, 
Catholic. Mayhap the divine commission given to 
Peter and his successors to feed the whole 
Christian flock, to loose and bind upon earth, had 
annexed to it the condition that they should begin 
by obtaining the placet or consent of the powers of 
this world. And the divine mission imposed upon 
the Apostles to preach to all nations and to instruct 
them in the divine commandments was, perchance, 
subordinated to the good pleasure and the 

restrictions of the civil magistrates. 

"Far from it. Peter and the Apostles, and so many 
other illustrious pastors following their example, 
struggled and endured martyrdom for no other 
reason than that they proclaimed the new law of 
Christ, no matter how rigorously forbidden by the 
world, in spite of the prohibitions and persecutions 
of mere human politicians. The inde- pendence of 
the power divinely intrusted to the visible Head of 
relig- ion, and to the other lawful pastors for the 
spiritual government of the Christian society has its 
origin from God; whosoever attacks or ignores it 
denies the work of God in founding and organizing 
His Church. To impose impediments or put 
restraints such as those in question on the exercise 
of this power, is just to place a human insti- tution 
above the divine and to make an earthly power the 
judge and reformer of a divine commission. . . . 

". . . Modern theorists will not, or know not, how 
to distinguish the two well-defined paths along 
which, by divine ordinance, both the 


civil and the ecclesiastical powers have to travel 
towards the end assigned to each respectively. The 
modern theory will have the much desired harmony 
between Church and state considered as a right of 
inspection (on the part of the latter), whereas this 
harmony is only greatly recommended for the sake 
of the reciprocal advantage of the respective 
subjects of both societies. It thus transforms into a 
legal patronage and mastery — the obligation 
which each power is under towards the other, of 
assisting and protecting it in order that each society 
may fully enjoy its due proportion of utility. Hence 
it is that instead of affirming the originary 
independence and superi- ority of the spiritual 
power people endeavored to make of the Church a 
ward and servant of temporal monarchies." 

The communication then explains the origin of the 
placet or exequahir, and proceeds to point out the 

absurdity of viewing the Holy See as a foreign 
power. It continues: 

"For these dioceses of Umbria a comparison with 
the past is too eloquent not to convince anyone that 
the passage from a condition of perfect religious 
liberty to that of registration and bondage to the 
state is not only a novelty, but a novelty all too real 
and baneful. 

"Is it not a novelty, a novelty in principle, to 
consider the authority which the Supreme Head of 
the Church exercises in the midst of the Catholic 
fold, as a foreign authority? Is it not a novelty that 
lay officials should intrude themselves as spies 
and judges of the spiritual relations between the 
faithful and their pastors, and of what it is 
expedient to do or to permit for the protection and 
the increase of religion? 

"Is it not a novelty to give to a single functionary of 
the treasury the authority to inquire into all 
ecclesiastical pensions, to receive all opposing 

documents, to judge appeals, to incite people to 
refuse, and to confiscate the documents or petitions 
relating to the refusal? 

"Is it not a novelty, in giving the exequatur to 
revenues for sacred functions, to seek at the same 
time to fulfill financial transactions, 


imposing on ecclesiastical bodies which have no 
legal existence, the obligation to convert their 
property into bonds of the state?" 

The Cardinal continues to arraign the government 
for the unheard of abuses heaped upon an innocent 
and zealous hierarchy, and enters emphatic protest 
upon further encroachment of Church rights: 

"It is painful to think of it, deplorable to have to 
say it! The col- lation of ecclesiastical livings, 
trammelled by the governmental placet, appeared 

to people to have been changed into a monopoly of 
politi- cal interests, and into a focus of hateful 
undertakings against the Supreme Pontificate and 
the Church. To prevent the installation in the 
charges obtained by them, of hard-working and 
blameless priests who had received canonical 
investiture and the approbation of their Bishops, 
men were found to pry into the secret thoughts of 
the candi- dates, to have recourse to a systematic 
distrust of them and the theories current about 
suspected persons; they opened the door to secret 
denunciations and to low party intrigues. At the 
same time all kinds of favors are showered on 
disobedient and worldly-minded priests; such 
obtain charges, honors, pensions, assigned to them 
most frequently at the expense of the revenues of 
the Church as a reward for having turned their 
backs upon her. There has been no lack of official 
encomiums and encouragements given to certain 
clerical factions, who, led away by ambition, by 
self-interest, or false liberty, endeavored to upset 
in the sanctuary itself all order and discipline, and 
to raise there the flag of emancipation and schism. 

Abundant subsidies were bestowed on suspended 
priests. . . . Generous presents were set apart for 
the benefit of unruly priests at the expense of the 
clerical fund and against the spirit of its founders, 
while so many cenobites and nuns stripped of their 
own lawful patrimony had not wherewith to buy 
their daily bread." 

In conclusion the Cardinal continues: 

"The fact is that here the assent of the civil 
authority is necessary 


for the execution of every episcopal act, every 
ecclesiastical arrange- ment which does not 
rigorously regard the interior conscience. 

"Here you find proscribed all interference of the 
Bishop with instruction and education, even such 
as is moral and religious, whether in schools or in 

boarding-houses, in hospitals and asylums, and 
that, in spite of the formal requirements of the 
testaments of founders and of the conditions 
imposed by the foundations. 

"Our hearts will not permit us to continue this 
painful enumera- tion. . . . When the Church is thus 
ill-treated in a Catholic country it is easy to 
conjecture what ruinous results follow for the 
religious interests of a people. We hope that our 
words may not be altogether without fruit, if your 
Majesty will only weigh the importance of the 
subject with which the remonstrance deals, in the 
same balance in which you weigh your duties as a 
Catholic sovereign." 


These pleadings of the Archbishop had no effect 
upon the ada- mant heart of Italy's ruler, who 
allowed this appeal, with numerous others, to pass 
unacknowledged. There were nine of these docu- 
ments signed by the Cardinal, and nine others 

bearing the signatures of his associate Bishops 
forwarded to the king. 

The sequestration of valuable Church property, and 
its appropria- tion to state uses, followed by the 
conversion of private moneys into state bonds, 
wrought untold misery upon the victims of this 
oppres- sion. In order to relieve the worthy 
indigent poor, Cardinal Pecci spent his own salary, 
but this also was seized and only a pittance 
allowed him for his maintenance. 

There was one class of men in this revolutionary 
movement who caused intense grief to the 
Cardinal. These were known as patriot priests, — 
a class of men who early in their career had 
entered the ministry, but later found the restrictions 
imposed by the duties of their office disagreeable 
and a barrier to their worldly ambition or 


the gratification of their passions. These eagerly 
availed themselves of the general unrest and social 
disorders to array themselves on the side of the 
government and commit gross improprieties 
against the established Church laws and discipline. 
Some of them had, even while holding office 
within the pale of the Church, been guilty of crimes 
of public notoriety, and when correction after 
repeated offenses proved unavailing, they were 
condemned to suspension and some to 
excommunication. These were among the most 
formidable and aggressive antagonists to the 
Cardinal and the papal power. Several of these 
attained considerable prominence in Europe and 
America by their public abjuration of the power of 
the Holy See. 


The possession of the religious houses by the 
Piedmontese soldiers, after the occupation of 
Perugia by the government troops, was wan- tonly 
outrageous, but when these vulgar, uncouth bands 

sacrilegiously defaced the beautiful frescoes and 
decorations left by the masters of art, the 
desecration was unpardonable. The ancient 
Benedictine Monastery and Church of San Pietro 
Cassinese, one of the most beautiful and artistic of 
Italy's many monastic houses, suffered irrep- 
arable injury from these devastators. The more 
remote cloisters which adorned the almost 
inaccessible heights of the Apenine peaks, whence 
was dispensed hospitality to tourists and the 
necessary means of sustenance to the poor and 
needy, were not spared; and when the Camaldolese 
monks of Monte Corona were ousted from their 
home the heart of Cardinal Pecci burst forth in pity, 
and he indignantly demanded that simple justice be 
done these holy, industrious men who had by their 
labors made the bleak mountain peak of Corona to 
"blossom as the rose." The text of his protest is as 

"The case," he says, "which now happens under my 
eyes touches the hermit-congregation of 
Camaldolese monks, situated at Monte 


Corona. These virtuous recluses to whom an 
illustrious ancestor of your Majesty, Charles 
Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, at the solicitation of the 
venerable Father Alexander di Ceve,gave an 
honorable abode in his states about the close of 
1601, are now made the object of ignoble and 
rancorous calumnies. . . . Dispersed within the 
space of eight days, they were compelled to tear 
themselves away from the famous sanctuary which 
they had themselves founded. 

"Men of stainless life, of unbounded popularity 
among our country folk, whom solitude, silence 
and prayer separated from all worldly pursuits, 
were accused of mixing up with politics. Men 
whom the world never saw coming down from the 
lonely peak of their inaccessible mountain except 
when the offices of brotherly charity compelled 
them, and whose convent was the refuge of the 

pilgrim, the infirm and the needy, — these were 
held up as persons who imperilled the interests of 
the nation! . . . 

"Even though they had been allowed the time and 
facility to justify themselves, the testimonies in 
their favor and intercessions, though never so 
numerous, availed not to clear them. Nor were the 
mem- bers of the municipal councils allowed to 
give any expression to their opinion in their favor. 
They are already undergoing the hard lot to which 
inexorable fate condemns them, in spite of the 
temperate restrictions of your royal decree. So in 
the era of Italian sup- pressions they are 
condemned to endure the extremity of misfortune 
from which, under the foreign domination of the 
French, by an honorable exception, was saved the 
sacred hermit-monastery of Monte Corona, as our 
history testifies. . . . 

’Thus, oh, sire, every temperate precaution taken 
by your Majesty was frustrated, the very will of the 
sovereign was defeated, by the disloyalty with 

which the law was executed. And thus the fate of 
so many most worthy religious persons comes to 
be decided by the harsh and oppressive measures 
of your commissioners. For, besides the fact that 
this oppression has not been so exercised in the 


provinces, these measures are too manifestly in 
opposition to the rights of religion and the social 

". . . In denouncing these incidents to your Majesty 
I cannot help allowing to overflow, in words of 
lamentation, the bitter grief which tortures the soul 
of a Bishop at the sight of the repeated shameful 
outrages committed againt these venerable rights of 
the Church, and at the pitiful condition to which the 
interests of religion are daily brought in our midst. 

"The decree admits that religion is inseparable 
from a wise instruction and education. But then it 
excludes in the most abso lute manner the direction 
and superintendence of the religious authority from 
the institutions in which youth is instructed and 
edu- cated, and substitutes for it privately that of 
the government. 

"It is easy to measure the scope and consequences 
of this measure. By it you violate the constitutional 
right of the Church; you alter the solemn 
agreements which accompanied the erection of 
these institu- tions; you violate and set aside the 
last will and testament of the generous benefactors 
who founded them and endowed them on such 
formal conditions; you ignore the origin of these 
foundations and the property of the Church in those 
which, under her direct auspices and with her own 
substance and means, she called into existence. 

"See yourself, sire, if I have not good reason to 
protest against all this, and in my position of a 
Bishop and a guardian of the sacred interests of the 

Church, I cannot help expressing my formal 
reproba- tion and the profound sorrow these 
measures have caused me." 


The fact that, in Piedmont some years before, the 
protests of the Bishops were followed by long 
terms of imprisonment and in some cases perpetual 
exile, did not deter Cardinal Pecci from thundering 
forth his denunciation of these infamous outrages. 
He hardly expected that they would avail, to any 
appreciable extent, still he felt 


that the injustice was so gross that for him to 
remain silent would be criminal. He not only wrote 
but gave expression to his feelings whenever the 
opportunity offered, and more than all he prayed 

inces- santly that the trespassers might come to a 
realization of their responsibility, and make 
amends to the Church. But in this he was mistaken. 
While he was holding conferences with his 
Bishops for the purpose of ameliorating the 
condition of the people at large, another and more 
aggressive attack was made on the Church. In the 
autumn of the same year a decree was 
promulgated, suppressing the monas- teries of 
Umbria, and dispersing the numbers of professed 
relig- ious throughout the country. Their 
magnificent properties were confiscated and 
appropriated to the use of the marauders, and their 
valuable store-houses of art treasures plundered. 
These consecrated abodes of virtue, of piety and 
learning were ruthlessly despoiled of their sacred 
character, and given up to the riotous feastings of 
the unprincipled Italian troops. The monks and 
nuns, who for so many generations had dispensed 
hospitality to the poor and homeless, who had ever 
been at the call of the dejected and infirm, and who 
had heroically nursed the people in times of 
pestilence and famine, now found themselves at the 

mercy of an unkind, unfeeling world. Pos- sessing 
nothing individually, they went forth as beggars 
from the cloisters which their lawful patrimony 
had helped build up. No pen can depict the sorrow 
of these self-denying men and women at being 
obliged to forsake their sanctuaries, where art, 
science and literature flourished, and were 
preserved for generations. This last blow was the 
crowning sorrow of Cardinal Pecci's life as 
spiritual guide of Perugia. Again he wrote the 
commissary, asking that if not total redress were 
given at least moderation should be employed in 
the carrying out of the decree. 

"The decree published by your royal 
commissariat," he writes, 4 . . . suppressing the 
monastic families, together with many other 
institutions, fills to overflowing the cup of 
bitterness held to the lips 

c a> 

« a 



v 5 


Uj ctJ 
0 <u 
c4 0 


fr; 0) 

■a a) 



° 3 

u a 



— o 


+, 0 


- 1 » 




2 "3 


0 A 






4-1 -J1 


a £ 



cc i — i 

0 ) 







A J"0 

O o n 

w a, 

<a .2° 


+j -*-> w 


- r rt -3 


rt >,« 


MAA a 

O (-■ tc 


T3 <u t= 


cs c 5 



•d*' a 


- -5 .-£ 



0) D -t-) 


5 ' C A 


2 |-Sb 


e a 3 9s o 

<D° !- 


£ A -° 





.3 Sa 


Ba & 

" 2 B. 

rt m 

MS J3 


a o . 

• OA Jo 

St. J tiffs < rged 

a « 


Late Archbishop of Chicago. 


of all the Bishops of Umbria. This decree, starting 
from considera- tions as false as they are insulting 
to the clergy, evidently aims at wounding religion 
and social justice itself. 

"It is a Catholic maxim that it appertains solely to 
the Supreme Authority of the Church to found and 
approve religious orders; nor, independently of 
that same authority, may any temporal power order 
even their partial dissolution or suppression. How 

can you juridically justify the spoliation and 
confiscation of properties already sacred both by 
their nature and destination, the right to possess 
which and the inviolability of which are 
guaranteed by all natural reason and positive 
social law? 

"Then this spoliation is accomplished in the name 
of a Catholic government — of a government 
which, a few days before this decree, had been 
obliged to acknowledge and confess in an official 
act that the ecclesiastical nature of property does 
not in any way weaken the right of possession. 

"You put in force for these provinces of Umbria by 
an exceptional measure the modern Sardinian 
legislation, which called forth the cen- sure and 
opposition of Catholic sentiment, and met with the 
loudest remonstrance throughout the Piedmontese 
kingdom, — a legislation afterwards formally 
condemned by the Supreme Head of our religion, 
in his consistorial allocution of July 26, 1855. 

And, moreover, these laws come to be applied 

here with a harshness and a sweeping exten- sion, 
all the greater that the religious corporations 
suppressed are more numerous, and that the poor 
religious are nowhere allowed to remain in their 

"Wherefore, seeing all this, Mr. Commissary, I 
cannot refrain from complaining and from 
condemning with pastoral liberty the decree itself 
in all its parts." 

The awful destitution engendered among the 
religious orders and secular clergy by the passing 
of the restriction laws in i860 in Umbria, laws 
founded upon the famous Siccardi laws passed in 
Piedmont in 


1848, gave occasion for another protest from 
Cardinal Pecci to the king, Victor Emmanuel. 

Consequent upon the edict of the royal commissary, 
the ecclesiastical courts were abolished, the 
sacred char- acters of the institutions were 
destroyed and all immunities per- verted to the use 
of the state; finally, all control by the ecclesiastical 
powers over education of every grade was 
withdrawn, and the Umbrian province was in the 
gloom of religious darkness. 

Then did the voice of Pecci rise amid the 
surrounding storm, and two days after the issuance 
of the final edict, September 30, he wrote to the 
commissary who had authorized the overturning of 
so many time-honored institutions: 

"If your first decree," he says, "deprives the 
Church of the power to judge her own ministers, 
the second forbids her in a great measure to fulfill 
her mission of preaching truth and instructing the 
people. This is a mission which she has received, 
not from man, but from God, — a mission which, 
extending to all nations of the earth, should much 
the more fully have its free exercise in a Catholic 

community through the instruction of youth. 



A S EARLY as the time of Constantine the Popes 
seem to have A *• possessed certain temporal 
possessions in the shape of prin- cipalities in the 
neighborhood of Rome. After the removal of the 
seat of empire to Constantinople their position 
began to increase in temporal importance, and they 
soon became the representatives of western 
civilization. The people came to be almost wholly 
dependent upon the Popes for protection, against 
both the rapacity of their own rulers and the 
inroads of barbarians. The introduction by the 
Roman Pontiffs of popular elections for the civil 
positions endeared them to the masses, and their 
heroic resistance to the barbarous Lombards 
rendered them virtually the rulers of Italy. 

Never did a temporal dynasty arise by means so 
just, and never was temporal power so well 
deserved. The exarch of the eastern empire, in 
Rome, became weaker and weaker, and soon 
ceased alto- gether to make the slightest showing 
of resistance to the enemies by which Rome was 
surrounded; and the paternal duties, if not the 
power of government, were in the hands of Pope 
Zachary, who sue- ceeded Gregory III. Me drove 
the Lombards out of Italy, restored the exarch to 
power, and recaptured the cities which had fallen 
into the hands of the barbarians. On Zachary's 
death the Lombards made a fresh invasion, and 
Pope Stephen III. called to his assistance Pepin, 
king of the Franks. The latter, after driving out the 
invaders and recovering all the cities, gave to the 
Pope, who alone was able and willing to protect 
them, the cities of the exarchate of Ravenna; 

among them Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, 
Ancona, and seven- 



teen other cities on the Adriatic. This was the 
beginning of the temporal sovereignty of the Popes. 
Their power was co nfi rmed by Charlemagne in 
800, and an important addition was made to their 
possessions by Countess Matilda, of Tuscany, 
Parma, Modena and Mantua, who granted all her 
territories to Pope Gregory III. These possessions 
were ever disputed by the emperors of Germany, 
who claimed that the Popes, having obtained their 
temporalities from them, were their vassals. 
Innocent III. ascended the throne of St. Peter in 1 
198, and under his reign the temporal power 
became entirely independent. 


After this the principal enemies of the papacy were 
its own sub- jects, the feudal nobles who 
oppressed the people and became jealous of the 

resistance which the Popes continually offered to 
their rapac- ity. The disorders created by these 
nobles at last compelled the Pontiffs to remove to 
Avignon, France, in 1309, where they remained 
sixty-nine years, returning in 1378. During their 
absence the most terrible confusion, bloodshed and 
anarchy prevailed. In 143 1 Euge- nius IV was 
driven out by a popular insurrection, which 
afterwards subsided, and in 1447 he returned. 
Clement VII. was made a prisoner by the 
Constable de Bourbon in 1527, and remained in 
bondage seven months. The Popes were not 
disturbed in the pos- session of their temporalities 
from the time of their return until Bonaparte 
dethroned Pius VII., carrying him a captive to 

Pius VII. was restored by the allied powers in 
1814, after the French emperor's fall, where he 
enjoyed quiet during the rest of his reign. 

Since Pius VII. 's time, the Popes were permitted 
to exercise a comparatively peaceful reign in their 

temporalities until Pius IX. was elected to succeed 
Gregory XVI. It was at the beginning of Pius IX.’s 
Pontificate that the first attempt was made by the 


mies of the power to deprive the Popes of their 
temporal posses- sions, including the city of Rome. 
The above occurrence transpired while 
Archbishop Pecci was in the See of Perugia, 
causing the v great Churchman's voice to be 
frequently heard in protest; hence it is deemed 
proper to give briefly a statement of the entire 
events preceding, accompanying and following this 
usurpation of the tern- poral power of the Holy See 
in 1848. 


Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, the son of Count 

Jerome and the Countess Solazzi, was born in 
Sinigaglia, in 1792; at the age of eleven years he 
was placed in the College of the Scolopii, at 
\blterra, then celebrated throughout Italy for its 
comprehensive course of study and wise 
discipline. The youth's engaging manners, 
sweetness of disposition, and unusual talent 
combined with firmness and strength of character, 
soon endeared him to companions and masters 
alike. His intellectual attainments became so 
remarkable that he was singled out for several 
honorary favors. 

Although suffering some from epilepsy, in the year 
1809 he went to Rome, having first received 
tonsure, where he entered upon ecclesias- tical 
studies in the Academy of Noble Ecclesiastics. 
Owing to his ill health he at first attended in the 
capacity of a layman, but he never allowed his 
hopes of eventually becoming an active 
ecclesiastic to escape his mind. 

In 1818 Monsignore Odescalchi, then a prelate of 

the papal court, invited the young Churchman to 
help him in giving a mission in his native province 
of Sinigaglia. This stay in Sinigaglia materially 
bene- fited Ferretti's health, and upon his return to 
Rome he secured a dis- pensation permitting him to 
be ordained subdeacon and deacon, which 
ceremony took place December 18, 1818. So 
anxious was this student to enter the priesthood that 
he applied for a further dispen- sation to be 
ordained priest, a request which the Holy Father 


upon the condition that he be always attended by 
another priest. Assured of the kind feeling 
entertained for him by the Sovereign Pontiff, 
Mastai-Ferretti requested a special audience with 
the Pope, during which he explained to the Pontiff 
his own belief that he could say mass without the 
attendance of another clergyman. The Holy Father 

took him by the hand and said in a paternal tone: 
"Yes, we will grant you this favor, for I believe 
that in future you will no longer be troubled with 
your disease." 

These words saw their fuhillment, for from the day 
of their utter- ance Mastai-Ferretti did not suffer 
from a relapse. 

In 1823 a Canon of the Cathedral of St. James in 
Chili visited Rome with the purpose of securing 
from the Holy Father the favor of a papal 
representative to that remote country. Monsignore 
Muzi, afterwards Bishop of Gastello, was deputed 
to go on the foreign mis- sion, and at the suggestion 
of Pius VII. Mastai-Ferretti was invited to 
accompany the Monsignore on this service. The 
invitation delighted the young priest, who regarded 
the call as a voice from Heaven. Such a journey in 
those days was looked upon very much in the light 
of exile, and when Ferretti's mother heard of it she 
wrote to the secretary of state, Cardinal Gonsalvi, 
requesting him to cancel the appointment. Ferretti 

was quite determined upon his course, how- ever, 
and decided to go, leaving it with God to comfort 
his mother. 

Arrived in Chili, on their way to Santiago, they 
were obliged one evening to put up at a wayside 
inn, far from any habitation. Here they encountered 
an English army officer suffering from lack of care 
and nourishment. They assisted him to the extent of 
their power, and when necessity compelled their 
departure one of the number remained behind to 
nurse the sick man. This good Samaritan was 


OnFerretti's return to Rome, in 1825, Pope Leo 
XII. appointed him to the presidency of the great 
institution of St. Michael, and in 


1827 sent him to the Episcopal See of Spoleto, the 
Pope's native diocese. It pleased the Sovereign 
Pontiff, Gregory XVI., to translate him, in the 
Consistory of December, 1832, from the 
Archepiscopal See of Spoleto to the Episcopal See 
of Imola. In this See he was deco- rated with the 
purple, being reserved in petto, and finally 
proclaimed Cardinal on the 14th of December, 


At Spoleto he entered upon his episcopate with the 
intention of bringing it to a high degree of 
perfection. He inaugurated, with this end in view, a 
series of retreats, designed to meet the exigencies 
of the occasion. He opened a house, where, at 
stated’ times, the clergy could repair and spend ten 
days in contemplation of the affairs pertaining to 
their salvation, and devised the best methods of 
direct- ing and teaching them. While engaged in 
conducting these retreats for his clergy he was 
notified of the death of Pope Gregory XVI. The 

Archbishop retired to the episcopal residence, and 
after the obsequies of the late Pontiff had been 
concluded in his cathedral he proceeded to Rome 
for the purpose of attending the conclave. On the 
15th of June, 1846, the voting commenced; the 
evening of the 16th Ferretti was declared the 
unanimous choice of the Cardinals of the Sacred 
College, and on the following morning his election 
to the Holy See was proclaimed to the Christian 
world. It was in the following words, so truly 
characteristic of his modest and humble nature, that 
the newly elected Pontiff, Pius IX., announced his 
ele- vation to his brothers at Sinigaglia: 

"Rome, 16th June, at V4 past 11 PM. — The 
blessed God, who humbles and exalts, has been 
pleased to raise me from insignificance to the most 
sublime dignity on earth. May His most holy will 
be ever done! I am sensible to a certain extent, of 
the immense weight of such a charge, and I feel my 
utter incapacity, not to say the entire nullity of my 
powers. Cause prayers to be offered, and you 


also pray for me. The conclave has lasted forty- 
eight hours. If the city should wish to make any 
public demonstration on the occa- sion, I request 
that you will take measures, — indeed I desire it, 
— that the whole sum so destined be applied to 
purposes which may be judged useful to the city by 
the chief magistrate and the council. As to 
yourselves, dear brothers, I embrace you with all 
my heart in Jesus Christ; and far from exulting, take 
pity on your brother who gives you all the 
Apostolic Blessing." 

Never did sovereign ascend to the throne with a 
heart more full of love for his people, or with a 
more fervent desire of contributing to their welfare 
and happiness; and rarely, if ever, did sovereign 
enter upon a path so abundantly bestrewn with 
embarrassments and diffi- culties. Devoted to the 
Church, of which he was chosen to be the head and 

protector, Pious IX. was not the less friend of 
rational lib- erty and the advocate of enlightened 
progress. Thoroughly acquainted with his native 
country, and conversant with its interests and its 
wants, he resolved from the first hour of his 
Pontificate to so use the power entrusted to him by 
Heaven as to remedy the existing evils. 


Convinced that no attempt at reform could be 
successful so long as pains and penalties for 
former transgressions were still enforced against a 
considerable number of his subjects who had been 
con- nected more or less prominently with 
revolutionary disturbances in the reign of his 
predecessor, and also feeling the utmost 
compassion for those who suffered, whether in 
mind or body, Pius DC. resolved to signalize his 
accession to the throne by an act of grace which 
should shed light, as if from above, upon many 
sorrowing homes and despairing families. There 
were those who counselled the Pope to moderate 

his generosity within the limits of prudence, and to 
have a care how he included in a general pardon 
many men whose past 


career was no reliable guarantee for their future 
loyalty. But these cautious advisers spoke to one 
whose soul was overflowing with love and 
compassion, and who yearned to embrace his 
entire people within the arms of a fond father. 
Accordingly on the 16th of July, one month after 
his election, Pius IX. published a decree of 
amnesty, granting a remission of the sentences to 
all subjects undergoing pun- ishment for political 
offenses, with the understanding that they would 
make a solemn declaration in writing to fulfill in 
future the duties of good and faithful subjects; 
granting also pardon to all who had fled to foreign 
countries in consequence of political crimes, and 
also par- don to all who had taken part in any 

conspiracies against the state. This noble evidence 
of the great heart of Pope Pins IX. was hailed with 
ecstasies of joy by the people, and gratitude sought 
expression in language of hyperbole. Even the pen, 
more sober and less impet- uous than the tongue, 
became the vehicle of the most impassioned 

Many political prisoners flocked to Rome, not 
content with the signing of the pledge of honor, 
adding of their own free accord such vows as the 

"I swear by my head, and the heads of my children, 
that I will to the death be faithful to Pius IX. . . ." 

"...I swear to shed every drop of my blood for 
Pius IX." 

"... I renounce my share of Paradise if ever I betray 
the oath of honor which binds me to Pius IX." 


But amidst this frenzy of enthusiasm there were 
many far from being content. These were the worst 
enemies of true liberty with which the Pope had to 
deal, but they were not the only enemies. Austria, 
who held in her grasp some of the fairest portions 
of Italy, felt indignant at the attitude of Pius IX., 
and endeavored to kindle a new fire in the minds 
of the people. Wily in her counsels, powerful 


in her arms, and mighty in her resources, she was a 
most formidable enemy. 

The king of Naples, too, viewing with jealousy the 
good will of the Pope, attempted to hide from his 
own people the knowledge of the freedom the Pope 
had conceded to his subjects. Nor was France 
believed to be altogether sincere in her profession 
of approval regarding the Pope's generous acts. 
These, as well as many other powers, looked on 

with dismay, all of which added to the responsi- 
bility of Pope Pius IX. 


Yet, notwithstanding the complicated duties of his 
position, he boldly persevered in his mission of 
reform. He personally inquired into and approved 
the administration of the public departments; he 
rigorously examined into the management of 
hospitals, prisons and religious institutions, 
compelling such changes as he deemed advis- 
able; he punished fraud and extortion, especially rf 
practiced on the poor, with the sternest severity; he 
promoted employment by useful works, and 
stimulated industry by encouragement and reward; 
he introduced superior methods of collecting the 
public revenues, and revised the management of 
the finances; he remitted taxes which pressed upon 
the necessities of the bulk of the population, and 
diminished such as interfered with their comforts; 
he granted con- cessions to companies for 
establishing railways, and aided the intro- duction 

of gas; he opened the public offices to deserving 
laymen; he permitted the establishment of a press 
whose freedom was guaran- teed by a mild system 
of censorship. 

To render more effective, as well as permanent, the 
reforms which he had introduced, he announced by 
a circular of the 19th of April, 1847, his intention 
of calling together a council, chosen by the various 
provinces, to assist him in his administration and 
give advice on matters connected with the general 
interests of the country. 


There were distributed about this time throughout 
the papal states certain printed circulars, 
calculated to excite apprehension as to the outcome 
of the Pope's work. These artfully worded 
statements to a certain extent inflamed the people 
against the Pope. 

In order to check the spread of this evil, and if 
possible to moderate expectations, a proclamation 
was published in 1847 mtne name of the Pope, in 
which his Holiness declared that he intended to 
persevere in his work of reform, and asked the 
people to support him 


On November 15 a council of state was convened 
by the Pope amid the enthusiasm of the people, 
who foresaw as a result of this convention great 
good to the Church and to the civil interests. 

The arrival of the councillors from the provinces 
was made a day of carnival, the distinguished 
visitors being received with great demon- 
strations. After a public reception the president, 
Cardinal Antonelli, the vice-president, Monsignore 
Amici, and the twenty-four provincial deputies 
assembled in the throne room at the Quirinal, 
where they paid their homage to the Holy Father. 
The latter, in a reply to an address by the president, 

spoke these words, which throughout were in 
accord with the ideas which he had at all times 

"I thank you for your good intentions as regards the 
public wel- fare, I esteem them of value. It was for 
the public good that, since my elevation to the 
pontifical throne, I have, in accordance with the 
counsels inspired by God, accomplished all that I 
could; and I stand ready, with the assistance of 
God, to do all for the future, without retrenching in 
any degree the Sovereignty of the Pontificate; and 
inasmuch as I received it full and entire from my 
predecessors, so shall I transmit it to my successor. 
I have three million subjects as witnesses that I 
have hitherto accomplished much to unite my sub- 
jects and to ascertain and provide for their 
necessities. It was par- 


ticularly to ascertain these wants and to provide 
better for the exigencies of the public service, that 
I have assembled you in a per- manent council. It is 
to hear your opinion, to have your aid in my 
sovereign resolutions, asking you to remember that 
I shall at all times consult my conscience and 
confer regarding these things with my ministers and 
the Sacred College. Anyone who takes any other 
view of the functions you are called upon to fulfill 
will mistake mate- rially the realization of their 
own Utopias, and the germ of an insti- tution 
incompatible with the Pontifical Sovereignty." 

His Holiness, having spoken these words with 
emphasis, stopped a moment, then resuming in his 
usual calm manner, continued: 

"This warmth and those words are not addressed 
to any of you whose social education, Christian 
and civil probity, as well as the loyalty of your 
sentiments and the rectitude of your intentions, 
have been known to me since the moment I 
proceeded to your election. Neither do these 

words apply to the majority of my subjects, for I 
am sure of their fidelity and their obedience. I 
know that the hearts of my subjects unite with mine 
in the love of order and of concord. But there exist, 
unfortunately, some persons who, having nothing to 
lose, love disturbance and revolt, and even abuse 
the concessions made to them. It is to those that my 
words are addressed. Let them well understand 
their signification. In the cooperation of the 
deputies I see only firm support, devoid of every 
personal interest. You will aid me with your 
wisdom to discover that which is most useful for 
the security of the throne and the real happiness of 
my subjects." 

The Holy Father closed with these words: 

"Proceed with the blessing of Heaven. May your 
labors prove faithful in results and conformable to 
the desires of my own heart!" 

At the conclusion of the audience with the Holy 
Father the coun- cillors proceeded to the Vatican 

amid rejoicings of the people. The streets between 
the Quirinal and the Vatican were ablaze with 


and the air was full of martial music. Fluttering 
banners, emblem- atic and distinctive, glittering 
uniforms of infantry and cavalry added enthusiasm 
and helped to form one of those traditional 
pageants for which Rome, above all other cities, 
has been noted. 


The year 184S opened gloomily upon the political 
world, almost every country in Europe being rife 
with discontent and hungry for revolution. In Rome 
events were fast hastening to a crisis, and each 
new account of uprisings throughout the Italian 
states, or else- where, but added to the daring of 

the extreme party, now actively represented by the 
press, chiefly in the hands of refugees, and by the 
clubs. The crafty policy of the conspirators was 
persistently encour- aged, every opportunity being 
given to fetes, to processions, and to gatherings of 
the masses. These were relied upon as a means of 
stimulating popular excitement, keeping the public 
mind in turmoil. 

None but reactionary measures could keep pace 
with such a state of feeling. The deliberations of 
the council were intruded upon by mob leaders. 
The news of the terrible insurrection which had 
broken out at Salerno, Sicily, burst with electric 
power upon the Roman states. These tidings were 
quickly followed by the still more startling intelli- 
gence that a free constitution had been granted, 
ostensibly of his own accord, but in reality through 
fear, by the king of Naples; that move- ments of a 
revolutionary character were apprehended in 
Austria and Prussia; that barricades had been 
erected in the streets of Paris, and that a republic 
was established on the ruins of the Orleans 

dynasty. From this moment the press, the clubs and 
mob leaders knew no bounds. The accounts from 
Paris produced the most intense excite- ment, and 
in a short time after they had been circulated 
throughout Rome the people proceeded in crowds 
to the Quirinal to demand the promised 
constitution. In answer to a second and more 
formal demand the Pope gave the following reply: 


’The events that have transpired justify me in 
executing the demand addressed to me by the 
senators in the name of the magis- trates and the 
council. Everybody knows that I have been inces- 
santly engaged in giving the government the form 
claimed and required by the people. But everybody 
must understand the diffi- culty encountered by him 
who unites two supreme dignities. What can be 
effected in one night in a secular state cannot be 
accom- plished without mature examination in 

Rome in consequence of the necessity to fix a line 
of separation between the two powers. Never- 
theless, I hope that in a few days the constitution 
will be ready, and that I shall be able to proclaim a 
new form of government, calculated to satisfy the 
people, and more particularly the senate and the 
council, who know better than I do the state of 
affairs and the condi- tion of the country. May the 
Almighty bless my desires and labors! If religion 
derives any advantage therefrom I will throw 
myself at the feet of the crucified Jesus to thank 
Him for the events accom- plished by His will, and 
I will be more satisfied as chief of the univer- sal 
Church than as a temporal prince if they turn to the 
glory of God." 

The promise thus given was speedily fulfilled. On 
the 5th of June the parliament was opened by a 
speech from the Pope, read by Car- dinal Altieri, 
in which, after expressing his satisfaction at having 
sue- ceeded in introducing into his states the 
political reforms demanded by the times, his 
Holiness directed the attention of the chambers to 

matters of pressing interest and growing 
emergency. The sittings were then declared to be 
open. Thus was a new field offered to the activity 
of the party who looked upon all reforms with 
contempt. It was regarded as a most generous 
concession, but as a means to an end. The two 
chambers contained many sincere patriots, 
earnestly devoted to their country and their Church; 
but their prudence was sometimes overcome by the 
violence of those whose vanity and reck- less 
ambition carried them to extremes and excess. In 
the meantime 


the flame of insurrection had burst out in other 
capitals, to which the startling events at Paris had 
given wild impulse. The revolution at Vienna gave 
new confidence to the patriots of Italy, and after a 
noble struggle the Milanese compelled the 
Austrians to evacuate their beautiful city. A 

republic was thereafter proclaimed in Venice. 

The Holy Father was not insensible to the generous 
influence of the period, and no one’desired more 
sincerely than he the triumph of Italian 
independence. Towards the accomplishment of this 
object he made several determined efforts, 
unfortunate in vain, with a view to combine the 
different states into a common national league; but 
while he met with a cordial concurrence in some 
instances his pro- posal was here and there 
received with coldness and distrust. Naples, 
Tuscany and other states entered with alacrity into 
the plan, but the Sardinian government refused to 
send delegates to Rome, suggesting instead a 
congress in the north of Italy. 

Had the plan of an Italian league, under the 
presidency of the Pope, been carried into effect it 
would, in all human probability, have effected the 
freedom of Italy, and while saving Rome from the 
machinations of anarchists, would have 
consolidated the reforms granted to the papal 

states. But such was not to be. Other plans were 
being consummated by the enemies of true 


To anarchists — those who looked for the 
overthrow of the Pope's authority, and the erection 
of a red republic on its ruins — no minister could 
be more hateful than Rossi, whom Pius IX. had 
called to his council as minister of state. This 
minister's first vigorous efforts to restore order and 
put a stop to the condition of things were answered 
by a yell of rage from the revolutionary press and 
by the ferocious denunciations of the clubs. In no 
wise daunted Rossi persevered in his good work, 
which was so happy in its results, and in the course 
of three short weeks he succeeded in the difficult 
task of inspiring confi- 


dence in the hearts of the people. With such a man 
they saw but one mode of dealing, and that was 
speedily decided upon. The dag- ger was called to 
do its bloody work, not in the darkness of night, 
when nature, as it were, flings a cloak over the 
murderer, but in the blaze of the noonday sun and in 
the presence of hundreds of spec- tators, Rossi 
paid the penalty of death. 

A letter written about this time and published in 
one of the jour- nals of Rome, depicts the state of 
terror and excitement into which the inmates of the 
papal palace were thrown at the turn of events. The 
writer says: 

"At this stage of the proceedings it was evident that 
the die was cast. From the back streets men 
emerged, carrying aloft long lad- ders wherewith 
to scale the pontifical abode; carts and wagons 
were dragged up and ranged within musket shot of 
the windows to protect the assailants in their 
determined attack upon the palace. The cry was, 

’To arms! To arms!’ and musketry began to bristle 

in the approaches from every direction; faggots 
were piled up against one of the large gates of the 
building, to which the mob was in the act of setting 
fire, when a brisk discharge of firearms scattered 
the besiegers. 

"The multitude began now to perceive that there 
would be a determined resistance, but were still 
confident that the Quirinal, if not taken by storm, 
must yield to progressive inroads. Random shots 
were aimed at the windows and duly responded to. 
The outposts, one after another, were taken by the 
people, the garrison within being too scanty to man 
the outworks. The belfry of San Carlino, which 
commands the structure, became occupied. From 
behind the eques- trian statue of Castor and Pollux 
a group of sharpshooters plied their rifles, and 
about four o'clock Monsignore Palma, private 
secretary to his Holiness, was killed by a bullet 
penetrating his forehead. 

"As if upwards of 6,000 rebels of all ranks were 
not considered enough to reduce the little garrison 

of a couple dozen of Swiss, two six-pounders now 
appeared at the main gate. A truce having been 





o ca 03 
S3 d 


&, s 


03 1-i 





S .2 
bO *j 


. *H 






MO) 4) 




*• <D 





i— 1 

o o 


> 1 


C« <u 1) 
•8 enO 
■m - a 


a < 

1 ) 










5 0K A 


(I] (I] 




0 ) 

k . O (J 








.5 i O 

> — i 

0 . 







« HI C 



11 * 

B a> 











> <S >L B 






4 -> 

B— 1 










3 4*8 

4 _* 






O <D O 


a) a. 2 


** B 1-. 

<U O >+i 
°, enlf; 


0 ) 

03 >g- 



— O 
b-2 A 




-i A 


i-. d ,n 



£ 0 > 



fl ,B «4-. 



s AO 

C3 CO 

O 1- 
•J3 4> 





HI h 



en w 


(x. O 





i — < 


0 sx 

OO] 3 


4 ) 


a, ’oC 


n c 





a A 
4) C 




O Oh 

1 ) 


0) Ih 4) X ft 

4) CJ m 


4 ) 





w .2 
■fc! X 

in "V O u (X 41 


o -O w 03 

T3 4) 

(-< u 
41 Ifl 
a o o 

X bo 
41 .y 


-a a 3 



= 6 


’41 X 

m m 4) 








proclaimed, another deputation claimed entrance 
and audience with the Pope, which he granted. The 
deputation were bearers of the people's ultimatum, 
which was a reproduction of the former demands, 
and they now declared that they would allow his 
Holiness one hour to consider, after which, if not 

adopted, they announced their firm purpose to 
break into the Quirinal and put to death every 
inmate with the sole and single exception of his 


At first he was doubtful as to the best course to 
pursue. In this state of suspense he remained for 
two or three days, when he received a letter from 
the Bishop of Valence, France. In this letter the 
Bishop acquainted his Holiness regarding a little 
silver case which had served Pius VII. , of blessed 
memory, to keep therein a conse- crated particle, in 
order that he might have the Most Holy Sacra- 
ment as a solace during the sad exile to which 
tyranny and infidelity had condemned him; he 
offered to convey it to the Holy Father as a 
memorial of one of his predecessors and as an 
object perhaps not useless during the events that 
were taking place in those days. 

On the receipt of i:he demands the Pope no longer 

hesitated as to his course. He resolved upon 
abandoning Rome at once. The circumstances 
attending the departure of the Holy Father from 
Rome were full of interesting details. 

About dusk on the evening arranged for the 
carrying out of the plans the duke of Harcourt went 
to visit the Pope. Leaving his car- riage at the foot 
of the stairs he proceeded to meet the Holy Father. 
After a short communication with the duke the 
Pope retired to another apartment, and, laying 
aside his white cassock, assumed the dress of an 
ordinary priest. The change was completed in a 
few minutes, and the Pope, who throughout 
preserved the greatest calm- ness and tranquillity 
of mind, took his leave of the duke. The latter 


was compelled to remain awhile in order to give 
the fugitive time to pass through the apartments and 

descend into the courtyard. 

The cavalier Filippani, a Roman, who had a 
carriage in readiness in the courtyard, 
accompanied the Pope through the spacious halls, 
lighted only by a single taper. As they passed 
through one of the apartments the taper went out, 
and both were left in total darkness. To proceed 
further without light was impossible, so Filippani 
was obliged to return for light. Just as the Pope 
was about to step into the carriage prepared for 
him, a domestic, accustomed to show respect to his 
illustrious master, and totally forgetful of 
impending danger, cast himself upon his knees to 
receive his blessing. Fortu- nately, however, he 
instantly arose upon a sign to that effect. 

The cavalier Filippani got into the carriage along 
with the Pope, and the driver advanced across the 
piazza of the Quirinal, which was full of 
insurrectionists. Having passed the Quirinal, the 
carriage passed through different streets to the 
Coliseum, thence by the Via Labicana. Here the 

Pope alighted and went on foot to the monas- tery 
of San Marcello, where Count Spaur was awaiting 
him with another conveyance. Passing through St. 
John’s gate he arrived without any mishap at the 
gate of Albano, and in accordance with the plan 
previously arranged went to his summer home, 
Castle Gondolfo. Here he met the post-chaise 
which was to carry him as an exile to Gaeta. 

Arriving at Gaeta, the Pope went to the episcopal 
palace, but finding the Bishop absent he repaired 
to a humble inn without being recognized, and 
there passed the night. No sooner did the king of 
Naples hear of the Pope's flight from Rome and 
arrival at Gaeta than he hastened to that city and 
prevailed upon the Pope to leave his humble abode 
and come to the royal palace, an invitation which 
the Holy Father accepted. 

It is unnecessary to enter into details of the events 
which followed in Rome. Industry was paralyzed, 
trade destroyed, employment 


hopeless, credit annihilated, houses untenanted, 
hotels deserted, and the streets swarming with an 
idle, starving and desperate population. Rome 
presented a miserable spectacle to the civilized 
world, not- withstanding her enjoyment of the new- 
born freedom. 


To France, the eldest-born of the Church, belongs 
the glory of restoring the Vicar of Christ to his 
throne of the Vatican. 

On the 25th of April, 1849, tne French squadron 
anchored before Civita Vecchia, and on the day 
following, at noon, that city was occu- pied 
without resistance by 1,800 men of the 
expeditionary army. On the 28th General Oudinot 
commenced his march on the capital; and on the 

30th the armies of the two republics first came into 
hostile collision. 

The triumvirate and the assembly had not been idle 
in the mean- time, but had adopted every available 
means of preparation. They endeavored to render 
the venerable walls of Aurelian capable of resist- 
ing a modern foe; they organized bands of 
volunteers in aid of the regular military force 
which had been gathered together; they drilled and 
they disciplined all who could or would bear 
arms; they excited the passions of the populace by 
animated appeals; and by placards and manifestoes 
distributed along the lines of the French march, 
they sought to enlist the sympathies of their 
republican assailants in behalf of a republican 
cause. The first attack of the French general was 
not successful; and his retreat, which was 
accompanied by a severe loss, was hailed with 
frantic joy by those who favored the new order of 
things. The fabric of the Roman republic was now 
cemented by the blood of its defenders, who died 
in vanquishing the armed ambassadors of 

despotism! The attention of the civilized world 
was fixed on the victorious standard waving from 
the Castle of St. Angelo; and the Rome of the 
People was itself worthy of its ancient fame as the 
Rome of the Caesars! 


The story of this first assault was thus given in a 
letter from Toulon, dated the 4th of May, which 
was published at the time: 

"It is known that after having organized Civita 
Vecchia, of which the command had been given to 
Colonel Blanchard of the Thirty- sixth, General 
Oudinot took up a position within a few leagues of 
Rome, hoping, no doubt, that the presence of the 
expeditionary corps would determine a movement 
against the triumviral government. His expectations 
were not realized. A company of the first battalion 
of tirailleurs, sent on to the gates of Rome, having 

been received with musket shots, retired in good 
order, and soon after a part of the division 
advanced and penetrated with much difficulty into 
the enceinte of the capital, of which the streets 
were barricaded; but they were received by a 
well-fed fire of musketry, and a storm of missiles 
from the windows and roofs of the houses. The 
Twentieth of the line, which was in front, was 
severely treated; a company of volti- geurs of that 
regiment were almost teetotally destroyed. At last 
see- ing the impossibility of continuing a struggle 
which became fatal, General Oudinot ordered the 

"There were about two hundred men killed, some 
of whom were officers; amongst them M. Farras, 
aide-de-camp of General Oudinot, and several 
hundred wounded." 

The victory inspired the republicans with 
increased confidence in that dashing soldier of 
fortune, Garibaldi, to whom the command had been 
entrusted. Oudinot, taught not to despise the valor 

of the Italians, at once demanded of his government 
strong reinforce- ments for his little army. In the 
meantime more fervent appeals were made to the 
defenders of Rome and its populace, to resist the 
French and thus not only cover the new-born 
republic with immortal glory, but save Rome from 
an authority which, as the president of the 
assembly and the press declared, was contrary to 
humanity. The work of demolition had been 
completed to the satisfaction of the mob, the 
residences of the Cardinals were sacked, furniture, 
works of 


art and libraries broken up or scattered, and the 
fragments were borne in procession to the Piazza 
del Popolo, and there amid shouts, yells, and 
savage rejoicings were thrown into a flaming 
bo nfi re. 

A brilliant skirmish with the Neapolitans, in the 
name of the indefatigable Garibaldi, was 
successful, and further increased the confidence of 
the revolutionary party in Rome. On the 12th of 
June the investment of the city was complete; and 
on the 19th of the same month, in consequence of 
the continued refusal of the assembly to yield, the 
final attack was made. From the 24th to the 29th 
the struggle had become more deadly, the French 
steadily gaining the advantage, but not without the 
utmost exertion, the defenders per- forming 
miracles of valor. Some young men who had 
thrown them- selves into the Casino Barberini 
were surrounded by the enemy and all slain after a 
struggle so obstinate and furious that one is said to 
have received no less than twenty-five wounds, — 
honorable testi- monies of his courage. The legion 
known as the Medici were par- ticularly 
distinguished by their heroism; for though numbers 
of that corps were buried beneath the ruins of the 
Vascello palace, which fell on the 27th, the 
survivors stood out valiantly against the foe. Other 
strong places fell on the 27th and 28th beneath the 

furious fire of the French artillery; but such was the 
desperation which the struggle with the "foreigner" 
had enkindled in the fiery Italian heart, that the 
wounded crawled from the hospitals to assist with 
their feeble arms in the hopeless task of defending 
the crumbling walls of the Rome of the Caesars. 

On the night of the 29th the roar of artillery 
mingled with peals of thunder, and the flashes of 
the guns gleamed more redly by contrast with the 
white glare of the flaming lightning. On the 
morning of the 30th the fate of Rome was decided. 
The French rushed through the breach, and were 
there met by the defenders, when a desperate hand- 
to-hand conflict ensued, the officers giving an 
example to their men, fighting with muskets, and 
even striking with their clenched hands. Four 
hundred of the besieged were bayo- 


neted on the bastion which they defended with such 

resolute valor, and such was the determination "to 
do or die" that many of the artillerymen were found 
lashed to their guns, which they would not abandon 
in life, and which they grimly guarded in death. 

It was Garibaldi himself who declared, in reply to 
the assembly, that all further attempts at defense 
were useless; and as this opinion coincided with 
the feelings or apprehensions of the majority, 
negotia- tions with the victors were decided upon, 
notwithstanding the oppo- sition of Mazzini, who 
now saw his short-lived authority at an end. 
Oudinot would listen to no terms short of an 
unconditional surrender; and on the 2d of July he 
entered Rome with his army, Garibaldi hav- ing 
quitted it on the previous night with some 5,000 

The French general at once sent the tidings of his 
victory to Gaeta, by Colonel Neil, who was 
entrusted with the grateful duty of laying the keys 
of the liberated city at the feet of the Supreme 
Pontiff, who expressed, in an autograph letter, the 

gratitude which he felt to the gallant victor and to 
the great and generous nation whose valor and 
whose fidelity to the Holy See were so well repre- 

At length, however, the time of the Pope’s return 
was announced to an expectant people, and great 
was the joy which it caused. 

If manifestations of popular enthusiasm could have 
satisfied the heart of Pio Nono he had ample cause 
for congratulation in his progress through the 
Neapolitan and Roman states. From his departure 
fromPortici, on the 4th of April, to his arrival in 
the great square of the Lateran, his journey was one 
continuous triumph. The people, clad in their 
holiday attire, met him everywhere with beaming 
eyes, with blessings, and with shouts of joy; 
flowers were strewn beneath his feet by beautiful 
maidens and graceful youths; banners bearing 
mottoes expressive of welcome and homage 
rustled in the gentle breeze; the prince vied with 
the peasant in testifying venera- tion and love for 

his person, and as his carriage passed along 


city or through highway, multitudes reverently knelt 
to receive his benediction. 

So long as the journey was performed in the 
Neapolitan domin- ions the Pope was 
accompanied by his generous host, Ferdinand, king 
of the Two Sicilies, who thus gracefully terminated 
his hospitality, the munificence of which was only 
surpassed by its delicacy. 

A very simple but beautiful illumination gloriously 
welcomed the arrival of the Holy Father at 
Terracina. No sooner had the sun sunk beneath the 
waves than the sea seemed at once lit up, as if by 
enchantment. Millions of orange-rinds had been 
converted into lamps with oil and wick; and these 

being simultaneously lighted and set afloat, the 
effect of the sudden and strange illumination was 
beau- tiful beyond the power of language to 

In his own dominions his welcome was even more 
enthusiastic than that given by the lively and 
impulsive Neapolitans; there was an atonement to 
be made and a bitter memory to be wiped out. At 
Frosinone, Velletri, and along his route, great 
preparations were made to receive the sovereign 
befittingly; and at the former place houses had been 
pulled down to widen the streets through which he 
was to pass. The Church, no longer widowed, but 
now joyful as a bride, everywhere assumed her 
brightest attire, and put forth her most imposing 
pomp, to express the gratitude and exultation with 
which she hailed the return of Christ's Vicar to the 
chair of Peter. 

At Velletri, where his reception was equally 
splendid and enthusi- astic, the Holy Father was 
met by General Baraguay Hilliers, who had come 

thither to offer him his homage. 

The crowning spectacle of the whole was 
witnessed on the 14th of April, when Pius IX. 
presented himself to his now repentant capital. The 
whole population had been from an early hour in 
the streets, and every spot was occupied from 
which the first glimpse of the Holy 


Father could be obtained. Amidst the waving sea 
of human beings, through which the French and 
Roman troops with difficulty preserved an open 
space, Pius made his entry. Such was the 
enthusiasm now manifested that one unacquainted 
with Italian character might have supposed that the 
population had suddenly gone delirious. And yet 
many who now, with wild and vehement gesture, 

called down bless- ings on the Holy Father, had 
not very long before as wildly and as vehemently 
shouted, "Long live Mazzini!" — nay, perhaps had 
yelled their coarse imprecations against the Pope 
on the 16th of November, 1848, because he would 
not accept a revolutionary ministry at the demands 
of an armed mob. But now flowers and smiles and 
bless- ings were flung over the past; and those 
were a small minority who did not feel genuine 
satisfaction at beholding the return of their good 
and gentle sovereign. With illuminations and music 
and joyous cries were renewed at night the 
rejoicings of the day. 

The exulting strains of the Te Deum — that 
glorious anthem of kings and conquerors — which 
now echoed through the superb dome of St. Peter's, 
were answered from the Churches of Christendom; 
for the Catholic world rejoiced in the triumph of 
good over evil, of order over anarchy. 

Returned to his dominion Pius IX. strenuously 
devoted himself to the difficult duties of his 

position, and endeavored by the applica- tion of 
wise remedies to repair the injury which had been 
inflicted on the papal states — in their trade, their 
industry, their finance, as well as in their 
intellectual progress and moral condition — by the 
fury and paralysis of the revolution. 



'THROUGHOUT the prolonged months of trial and 
threatened disaster to the Church Archbishop 
Pecci labored conscien- tiously and persistently to 
counteract the evil influences and to pro- mote 
harmony within the great organization under his 
jurisdiction. So fully had he grasped the 
significance of the various disintegrating forces 
levelled at the foundations of faith and morality, 
that he sue- ceeded, long before the actual crisis 

arrived, in preparing his people to resist the attack. 
The means which he adopted were the usual quiet 
but effectual weapons of study, instruction and 
prayer. He first inau- gurated a series of lectures, 
known as educational lectures, for the purpose of 
preparing the people to meet all doctrines of an 
irreligious and immoral nature. 

It became at once his duty to pronounce against this 
apostatizing of his people. He declared inmost 
emphatic words that he was the irreconcilable foe 
of anarchy and all its doctrines. He pointed out to 
his people the erroneousness of the new thought 
movement which was corrupting their minds, 
driving them to deeds of anarchy and despotism; he 
warned them to exert watchfulness, and to be on 
their guard against all innovations having for their 
aim the perver- sion of the sacred legacy of faith. 
He prescribed the establishment of catechism 
classes in every parish in the diocese; he exhorted 
the pastors to exercise careful supervision over 
their schools. He urged them to insist upon the 
children of the parish attending these in preference 

to those established by the state. He ordered the 
parish priests to take upon themselves the duties of 
regular teachers when- ever it was found 
impossible to secure others. 



Besides these agencies for meeting the issue close 
at hand the Archbishop wrote pastoral letters to the 
clergy, relative to their duties, and to the people, 
explaining their responsibility in preserving their 
faith and morals. Especially before the Lenten 
season he implored his flock to acts of prayer, 
fasting and good deeds. The Churches were 
ordered to remain open during the devotion of the 
"forty hours" adoration, which was solemnly 
celebrated in the Churches of the diocese, and 
special pilgrimages to the shrines of the Blessed 
Mother of Christ became the order of the day. 

Every- where there was evident an increase of 
piety and devotion among the people of the 
Umbrian provinces, after the incumbency of Arch- 
bishop Pecci, and it is recorded of his own private 
life that he spent hours in quiet meditation before 
the Blessed Sacrament, imploring the Divine Son 
to obtain for his people and for Italy the grace of 
perse- verance in the hour of danger. 

Perugia was not spared from the attacks of the 
insurrectionists, indeed the ancient mediaeval city 
was one of the chief points of their plundering. It 
was to no avail that the Archbishop sent his protest 
against the spoliation of the Churches and shrines 
of the beautiful city — the invading bands of men 
cared little for these requests. 


After Pius IX. had been restored to the temporal 
power the Arch- bishop decided to repair, as far as 
he could, the injuries done to the handsome 
edifices of the Umbrian provinces. One of the 

principal restorations was that of the revered 
Duomo, the Cathedral so endeared to the devout 
Perugians. In this Church a new floor was laid, and 
some other necessary repairs made, which taxed 
the income of the Archbishop to such an extent that 
he was obliged to postpone the completion of other 
improvements till such time as the financial affairs 
of the diocese would permit. In the course of his 
episcopate many Churches were repaired and 
beautified at great expense, among 


them the Church of San Martino, in Campo, and 
Castiglione del Lago. On the former twelve 
thousand crowns were spent, while on the lat- ter 
twenty-five thousand crowns are said to have been 
expended. One of the most popular shrines in 
Perugia was that of Our Lady of Mercy, originally 
a wayside station, where hung a picture of the 
Blessed Mother, venerated for many years by the 

devout people of Umbria, and where it was 
claimed many signal favors had been granted the 
faithful. Archbishop Pecci erected a new Church 
on the spot of the old shrine, and had the picture 
removed to the new edifice, where it still draws 
numerous hearts, and is a shrine for pilgrims and 
tourists. Thirty complete Churches were built 
during Archbishop Pecci's episcopacy, six already 
begun were finished, and many were adorned and 
beautified to the great edification of the people of 
Umbria and all Italy. 


It was while filling the episcopal office that 
Archbishop Pecci resolved upon making the 
ecclesiastical education of his students consonant 
with the philosophy of the "Angelic Doctor," St. 
Thomas Aquinas. As a student in the Jesuit College 
he had come under the influence of the superior 
methods of imparting knowledge of all things 
scientific and theological by means of the 
comprehensive curriculum of the Doctor of the 

Schools, and now that he was in a position to 
recommend a system of instruction he decided to 
mould the learning of his young ecclesiastics 
according to the principles laid down in the 
"Summa Theologica" and the "Summa Gentes." In 
1858 he drew up a constitution for an academy of 
St. Thomas Aquinas, which was designed to 
benefit the surrounding provinces as well as that of 
Umbria. Just as he deemed that his plans were 
about to be realized the events of 1859 and the 
Piedmontese invasion of i860 prevented the 
fulfillment of his hopes, so that it was not till some 
years after that the monument intellectual to St. 
Thomas became a reality. 


Archbishop Pecci was, on several occasions, the 
power which averted strife among the Italians. On 
one occasion when the indig- nities to the papal 
authority and the Church became almost unbear- 

able, the Austrians, who already held title to 
several Italian provinces, on the plea of protecting 
the Catholic population from the attacks of the 
Italian revolutionists, were about to enter Umbria 
under the leadership of Prince Lichtenstein, when 
Archbishop Pecci, learning of the approach of the 
army, decided to go forth beyond the confines of 
the city and request the prince not to enter. The 
prince finally consented to withdraw his forces as 
requested by the Archbishop. 

Several times it happened that by his discreet and 
judicious inter- ference the Archbishop succeeded 
in quelling factional quarrels and restored peace to 
his diocese. Indeed the whole term of his episco- 
pate was full of personal sacrifice and continuous 
labor to preserve harmony and good feeling. 

He was preeminently a diplomat, a courtier and a 
gentleman. In every concern which engaged his 
attention there were evident a statesmanlike 
comprehension of the drift and scope of the subject 
at issue, and a definite, decisive expression of his 

opinion of the matter, as also a ready remedy for 
the deficiency or the evil. 

The diocese of Perugia under the influence of 
Archbishop Pecci advanced in importance and 
standing among the Italian Sees in the peninsula. In 
Rome, Archbishop Pecci was regarded as one of 
the greatest and most efficient of the Pope's 


With the increase of perils to the venerable Pontiff 
at Rome, Archbishop Pecci undertook to inform his 
people as to the danger which threatened both their 
spiritual and material welfare in the attempt of 
aliens to force upon the children of the Church of 
Christ new doctrines of belief. 

At the beginning of the Lenten season of 1 S64 he 
issued a pastoral 


letter, "On the Current Errors against Religion and 
Christian Life," a few excerpts from which will 
suffice to show the practical policy of the Perugian 
Archbishop. He takes up in turn each of the errors 
propagated by the enemies of the Church, and then 
refutes them in a masterly manner with the intention 
of showing his people the fal- lacy of the anti- 
Catholic movement and the value of their inherited 

"To all who speak to you of 'liberty of conscience' 
say that with- out God there is no liberty. He made 
man free and gifted with reason, but in so doing He 
imposed upon him obligations and dictated laws 
for him in order to prevent that native liberty and 
reason from leading him astray. Among these 
obligations those laws stand first which pertain to 
religion — namely, the worship and obedience 
which are due to God as the Supreme Author and 
Repairer of human nature. He has Himself 
determined, and made known to us, in what manner 

we are thus to honor and serve Him. Nor is it left 
to the free will of man to refuse it, or to fashion for 
himself a form of wor- ship and service such as he 
pleases to render. That worship, that religion alone 
is true, is good, which God Himself has manifestly 
willed us to practice. After that it would not only 
be impious but monstrous to maintain that every 
form of worship is acceptable and indifferent, that 
the human conscience is free to adopt whichever 
form it pleases, and to fashion out a religion to suit 

"What! are they then things indifferent, dependent 
upon our choice and good pleasure, these matters 
which we call truth and error, the divine glory and 
God's dishonor? 

"What! can it then be a matter of indifference to 
man to know God or to ignore Him, to revere Him 
or to worship His creatures, to serve Him as He 
bids us or to refuse His service? ..." 

One of the statements made by the unbelievers was 

"that the religion of the heart is enough for man." 
To this the Archbishop replied: "Remark, I pray 
you, that this false axiom which cloaks the 


shame of the unbeliever, serves also to the 
cowardly Catholic as a pretext for sacrificing his 
duties to the idols of human respect. God deserves 
and demands that man’s whole being shall confess, 
worship and serve Him, the Creator. This cannot 
be accomplished by the heart alone, and by mere 
interior acts, which remain concealed in the depths 
of the human soul. . . . 

"The new law of the Gospel, while teaching us to 
worship God in a manner more perfect and more 
worthy of Him, ’in spirit and in truth,' also 
establishes and commands special external 
observances, — sacrifice, the Sacraments, prayer 
— not only as a means of personal sanctification, 

but as a solemn expression of religious worship. 
Besides honor is due to God, not merely because 
He is the Creator of individual man, but because 
He is also the Author and Ruler of the human race 
as a whole. 

"So deeply rooted in the universal sentiment and 
conviction of mankind is the obligation of an 
outward and public manifestation of such worship, 
and the persuasion as well that no society can exist 
without religion, that no people, how barbarous or 
degraded soever, has existed, who did not confess 
this debt to the Godhead, by erect- ing temples, 
instituting feasts, offering sacrifices, and decreeing 

In like manner the Archbishop goes on to refute 
other errors and then proceeds to point out by what 
means the Catholic truth is being perverted. He 
says, "Having until now discoursed of the 
principal errors which are being propagated 
against our holy religion ... we now feel ourselves 
impelled to dwell upon the principal causes of the 

decay of Christian morality. . . Blasphemy, 
profanation of the Sun- day and the feasts of 
obligation, public immorality, bad books and 
defective education are cited as being among the 
agencies undermin- ing Christianity. 

Deeming the last named cause as the most 
important in the list, the Archbishop devotes 
special attention to it, in the hope of calling 


the attention of parents charged with the education 
of young chil- dren to the duty of affording them the 
proper and safe means of arriving at truth by 
providing for them the benefits of Catholic train- 

"We could not have too much to say on this subject 
on which depend the direction and welfare of the 
present and the coming gen- eration. We need not 

lose time in proving the obligation and the 
importance of parents educating their children 
well; the voice of nature, the precepts of religion, 
and the sense of mankind all agree in affirming and 
inculcating this duty. 

"Still to confess the truth, who is it that does not 
perceive and deplore the neglect and falling off in 
the discharge of this duty which are evident in 
many Catholic families at this time, and that does 
not thence draw sad auguries for our future? 
Unwise and lazy parents do not know how to 
estimate the nobleness of the mission entrusted to 
them. They generally measure according to the 
calculations of a low and selfish interest the 
blessing of having children; they do not think at all 
of the great debt which they contract before God 
from the first day they become parents, that in the 
increase of their off- spring they continue the 
number of His true adorers; of that which they 
contract toward themselves, to prepare and 
transmit an honored inheritance of good example 
and virtues; of the debt contracted toward society, 

to rear for it members laborious, moral and edi- 

"It is true that in our day another axiom is current 
bearing on this same subject, namely, ’To the state 
belongs the training of youth.' Does this maxim 
avail to excuse the lamentable negligence of par- 
ents in our time? The duty of education, inculcated 
by natural reason, is so essential to the parental 
character and authority that they cannot decline its 
performance. The state authority by its place in the 
order of things is not called upon to discharge this 
great par- ental duty, but to help the natural 
educators in their work, and to 


watch and protect the interior discipline and good 
direction of the family. 

What are in reality the relations in which man is 

placed from his birth, as one of the beings in the 
order of creation? He comes into the world as 
God's creature, who has brought him into 
existence; he is the child of those who have given 
him temporal life; he is ordained first toward 
religion and then toward his family; his first duties 
are subjection and service to God, and dependence 
on his parents. The family is neither the creation 
nor the emanation of civil society (or the state), the 
power of parents is not a concession of human law. 
The relations and duties which obtain between 
parents and children are anterior and superior to 
all human aggregation. 

"Man is indeed born sociable, but, belonging 
before all to the domestic and religious society, he 
comes only into the society of the state through the 
family, and already prepared by the teaching of 
religion, and under the guidance of parental 
authority. Therefore is it that, as in the matter of 
education only an auxiliary part can be attributed 
to the state authority, so is it evident that the charge 
of educating remains as a burden they cannot 

decline on the conscience of the parents, who for 
that world are the representatives of God the 
Creator, and are invested with His authority. 

"If in our day all parents understood their duties in 
this light, and if, conceiving an adequate notion of 
the work they are commissioned to do, they 
instructed their children in time on the elevated 
duties and relations which every human being has 
to fulfill, both in the domestic and religious 
society, assuredly the state would be much the 
better for it. For no one can doubt that children 
who are submissive to parental authority and 
devoted to their family, that men who have the fear 
of God and who are obedient to their religion, can 
not fail to be also honored citizens and serviceable 
to their fellowmen. 

'You must distinguish between 'education' and 
'instruction,' between the moral training and 
moulding of the heart, and the simple 











4 ) 


1 ) 







0 ) 






#r A 




0) X! 






a o 




d o 










2 : 







in in 






a, o 


d o 







4 > 





- 4 -> 



• w* 



T3 d 

H A 

4 ) 







Q < 2 















( 1 ) 

1 ° 













4 ) 











a o 



2 "3 o o 
4> Xi 





0 ) 




*— i 

4 ) 













The above celebrated bronze statue of the Prince 
of the Apostles, St. Peter, is located in the mam 
nave of St. Peter's, Rome. 

It is one of the interesting objects to tourists 
visiting the Eternal City. The statue rests on a 

throne of rich marble and was cast in the thirteenth 
century. The toes of the right foot are almost 
entirely worn away by the kisses of devotees. 


cultivating of the intellect. Instruction, as such, 
ordinarily consists in filling the mind of the young 
with a furniture of knowledge that can help them, 
according to their years, to turn to a useful account 
their intellectual and bodily powers. 

"The moral training, on the contrary, should be a 
foundation for the development and the application 
of the great principles of morality and religion, as 
bearing on men's conduct within the family, and in 
the social sphere. Scientific instruction will give 
you learned and clever young men and women; 
religious education will give you, on the contrary, 
honest and virtuous citizens. Instruction, separated 
from education so called, serves rather to fill 

young hearts with vanity than to discipline them 
aright. It is quite otherwise with a right education; 
such a training, under the guidance of religion, 
which is the regulator of the heart of man, and the 
inspirer of pure ;uid generous affections, knows 
how to implant and to cultivate virtue in the most 
illiterate souls without the aid of much scientific 
polishing or instruction. ..." 


The statement that "both education and instruction 
should be in harmony with the age and free from 
prejudices," then claimed the respects of the 
Archbishop. He says: "Have you ever understood 
the real significance of these words, which are but 
too often heard from the lips of some unwary 
parent, as well as from those of self- esteemed 
educators? No one denies that all the arts advance 
with time, and on all methods of education a new 
light is cast by expe- rience, and a new increase 
obtained. Nor would the modernizing processes 
we hear people talk about meet with any 

opposition when they only affect the form, when 
they are really beneficial, and do not affect 
injuriously either Christian principles or Christian 

"These men, however, have in view a far different 
conception and purpose. Instruction and education 
"void of prejudices," in the Ian- 


guage of the day, mean simply that they should be 
such as to befit promiscuously families of all 
shades of religious faith, worshiping at the altars 
of every creed, whether the creeds be those of 
Protestant- ism or that of the Hebrew. It is 
education devoid of all the external practices and 
duties of the Christian faith, and calculated to 
famil- iarize young people with 'freedom of 
conscience' and indifferentism. It is such as to 
accustom them to make such compromises as are 

incompatible with the immutability of Catholic 
dogma and Gospel morality, each time that such 
compromises seem demanded by what people call 
'social exigencies' and civilization, and the 
superiority of the age, and other worldly 
considerations. It is, in fine, such as to make a man 
live a gay life in this world, as if here were for 
him the end of all and his own supreme destiny. 

"And although this system of education does not 
openly exclude every religious element, such as it 
contains is so superficial and diluted that it is 
anything but fit to fill the souls of the young with a 
perfect knowledge, a true love, an exact practice, a 
hearty profession of the Catholic faith to which 
they belong. 

"There is another great evil resulting from this, as 
they call it, impartial or unprejudiced education. 

Do you know what it is? It is to take no account of 
the powerful influence of the examples of the home 
circle, and to afford the children of the household 
all facilities for finding themselves from their early 

years in the midst of the most powerful seductions 
of a worldly society. 

"No, it is not a prejudice, but an undeniable truth, 
continually demonstrated by the experience of 
every day, that the school of example has more 
power to form the minds of the young than mere 
oral teaching. Nay, frequently what causes the 
failure of an educa- tion well wrought out by the 
zealous pastor and the skillful school- master are 
the evil examples given at home. 

"It is no prejudice, but a most pressing duty and an 
earnest of true fatherly love, which guards the 
young against the dangers and snares 


with which the road of worldlings is sown, — 
against licentious conver- sations, pestilential 
books, obscene spectacles, evil companions, 

perfid- ious friendships and dark associations. It is 
rather lamentable blindness and inexcusable folly 
on the part of parents to pretend to accustom their 
children for a while to the ways of the world, to 
make them to know everything, to open the way to 
the gratification of every passion, allowing their 
dear ones to be their own masters, exposing them 
to every temptation, in which their innocence 
receives wounds which no time can cure." 

This explicit exposition of the dangers lurking in 
the propagation of infidel doctrines was most 
timely, and it in a great measure prevented 
universal upheaval of all religious beliefs and 
customs. The people of Umbria were rendered 
stronger by these words to resist the inroads of 
revolutionary teachings, and they were among the 
most devoted followers of their Archbishop amid 
his trials. 



~"*HE letter which King Leopold of Belgium had 
written to Popt A Gregory XVI. at the termination 
of Archbishop Pecci's term as Nuncio to Brussels, 
in which his Majesty recommended him to a 
Cardinalate, was as follows: "I feel bound to 
recommend Archbishop Pecci to the kind 
protection of your Holiness. He highly deserves it, 
for I have never seen more extraordinary attention 
to duty, more upright intentions, or straightforward 
conduct. His stay in this country must have been 
productive of excellent results to the Church and 
benefit to your Holiness. I beg you to request of 
him a full account of the state of the Church in 
Belgium, as his judgment is unusually sound, and 
his word can be accepted as authoritative." 


This letter unfortunately arrived just as that 
venerable Pontiff was on his deathbed. Archbishop 

Pecci delivered it to his secretary of state, 

Cardinal Lambruschini, and to him personally 
rendered an account of his nunciature. His 
Eminence assured Archbishop Pecci that the 
faithful discharge of his duties at the Belgian court 
would not be forgotten, although the Sovereign 
Pontiff would not be able to reply. Thus it 
happened that it became the duty of Pope Gregory's 
successor, Pius IX., to answer the Belgian king’s 
let- ter, which he did soon after his coronation. In 
his reply he said: "Monsignore Pecci, lately 
Nuncio at the court of your Majesty, has placed in 
our hands the esteemed letter from your Majesty to 
our predecessor, Gregory XVI. The high testimony 
which your Majesty 

has been pleased to bestow upon Monsignore 
Pecci, Bishop of 



Perugia, is most honorable to that prelate, who 
shall, in due time, experience the effects of your 
royal and kindly wishes, as if he had continued to 
fulfill to the end the course of his nunciature." 

During his audience with Pius IX., before his 
departure for Perugia, Archbishop Pecci had the 
pleasure of feeling that the new Pope was 
appreciative of his efforts, for he had said: "We 
know you well, and we wish to reaffirm the words 
we expressed to you on a former occa- sion about 
what you have accomplished for the Church in 

The trials and persecutions of Pope Pius IX. during 
the six years after his elevation to the Pontificate 
were one of the reasons for the nonfulfillment of 
the promise made by his Holiness to King 
Leopold; and another reason was that Archbishop 
Pecci had himself expressed a desire that the time 
of his promotion to the Cardinalate be deferred till 

such time as peace reigned in Rome and the papal 
provinces. The members of the Sacred College in 
reality looked upon Arch- bishop Pecci as a 
Cardinal-elect. One of the prominent advisers of 
his Holiness, Cardinal Bianchi, in greeting the 
Bishop of Perugia one day embraced him 
affectionately and said: "The Church has expe- 
rienced a great loss in the death of Gregory XVI. I 
am sorry for it for your sake also, Monsignore, for 
I assure you that were it not for his death you 
would already be a Cardinal." 


Pius IX. was fully aware of these sentiments on the 
part of his predecessor, and when the affairs of the 
Church afforded a respite from more material 
concerns he called a Consistory December 19, 
1853, w i tn the intention of creating Monsignore 
Pecci a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church. After 
the Cardinals had assembled at the Consistory, 
which was held in the ducal hall of the Vatican 
palace, the Holy Father announced his intention of 

adding to their number a worthy and pious prelate 
as follows: 

"Venerable brethren, whilst in the bestowal of 
honors our choice 


is naturally directed to those whose virtue, as well 
as zeal toward the Holy See, have been 
conspicuously attested, it is incumbent on us to 
have a special regard for such as have rendered 
particular services. Of this number we are bound 
to consider our beloved Joachim Pecci, 
Archbishop-Bishop of Perugia. Noble by birth, and 
gifted with eminent qualities of mind, after having 
been admitted into the Congre- gation styled 'di 
Buon Governo,’ he discharged the duties of the 
delega- tions of Benevento and Umbria, and has 
since been sedulously employed in the posts of 
Nuncio to Belgium, and Bishop of Perugia. 

Besides the uniform exactness with which he has 
fulfilled the numerous and weighty obligations of 
his office no one can be ignorant of the zeal which 
he has manifested on various occasions for our 
safety and security. 

"The claim of Monsignore Pecci to be raised to 
your exalted order has been sufficiently proved by 
the signal services which he has ren- dered to the 
Catholic religion in Belgium. We have, indeed, 
ever been persuaded and convinced of that nation's 
zeal and sincerity in the cause of religion, so much 
as long since to have contemplated with 
satisfaction the services which it was calculated to 
render to the interests of the Catholic Church and 
the salvation of souls. With this our expectation 
and your wishes, venerable brethren, events have, 
through the mercy of God, and to our heartfelt 
delight, in com- mon with yours, most happily 
corresponded. For it is well known that in Belgium 
the seminaries and establishments of every kind 
which are committed to the care of ecclesiastical 
superiors for the purpose of training up youth of 

both sexes in learning and piety, are in the most 
flourishing condition. The Catholic University of 
Louvain, some years since reestablished at a vast 
expense, is to be highly recommended for the 
excellence of the character and method of 
instruction accorded, while not only the clergy but 
the entire body of the faithful are distinguished for 
their exemplary attachment and submission to the 
Holy See. 

"In fine, to express in a word, that which is the 
abundant and 


unfailing source of all these blessings, the 
provinces of Belgium are not in the slightest 
degree restrained from freely communicating with 
the Holy See, the center of Catholic unity, in all 
spiritual and ecclesi- astical affairs. These 
blessings, a source to us of infinite joy, are to be 

ascribed to the entire order of our venerable 
brethren, the Bishops of that kingdom, whose 
assiduous vigilance and singular zeal we take 
occasion deservedly to extol. More than all this, 
praise is due to our venerable brother, Joachim 
Pecci, Bishop of Perugia, a man con- spicuous for 
purity of morals, learning, piety, prudence and 
mildness of disposition — qualities which have 
recommended and endeared him not merely to the 
prelates, clergy and people, but also to his Majesty 
the king of Belgium 

"By the authority of Almighty God, by that of the 
Holy Apostles, Peter and Paul, and our own, we 
declare Joachim Pecci Cardinal- Priest of the Holy 
Roman Church." 

The allocution was followed by the conferring of 
the Cardinal’s hat and the robes belonging to the 
office from the hands of the Holy Father himself. 
Pius IX. was most profuse in his congratulations, 
and seemed to exult in the fulfillment of the 
promise made so long before to the king of 

Belgium, Pecci's elevation to the Cardinalate was 
an event of more than ordinary importance, and 
was attended by the Roman nobility, the diplomatic 
corps and a number of distin- guished visitors to 
Rome, among whom was the Prince Imperial, 
Frederick William of Germany, who was 
especially interested in the young Cardinal. After 
the ceremony Cardinal Pecci proceeded to the 
Muti palace, the home of his uncle, which had been 
and was still a home to him and his brother. Here 
again the greetings of the official and 
representative circles of Rome awaited him, as 
also special deputations from the municipal and 
charitable bodies of the Eternal City, all extending 
congratulation and the warmest demon- strations of 
friendship. These festivities lasted two days, 
embrac- ing receptions of the clergy and citizens. 

Having been assigned the presbyteral title of St. 

Chrysogonus, he decided before leaving Rome to 
go to the Church of St. Chrysogo- nus, in the 
Transtiberine Quarter, where he was installed as 
the titu- lar Cardinal presbyter of that ancient 

The Cardinal was appointed a member of several 
of the congrega- tions of Cardinals, the official 
consulting bodies of the Pope. As it was necessary 
for him, in order to qualify for the positions, to 
attend one meeting of each, so as to become an 
active participant in the discus- sion of questions 
presented for their consideration, he remained for 
a time in Rome. It was not until in February that he 
could promise his people of Perugia just when he 
would return to them After con- sultation with the 
deputies sent to Rome for the purpose, he named 
Sunday, the 26th of February, as the date of his 
formal entry into his Cathedral Church as 
Cardinal- Archbishop. 

The Perugians had come to revere and love the 
Bishop as a father during his seven years of 

Bishopric with them. They took his eleva- tion to 
the Cardinalate as a special mark of distinction, 
and there- fore proceeded to prepare for his return 
in such a welcome as would express in a way their 
esteem for their beloved pastor and their gratitude 
to the Holy Father for the honor paid to them in the 
person of their Archbishop. A special escort of 
prominent citizens went to Rome to meet and bring 
him in state to his diocese. 


The morning designated beamed brightly. The 
ancient town looked down on a scene of regal 
splendor and gala attire. Every- body was early 
astir and everywhere was manifest the universal 
rejoicing of the people of Perugia. A letter written 
by an American ecclesiastic visiting Perugia to a 
student friend in Rome gives a description of many 
scenes during the celebration. The letter reads: 

"February 27, 1854. — I happened to learn on my 
arrival at Perugia 


on Saturday evening that the difficulty which I had 
in getting lodg- ings was caused by the great 
numbers of strangers who had come from all parts 
of the diocese to welcome the newly elected 
Cardinal Pecci back to his diocese. I can assure 
you that I was glad to put up with any 
inconvenience in order to be present and witness 
the cele- bration. I was up early the following 
morning, and went to the Church of St. Francis of 
the Conventuals, where I was readily granted the 
privilege of saying mass, and the good Fathers 
explained to me the grand ceremonies in which 
they were all to participate. 

"The Cardinal had arrived in Perugia the previous 
evening and was to celebrate a pontifical high 
mass at the Cathedral. He was to be assisted by the 
Bishops from the neighboring dioceses, all of the 
clergy of the diocese and all members of religious 

orders who could be spared from their duties. The 
day was ushered in with the brightness of sunshine, 
and the freshness of spring was expressed in every 
shrub and flower, while brilliant winged birds 
were singing amid the green foliage. I was told that 
the roads leading to the city were thronged with 
vehicles of every description, and the peas- antry, 
clad in their quaint costumes, came in from the far- 
off moun- tain districts, whole families walking, 
while others put into good use their small farm 
horses or patient donkeys. The streets approaching 
the Cathedral were crowded with the faithful, and 
long before the hour appointed for the ceremonies 
every available space in the great Duomo was 
filled, and the military found it extremely difficult 
to make a passageway for the procession in the 
great square. 

u One of the most touching demonstrations of 
welcome came from the scattered groups of little 
children, who everywhere arrested the procession 
to greet the new Cardinal and kiss his hand. This 
unpre- meditated, spontaneous outburst of joy on 

the part of the innocent hearts of the little ones 
greatly pleased the Cardinal. 

"At ten o'clock the procession started. First came 
the students of the university, followed by the 
seminarians, then the professors of the 


colleges, the clergy, the Canons of the Cathedral, 
and twenty Bishops and Monsignori, finally his 
Eminence, Cardinal Pecci. 

"At his appearance a great shout went up from the 
people, and it was carried down through the streets 
of the city. I had the good fortune to be in the 
procession with the Franciscan Fathers. Loud 
exclamations of joy were heard resounding through 
the Church as the procession slowly wended its 
way up toward the main altar; the military band 
and the great organ burst into a triumphant strain of 

music, when suddenly a deep hush fell upon the 
assembled multitude as the chanters voiced the 
solemn, 'Ecce Sacerdos Magnus’ — ’Behold the 
Great Priest,’ and one hundred voices took up the 
refrain. The scene was magnificent. The great 
marble pillars were all hung in crimson cloth 
striped with gold — the main altar was draped in 
brilliant cloth sparkling with precious gems, and lit 
up by a thousand lights in gorgeous candelabra. 

The Cardinal made a short address after the 
Gospel, and during its delivery profound silence 
reigned throughout the sacred edifice, all deeply 
intent on the words which briefly expressed his 
feelings of heart and gratitude to God for having 
pre- served his people from the fearful calamity 
which had just before overtaken the neighboring 
cities and villages. He alluded to the earthquake, 
which had caused so much devastation to certain 
por- tions of Italy a few weeks ago, and of which 
we heard while I was in Rome, as you will 
remember. At the ’Benedicat \bs' — the benedic- 
tion — when the Cardinal raised his hands to 
Heaven, one impulse of feeling seemed to touch the 

hearts of the vast multitude, for all, except the 
Bishops in the sanctuary, sank upon their knees. 

The silence at this point was so profound that the 
voices of the people outside in the great square, 
were distinctly heard within. In a loud, clear, 
sonorous voice his Eminence gave his first 
blessing as a Car- dinal to his loyal children. At 
the conclusion of the blessing the military bands 
and the organ once more burst out in joyous strains, 
immediately upon the intoning of the triumphant Te 
Deum, which 


was sung, as is the custom, by the entire assembled 
congregation. It was a never to be forgotten scene 
when all joined in this glorious hymn of praise. . . 

Above the main entrance to the Cathedral appeared 
an inscrip- tion in Latin which, translated, reads: 

"The Church of Perugia rejoices that her illustrious 
and Most Reverend Bishop, Joachim Pecci, has 
been raised by the favor of our Holy Father Pius 
IX. to the dignity of Cardinal of the Holy Roman 
Church; and while her citizens have just felicitated 
him on his happy return, she receives him with a 
fond embrace, and prays with solemn pomp for the 
long life of her Cardinal-Bishop, together with the 
overflowing and joyous multitudes of people." 

The expenses of this reception were met by the 
municipal author- ities, who also signalized the 
event by the distribution of alms among the poor 
that had come to take part in the festivities, and 
also by the conferring of handsome marriage 
dowries upon five poor respect- able maidens 
selected by the Cardinal from the five wards of the 
city. In the afternoon a session of the great Umbrian 
Academy of the Filedoni was held in his honor, 
which he attended, during which he listened with 
pleasure to the addresses of sixteen of the most 
gifted writers in the province. These tributes of 
welcome were afterwards printed and preserved 

by the Cardinal. The evening celebration was still 
more elaborate than that of the morning, for the city 
was illuminated and all kinds of receptions 
tendered to distin- guished visitors by the 
dignitaries of the city. The Cardinal himself 
entertained at his residence the visiting Bishops 
and other noted guests. 


Cardinal Pecci was called to Rome in 1854 to take 
part in the promulgation of the dogma of the 
Immaculate Conception. 

Pope Pius IX. judged, in his wisdom, that the time 
had come to render the Blessed Virgin Mary the 
most brilliant homage that she 


had ever received from the Church. After having 
interrogated all the Bishops of the Church, he 

convoked at Rome for the 8th of December, the 
Feast of the Conception of Mary, all those Bishops 
whom the care of their flocks left free to respond 
to his call. 

A hundred and ninety-six Cardinals, Archbishops 
and Bishops assembled to surround the Sovereign 
Pontiff in this great solemnity and to bear witness 
of the faith of their dioceses and their countries. 
Everything favored this glorious f£te. The weather 
was as calm and clear as in the most beautiful days 
of spring. All the streets and houses of Rome were 
decorated with flags, and the immense basilica of 
St, Peter's threw open its gates from the early dawn 
to an immense concourse of the faithful who had 
hastened from the four quarters of the world. 

Toward nine o'clock the Sovereign Pontiff left the 
palace of the Vatican, preceded by a long file of 
Prelates, Bishops, Arch- bishops and Cardinals in 
their richest vestments, walking two and two, 
while reciting the Litanies of the Saints. 

The Holy Father celebrated mass with all the pomp 
of Church ritual. After the Gospel, Pius IX. 
ascended the throne near the main altar, then the 
oldest of the Cardinals and the oldest of the 
Bishops, accompanied by the Catholic Patriarch of 
the Greek Church, approaching, knelt at the feet of 
the Sovereign Pontiff, asking him, in the name of 
the Holy Catholic Church, to be willing to decree 
as a dogma of faith that the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
Mother of our Lord, our Creator and Redeemer, 
Jesus Christ, had been exempted from the universal 
stain of original sin, and that she was consequently 
immaculate in her conception. The Pope arose. A 
deep emotion filled the whole assembly. He 
intoned the "Veni Creator" to ask for the last time 
the guidance and illumination of the Holy Spirit; 
then, in the midst of a silence so profound that all 
the faithful could distinctly hear his voice, he read 
the decree of faith, closing with these words: 


"By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the 
Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own, we 
declare and define that the Blessed Virgin Mary 
has been, from the first moment of her concep- 
tion, preserved from all stain of original sin, and 
that this doctrine is revealed by God. If any dare to 
think otherwise let him know that he is condemned, 
and that he has departed from the Catholic Faith." 

Such was the sense of the pontifical decree. The 
Holy Father was so deeply moved that he could 
scarcely command his voice, and was often 
obliged to pause. All eyes were filled with tears, 
and even those who had come, attracted by 
curiosity, to witness so grand a ceremonial were 
won, in spite of themselves, by the display of such 
powerful Christian emotion. 

The writer of these memoirs, a young student in the 
College of the Propaganda, along with his fellow 
students was present at the above ceremony. 


The year 1853, which witnessed the elevation of 
Archbishop Pea ' to the Cardinalate, was fraught 
with dire distress for the people ot central Italy. 
The earthquakes which devastated whole, sections 
of most fruitful and productive portions of the 
neighboring provinces, though not visiting Perugia, 
caused a season of extreme want, during which the 
people suffered for the necessities of life. In the 
midst of this calamity the Cardinal opened not only 
his purse but his home to the distressed. The 
Archepiscopal residence was literally trans- 
formed into a free kitchen for the poor, where 
soups and nourishing foods were daily dispensed 
to those who applied for them. In every country 
parish the "Monti Frumenti," or deposits of grain, 
had already been, through his wise forethought, 
made available, and in every way possible the 
Cardinal ministered to relieve the starving 
population- He had already some months before 
addressed to his people a pastoral letter suggesting 
to them the organization of a charity com- mission, 
to which was assigned the task of investigating and 


ing for the needs of the people of all the parishes in 
his diocese. This commission was intended to do 
its work systematically, and for that purpose the 
Cardinal appointed men of every walk in life to 
membership. In defining its object and purposes he 
says: "To give to the poor from out of our 
abundance is a duty imposed by the Divine Master 
on all Christians without exception of times or per- 
sons. But to help them with what is more than 
superfluous, by limit- ing our appetites in what we 
use to live, especially when it is required by their 
extraordinary poverty and sufferings that we 
should do so; to help them because they bear the 
image of our Heavenly Father, and because their 
deplorable condition touches our hearts; to aim, in 
fact, at enabling them to bless God's fatherly 
providence in their distress, as it is His hand 
which is reached out to them through ours . . . this 
is what shows in its proper light the greatness and 

helpful- ness of Christian beneficence. 

In urging the establishment of the "Monti Frumenti" 
he sent a circular letter to each of the parish priests 
throughout his diocese, which fully explained the 
means which he had in view regarding the 
relieving of the prevalent famine. He wrote: "Our 
zeal and charity which should be the soul of our 
pastoral mission, can neither be inoperative nor 
indifferent in presence of the manifold miseries 
which now afflict our flock, and which come this 
year from the failure of the harvests and the 
scarcity of provisions. If our Lord, after having 
been so long irritated, and having so long waited 
patiently that we should amend our lives and 
correct our evil conduct, has at length visited the 
scourge upon us, our people should not, therefore, 
be left without the needs of life and the help of 

"Explain to your people what are the causes of the 
distress. . . . Take away from the minds of the 
fearful or unwary the exaggerated and deceptive 

illusions which the evil-minded propagate, that 
their sufferings come from the selfish schemes of 
speculators or the negli- gence of the government." 



THE time had now arrived when the great heart of 
Cardinal Pecci was put to its severest test. The 
machinations of the secret societies against the 
existing ecclesiastical and social conditions of 
pub- lie affairs began to put on a form of 
aggressiveness that foreboded evil to the religion 
in the Peninsula. It was hoped that Napoleon III. 
had stamped out the revolutionary party, having 
restored Pius IX. to the Roman States, and 
authorized his troops to protect the Holy See. But, 
as this monarch was ruled by those societies, he 
was compelled to give way to their demands. Non- 
compliance meant certain death. 


The first step towards the overthrow of the papal 
power was taken in an interview held at 
Plombieres between Napoleon III. and Count 
Cavour, the prime minister of the Sardinian 
government, in the autumn of 1858. An alliance 
was arranged, having in view the expulsion of the 
Austrians from the territory then occupied by them 
in northern Italy. It was said at the time to be 
Napoleon's plan to form an Italian federation, 
under a presidency, subject to the author- ity of 
France, hence the necessity of expelling the 
Austrians beyond the Alps. 

The great war-cry was now heard throughout the 
Peninsula, "Italy free, from the Alps to the 
Adriatic." During the following summer the French 
armies entered Lombardy, and after the two great 
battles of Magenta and Solferino, in which the 
Austrians were completely 

routed, the emperors of France and Austria met and 

agreed upon 


preliminaries of peace, the Austrian emperor 
ceding all his posses- sions, with the exception of 
Venice, in northern Italy to the Sar- dinian 
government. This arrangement did not satisfy the 
advocates of Italian unity, but they were compelled 
to remain silent for the time being. 

The Italian war, however, having resulted 
favorably to the Pied- montese government, flushed 
with success, the cry now became, "United Italy." 
Pius IX. had returned to the Eternal City from a 
triumphal visif'to the Roman States, overjoyed 
with the reception he had everywhere received. 
Great good was predicted on account of this trip, 
and even the enemies of the Papacy ceased for a 

time, though reluctantly, open demonstrations 
against the temporal power of the Pope. 

In 1 859 an event took place in Perugia that gave 
the revolutionists an opportunity to openly attack 
the Holy See, declaring that the Roman States were 
misgoverned by the Pope. A certain faction, 
supported by the secret societies of Tuscany, 
fomented disturbances in the city of Perugia against 
the papal authorities. This became of such a 
serious nature that the government at Rome was 
compelled to send troops to Perugia in order to 
enforce the law and quell the incipient rebellion. 

When the Swiss soldiers arrived, they were met 
with resistance. They stood their ground, and as a 
result they killed some twenty rebels and wounded 
others. Immediately the news was spread 
throughout the civilized world that a great battle 
had taken place in the streets of Perugia and that 
the papal troops put to death a large number of the 
citizens. The hostile press went so far as to call it 
the "massacre of Perugia." Monsignore Pecci, in a 

letter to his brother Joseph, wrote: "The Swiss 
soldiers arrived from Rome and, crowned with 
victory, they entered Perugia. They encountered 
resistance, but they showed great valor. At present 
the city- is quiet." 

In a letter to his brother, John Baptist, the Abbe 
Joseph Pecci 













s < 


4) •+-{■ 
s ° « . is fcl 
_g ca i — i .ms 
3 at o> 

•°£ S 
£ en .a 
3 « : 

ctj J2 p — i 
4) 'U i— i O A 

° Sr« © 

§J§ J 

ill *-< o 

J3 > 

0T3 •*-> 4) 0) /i\uU 
S «> o 
Trt - U 
2 o 
.5, «3 














< A 







* 9 







O 4a 



t— 1 





0 ) 



o m 











a u 

. 3 . 


£6 "5..S 





a o *j 


13 0 ) 





"at o 



.-2 at 

o o £ £ 


0 ) 


bfl o 

at 53 .2J 




o &■ a. o a 


wrote: "The truth is, the Swiss troops did not find 
any rebels in the streets, but, being fired on from 
the windows of houses where the rebels had taken 
refuge, they broke in and killed or wounded those 
who resisted. The presence of women and children 
did much in saving the lives of many rebels." 

Though the truth was known, the Piedmontese 
government took the affair up as a matter of 
immediate action, and sent 15,000 soldiers to 
occupy the city of Perugia. Very little resistance 
was made; the city was entered, and a provisional 
government established. 

An incident describes the manner in which the 
Piedmontese forces took possession of Perugia, as 
follows: "The Swiss garrison, attacked 

unexpectedly by the Piedmontese in the early 
morning, after having several times endeavored to 
repel the assailants, was overborne by numbers 
and took refuge in the Pauline Fort. There they 
entered into negotiations for a suspension of arms. 
While these were going on, and under the pretext 
that bands of pontifical troops had found a retreat 
there, the episcopal residence, that of the Canons, 
and the seminary, were taken possession of by the 
military, who broke open the doors and windows 
with axes. Meanwhile the bulk of the inva- ding 
army, with a formidable artillery, which was even 
posted in the porch of the Cathedral, was preparing 
to bombard and assault the fort, which, by replying 
to the fire, would have filled the city with ruin and 

"Thereupon the Cardinal-Archbishop, with the 
mayor, asked to see the general-in-chief, Fanti, 
who was the Piedmontese minister of war, with the 
intention of beseeching him not to carry out his 
designs. His pastoral solicitude only met with a 
rude response, for the bom- bardment arid the 

assault began with great vigor at the expiration of 
the brief truce. Still the Cardinal's interposition 
had no little influ- ence in preventing the assailants 
from taking offensive measures against the citizens; 
it prevented also the effusion of blood and helped 
to obtain more favorable conditions for the 



Cardinal Pecci was deeply grieved at the turn of 
events, and did what was in his power to relieve 
the fears of his faithful subjects. On September 
15th he heard of the condemnation of one of his 
priests, Don Balthasar Santi, rector of one of the 
Perugian Churches, to the death penalty for the 
alleged offense of having borne arms against the 
Piedmontese. The court-martial which doomed the 
good man to this awful fate, had been held at night, 

and no opportunity was offered the prisoner to 
provide witnesses to prove that he was not guilty. 
Cardinal Pecci, knowing Balthasar Santi to be 
innocent, decided to go at once to the general in 
command, De Sonnaz, and request that the charges 
against the priest be examined more minutely, and 
that the court-martial sentence be suspended, 
pending the investigation. To these requests of the 
Cardinal, a deaf ear was turned. 

This was the beginning of the Piedmontese 
occupation of the Roman States. Bologna, Ancona, 
Spoleto, and all the cities in the provinces of 
Benevento, Umbria, and the Romagne were soon 
taken and placed under Piedmontese rule. This was 
done regardless of the protests of Pius IX., and the 
valiant defense made by the papal troops, under 
General Lamoriciere, on the plains of 

The following year was full of anxiety and trial for 
Cardinal Pecci, who, throughout the prolonged 
ordeal, never wavered from the strict letter of the 

law regarding the rights of the Pope and the 
Church. He constantly and repeatedly voiced and 
penned protests to the civil authorities against the 
unjust spoliation of the property belonging to the 
Holy See. 

The Archbishops and Bishops of the Marches sent 
to the cominis- sary-general, in November, a 
protest against the methods adopted by him in 
regulating Church matters in their dioceses. 

An extract from this remonstrance explains their 
feelings: "Our 


hearts, cruelly wounded and torn, are filled with 
grief and desolation at the thought of the spiritual 
ruin threatened our flocks, purchased by the blood 
of the Lamb. Nevertheless, after all the 
contradictions, the trials, the obstacles which we 

have had to encounter, not one spark of charity, of 
zeal, of pastoral and fatherly solicitude has been 
quenched in our souls — we solemnly affirm it 
with our anointed hands on our hearts — and, with 
the help of God’s grace, these sentiments shall 
never depart from us through fault of ours. We 
scarcely believe our own eyes or the testimony of 
our ears, when we hear and see the excesses, the 
abominations, the disorders occurring in the chief 
cities in our respective dioceses, to the shame and 
horror of the beholders, to the great detriment of 
religion, of decency, of public morality, since the 
ordinances against which we protest deprive us of 
all power to protect religion and morality, or to 
repress the prevailing crimes and licentiousness." 


The innovations to which they alluded as baneful 
in their effects upon the people of their dioceses 
were many, but perhaps the most serious in its 
immediate and subsequent results was the act 

which deprived the marriage ceremony of its 
religious character, making it simply a civil act. 
Cardinal Pecci viewed this debasement of the 
marriage tie as the great evil of the day. Realizing 
the family to be the basis of all society, he 
concentrated all the powers of his tongue and pen 
against this attempt to reduce marriage to a mere 
civil bond. He sent a special letter to the king, 
explaining to him the outrage which was being 
done in his Majesty's name throughout the 
province. This personal communication was 
intended to bring to the attention of the monarch the 
injustice such measures would wreak on public as 
well as private morals. The remonstrance reads as 

"Sire: — The extraordinary anomaly of civil 
marriage, imposed on the population of Umbria by 
a decree of the Sardinian commissary, 


the Marquis Pepoli, dated October 31, i860, was 
not then fully under- stood and appreciated in its 
entire reach and consequences. 

"The Umbrian hierarchy, after witnessing, for more 
than a year, a lamentable succession of 
sacrilegious usurpations and shameful acts, could 
have drawn from these alone a sufficient reason for 
mourning and trembling for the fate of their people. 

. . . They did not delay to deplore the same, and in 
the joint protest sent to the government in 
December, i860, they denounced the innovation as 
one of the most baneful among many carried out to 
the detriment of religion and the sacred rights of 
the Church. 

"Enlightened, moreover, by the guilty results of this 
deplorable change, the Bishops, after an 
experience of several months, have lately 
published a doctrinal ’Declaration’ in which the 
innovation is submitted to examination, its 
irreligious character is laid bare, and the capital 
points of its discordance with Catholic doctrine 

are placed in evidence. Your Majesty will permit 
me to place in your hands a copy of this 
’Declaration,' for it is exceedingly important that 
you should know, and see in its full light, an act of 
such serious conse- quence, — the capricious act 
of an official who came, after the military 
occupation of these provinces, to make laws in 
your royal name. It is an act which still works its 
demoralizing effects, corrupting con- sciences and 
public morality; it now requires a remedy. 

"Your Majesty must bear with me if I, who, though 
the last in merit among my venerable colleagues, 
am bound by stricter ties to the Catholic cause and 
the Holy Roman Church, the universal teacher and 
guardian of the divine rights, do now endeavor to 
place briefly before your eyes the inconsistency 
and deformity of this anom- aly, considered in its 
civil and religious bearings. . . . 

"As to its religious aspect, which is the most 
important, your Majesty need only, in order to 
weigh well the gravity of this act, to remember 

what you witnessed yourself in 185 1-2, while the 
projected law of civil marriage was discussed in 
the Piedmontese Chambers. . . . 


"If your Majesty will now only take the trouble to 
read calmly the few pages of our ’Declaration,’ you 
will feel certain that this pro- jected law, which is 
claimed to be a boon to Umbria, is of anti-Chris- 
tian character. 

"This is shown by the fundamental conception of 
the law itself, which is based on the theory of the 
separability of the contract from the sacrament. By 
dissociating marriage from every religious 
element, it is given features of a merely human 
character; and, by overlooking the divine 
institution and economy which regulate mar- riage 
in its very essence, the law takes upon itself 
exclusively to arrange what is most intimate in the 

matter, as if it regulated only an ordinary 
transaction of civil origin and competence. 

"This character is also shown by the motives on 
which the law is based, which are not only futile 
and insufifrcient, when there is a ques- tion of 
justifying an act of this moment, but reveal a 
purpose sadly out of accord with Catholic 

"They pretend to assert thereby the furwtess of the 
state jurisdic- tion, and, under the cloak of 
'civilization' and 'progress,' to set about 
transforming God's own work; they command 
men’s consciences to accommodate themselves to a 
factitious tie which Christian doctrine declares to 
be illicit and most criminal, apart from the 

"Under the specious and lying color of abuses "and 
restraints, it censures the venerated rules of 
Christian jurisprudence, the wise discipline of the 
Church, confirmed by the decrees of councils and 

by the uninterrupted practice of so many ages. 

"Therefore it was that Pius IX., writing to your 
Majesty on this projected law, concluded his letter 
with these memorable words: ’We wrote to your 
Majesty that the law is not Catholic; and if the law 
is not Catholic, the clergy are obliged to tell the 
people so. Have Christian marriage restored 
speedily to its religious liberty and its superhuman 
grandeur. Let the annoying exceptions cease, which 
are so grievous a burden to the consciences of our 
people, and sup- 


press that heterodox innovation which, by 
desecrating an august sacra- ment, vitiates, in their 
principles, the domestic and social relations, and 
is a great danger to the purity of faith and morals.’ " 

This letter, so fraught with earnest and sincere 

wishes for the good of the people of Umbria and 
the preservation of the sacra- mental character of 
the marriage bond, was received in silence by the 
royal person to whom it was addressed. Whether 
he regarded the appeal of the great Cardinal- 
Archbishop of Perugia as presumptuous in 
forwarding such a vigorous arraignment, or 
whether he looked upon the document as a censure 
upon his own acts, is not known. 




/'"CARDINAL PECCI understood the work of the 
conspirators, A — ' whose aim was to eventually 
strike at the foundation of the Church of Rome by 
bringing the masses to believe that they were 

working in the name of patriotism and national 
unity, while in their secret councils they declared 
that: "Our final purpose is that of \bltaire and the 
French Revolution — the total annihilation of 
Cathol- icism and of the Christian idea itself" The 
non-Catholics of the civilized world were imbued 
with the same opinion as the leader of the 
revolutionary conspirators in Italy, Mazzini, who 
voiced the senti- ments of the enemies of the 
Church, in these words published in August, 1859: 
"The abolition of the temporal power manifestly 
carries with it the emancipation of the human mind 
from the spiritual power, and that freedom could 
only exist by the divorcement of State from 


The object of these utterances, as well as the acts 
of the French and Italian revolutionary bodies, 
were perfectly understood by Car- dinal Pecci, 
and, in order to apprise his priests and people of 
the danger threatened the Church, he issued a 

pastoral "On the Tem- poral Dominion of the 
Pope," dated February 12, i860, in which he 
forecast the impending attempt to wrest from the 
Holy See its temporalities. 

"To discharge before God," he wrote, "the strict 
obligation I have 

as a Bishop to watch over the dangers which 
threaten the souls of his 



flock, and not to have one day to reproach myself, I 
address myself to you, O my beloved people, with 
all the warmth of my heart, all the zeal of my soul, 
begging you, amid the present dreadful upsetting of 
all notions, the present fearful and fateful 
circumstances, to hear the voice of your pastor 

with your wonted docility, inspired as it is solely 
by that charity which compels him to prefer the 
salvation of your souls to all human 

"It is all the more needful that I should do so, 
since, on the one hand, there are those who are 
more earnest in their endeavors to per- suade you 
that this 'temporal dominion’ has nothing whatever 
to do with the real interests of Catholicism; and 
since, on the other, there are very many persons 
who, either on account of their simplicity of 
character or their lack of knowledge, or their 
weakness of intellect, do not even suspect the 
existence of the wicked purpose, which is 
concealed from their eyes with such criminal 

"They say, 'We want religion to be respected, but 
the Pope must be satisfied with the spiritual 
government of soul; he has no need of a temporal 
sovereignty. Temporal power turns away the mind 
to worldly cares; it is injurious to the Church, 

opposed to the Gospel, and unlawful.' 

"Let us omit to dwell on the new ground, on which 
it is proposed to strip every proprietor of all that 
he does not strictly need for his sustenance. What a 
farce it would be to say to him, that by so doing the 
despoilers were relieving him of the trouble of 
taking care of his superfluous goods! Let us say 
nothing of the august right, conse- crated by eleven 
centuries of possession, of the most ancient and 
ven- erated of European monarchies. If such rights 
are not sufficient to insure respect, then there is no 
kingdom, no empire in Europe, which may not be 

"Let us say nothing of the open robbery of these 
possessions which the piety of the faithful and of 
sovereigns bestowed on the Roman Pontiff and on 
the Catholic body; let us pass in silence the victory 


the Revolution over the most sacred and venerable 
authority which was the corner-stone of European 
society, as well as the sad state of abasement to 
which it is proposed to reduce the Common Father 
of the faithful, the Supreme Pontiff of the Catholic 

"Let us pass in silence the work of destroying that 
temporal prin- cipality, which has been, at all 
times, the august school of the sciences and fine 
arts, the well-spring of civilization and wisdom for 
all nations; the glory of Italy, by that moral primacy 
which it secures to her, and which is all the more 
noble, as spirit is superior to matter; this bul- wark 
which protected Europe from the waves of Eastern 
barbarism; this power which, by restoring the ruins 
of ancient greatness, founded the Christian Rome; 
this throne before which the most powerful 
monarchs have bent low their heads in reverent 
obeisance, to which, from all the courts of Europe 

and from Japan, at the extremity of the East, have 
come solemn embassies, proffering homage and 

"Let us, I say, omit all that, and all else that might 
be said of a design which contemplates the 
committing of an accumulation of crimes; let us 
limit ourselves to the consideration of the close 
con- nection which the spoliation of the papal 
temporal power has with the interests of Catholic 
doctrine, with the mischievous results sure to 
follow for the Catholic religion. 


"It is false that any Catholic holds the temporal 
dominion to be a dogma of his faith. Such an 
assertion can only have come from the ignorance 
or the wickedness of the enemies of the Church. 
But it is most true, and must be evident to any 
intelligent mind, that there is a very close 
connection between this temporal power and the 
spir- itual primacy, whether we consider the latter 

in the very conception of its nature or in its 
necessary exercise. . . . 

"The Church is the Kingdom of Christ. . . . Can the 
Head of this 



Kingdom, without unreason, become the subject of 
a mere earthly potentate? . . . The Church has for 
its function to direct humanity toward its 
supernatural destiny, its last end. The civil power 
is only charged with providing and securing the 
immediate purpose of this present life: peace, 
security, order, plenty. Is it in accordance with the 
dictates of reason that what is final should be made 
subordinate to what is intermediary — that the end 

should be made to accord with the means, not the 
means with the end? It is a truth attested by faith, 
by reason, by our own experience, that the 
happiness of the present life, over which preside 
the kings of the earth ... is only a means for 
procuring the life eternal. ... For procuring the 
sure attainment of this life eternal, watches 
evermore this High- Priest, who hath received from 
Christ the mission of guiding humanity towards the 
everlasting felicity. . . . See, then, what upsetting of 
ideas it would be to make of this High-Priest of the 
Catholic Church, the Roman Pontiff, the subject of 
any earthly power! 

"We see in history how the ample donations, the 
vast possessions, and the acts of civil jurisdiction 
exercised by the Roman Pontiffs, are things which 
are traced back so far as to bring us to the first 
centu- ries of our era. In no other way can we 
explain the extraordinary phenomenon of a power 
which came to be placed in their hands with- out 
their knowing it, against their will even, as the 
celebrated Count de Maistre expresses and proves 

it. Wherefore those who would have the Pope 
stripped of his civil principality would like to see 
the Church brought back to her infant condition, to 
the first stage of her existence. And this they would 
have done without considering that, in their 
conception, the ordinary condition corresponding 
to the nature of Christianity is that first initial stage 
which developed into that grandeur foreordained 
by Providence, who, from out the cata- combs and 
the prisons, led the Popes through the bloody path 
of martyrdom to the throne of the persecuting 

"The Pope has to guard intact in its integrity the 
deposit of the 


Faith; he must preserve revealed truth from error 
and corruption among the faithful peoples. ... He 

must be free to communicate, without impediment, 
with Bishops, sovereigns, subjects, in order that 
his word, the organ and expression of the divine 
will, may have a free course all over the earth, and 
be there canonically announced. 


"Now, imagine the Holy Father become the subject 
of a govern- ment and deprived for a time of the 
liberty to exercise his apostolic ministry. 

Whenever his non licet, or any decision of his, 
sounded harsh to the ears of the sovereigns over 
him, or was opposed to those sovereigns' views, 
or to what they call 'the reason of state,' forthwith 
should we hear of threats, of decrees, of 
imprisonment, of exile, in order to strangle the 
voice of truth at its birth. 

"Need we recall Liberius, sent into banishment by 
the Emperor Constantius for refusing to sanction 
the sentence against St. Athana- sius? or John!., 

imprisoned by Theodosius for not favoring the 
Arians? or Silverius, exiled by the Empress 
Theodora, because he would not receive to 
communion the heretical Anthimus? or Martin I., 
torn away from the Basilica of the Saviour in 
Rome and sent to die among the barbarians of 
Pontus by the Emperor Constans, a Monothelite? 
or, in fact, all the Pontiffs of the first centuries, 
who had no other way to fulfill their ministry than 
the courage to endure mar- tyrdom? 

"But, in truth, there is no need for prisons or 
decrees of banish- ment to bind the hands of Popes 
who have become the subjects of another power. 
Everybody knows how easily a government can, 
even by indirect means, close up every avenue to 
publicity, cut off all means of communication, put 
all sorts of obstacles in the way of truth, and give 
falsehood free sway. In such a situation how is the 
Pope to superintend the affairs, without number, of 
all the Churches; to pro- mote the extension of 
God's Kingdom, to regulate worship and disci- 


pline, to publish briefs and encyclicals, to convene 
councils, to grant or refuse canonical institution to 
Bishops, to have at his command the congregations 
and courts which are necessary for the manage- 
ment of so many weighty affairs, to keep off 
schisms, to prevent the spread of public heresies, 
to decide religious disputes, to speak freely to 
rulers and peoples, to send nuncios and 
ambassadors, to conclude concordats, to employ 
censures, — to regulate, in fact, the consciences of 
two hundred millions of people scattered all over 
the world; to preserve inviolate dogmas and 
morals; to receive appeals from all parts of the 
Christian world, to judge causes thus submitted, to 
enforce the execution of the sentences pronounced, 
to fulfill, in one word, all his duties, and to 
maintain all the sacred rights of his primacy? 


"Here, then, is what they are aiming at. By taking 
from the Pope his temporal power, they mean to 
render it impossible for him to exercise his 
spiritual power. 

"From the Sovereign Pontiff proceed decisions 
which directly con- cern what is deepest and most 
sacred in our consciences: our faith, our hope of 
eternal felicity. Every Catholic has a right to ask, 
in matters of such exalted nature, which transcend 
all the things of earth and of the present life, which 
nearly touch the interests of his own immortal soul, 
that the sentence of the judge who is to guide him 
toward eternal life shall come freely from his lips; 
so freely that no one may hint at the possibility of 
such a decision having been obtained through the 
dictation of another or forced from the giver by 
sheer violence. 

"Every Catholic therefore demands that the Pope 

shall be placed in such a well known condition of 
freedom that not only shall he be independent, but 
that it shall be clear to the eyes of all that he is so. 
Now, how can the Catholics of all nations believe 
that the decisions 


of their parent and guide are thus free, when he is 
the subject of an Italian, a German, a French, or a 
Spanish sovereign? 

"The conspirators' plan is no longer a thing to be 
doubted, except by those who wish to remain 
willfully blind. But in what way is it to be carried 
out? In this, and note it well, if you would not fall 
into the snares of these evil men: by giving loud 
assurances, protestations, and solemn oaths, that in 
no wise whatever do they intend to touch or to 
injure religion. 

"There is no middle course. Either we have to 
stand faithful to Christ, to His Church, to that 
Church's visible Head, and against the enemies of 
our religion, or to take part with these against God 
and His Church. 

"It is no longer a matter of policy; it is a matter of 
conscience; we cannot continue to hesitate between 
Christ and Belial. . . . Would any one among you 
prefer to espouse the enemies of the Vicar of 
Christ? This would be to deny the traditions of 
your forefathers; it would be, to use the words of 
the Perugian statute book, 'to become degenerate 
sons of ancestors of the noblest blood.’ Not only 
were these ancestors of yours most devoted to the 
Faith, but they resolved that their own bodies 
should be a bulwark to defend the temporal 
dominions of the Holy See. 

"When the Ghibelline and Guelph factions had 
arisen in Italy, Perugia remained ever faithful to the 
Popes. When these were obliged, by popular 
turbulence, to leave Rome, they found in Perugia a 

secure abode and a place where the Conclaves 
could be held in perfect liberty. This fidelity shone 
forth wonderfully during the reign of Alexander 
IV, who was wont to call your ancestors 'the stout 
champions and the chosen defenders of the Church, 
the rivals in courage and constancy of soul of the 
generous Maccabees.’ 

"Your history is full of the splendid deeds done to 
combat the enemies of the Church and to reduce to 
obedience her rebellious pos- sessions. So deep in 
these men’s souls were the spirit of religious 


faith and the love for the Papacy! Oh! if these 
could only come forth from the peace of the tomb, 
with what contempt would they treat the advances 
of those who would dare to plan the spoliation of 
the Father of the faithful and the suppression of all 

liberty for the Church!" 


Scarcely had the letter reached the pastors of the 
diocese of Perugia, when a note was received by 
every Bishop and priest in the province from the 
Piedmontese minister of worship, the object of 
which seems to have been to frighten or to bribe 
the Bishops and clergy to forsake the Pope and the 
temporal power, and join the "United Italy" ran ks . 
This open invitation to treason and schism 
provoked great indignation among the members of 
the hierarchy within the jurisdiction of Cardinal 
Pecci. Jointly with his Bishops he drew up a letter 
addressed to the Holy Father, explaining the situa- 
tion of affairs, which was signed by the Cardinal 
and each of his col- leagues. It read as follows: 

"Most Holy Father: — In the fierce and protracted 
storm which at this time agitates the Church so 
fearfully, and which causes so much anxiety to the 
heart of your Holiness, we, who are the copartners 

of your solicitude and sharers of all your pain, 
have had to bewail, as we do still bewail, the 
unceasing efforts made to cause the ruin of our 
populations, to separate them from your fatherly 
rule and to divide them still more from the center 
of Catholic faith. To carry out this purpose no sort 
of seduction or deceit has been left untried. After 
promoting or openly favoring irreligion and 
libertinism by the unre- stricted diffusion of 
pestilential books of erroneous doctrines and 
heterodox teachings, they are now plying the clergy 
with provocatives and enticements, aiming to 
detach them from their lofty duties and from the 
obedience due to their prelates, so as then to use 
them for their own guilty designs. 


"And as all these attempts met with an 
insurmountable obstacle in the firm and unanimous 

zeal of the episcopal body, they have now again 
made these the object of new assaults, 
undiscouraged by the partial endeavors made to 
break down the constancy of many of our venerated 
brethren in the revolutionized provinces of Italy. 
Defama- tions, insults, threats, confiscation, 
imprisonment, banishment having failed, they have 
had recourse to the disloyal pens of prevaricating 
priests to plead, in their turn, the cause of the 
present revolution. And seeing how little heed was 
paid to the apologetic declamations of these men, 
which died away and were lost like the last sounds 
of a brass bell, it has been lately deemed proper 
that an official act (of the minister) should be 
directed towards weakening the fidelity of the 
Bishops. It aims to detach them from your Holiness 
and from the cause of the Supreme Pontificate, and 
setting forth old accusations, it seeks to pledge 
them to acts of approbation and adhesion to all that 
has been accomplished against the inviolable laws 
of justice and religion and against the rights of the 
Holy See. 

"They pretend, in fact, that the clergy should 
recognize, both in right and in fact, the boasted 
restoration of a nationality as under- stood by the 
revolutionists, and which is the result of 
conspiracy, deception, injustice and sacrilege. 

They demand that the clergy, like every other 
social class and institution, should be the subjects, 
in the discharge of their mission, to the dictation of 
the State — just as if the priesthood was the 
offspring of the political power, and that from it, 
and not from God, was derived the mission to 
preach the truth and teach the nations. 

’They take it as a crime that the clergy should show 
such patient resignation in enduring such storms of 
misfortune, so many humilia- tions and oppressions 
of every kind, taking it for granted that they ought 
to be the panegyrists and cooperators of a policy 
which their conscience reproves, which the law of 
God condemns. The clergy are promised, in order 
to bribe and attract them, pledges and assur- 


ances of being left at peace in the exercise of their 
religious ministra- tions, as if the sad succession of 
hostile measures and usurpations consummated up 
to the present moment did not sufficiently unmask 
the hideous illusions and disloyalty of such 
promises. . . . 

"They are offered, as the basis of reconciliation, to 
accept the con- demned and fatal system of the 
separation of Church and State, which, being 
equivalent to divorcing the State from the Church, 
would force Catholic society to free itself from all 
religious influ- ence. . . . 

"The tendency of this last intrigue is patent enough. 
It is calcu- lated that the clergy of Italy, violating 
their own duties and separa- ting themselves from 
their lawful pastors, and If om you principally, 

Most Holy Father, who are their Supreme Chief 
and Ruler, would abase themselves to legitimize 

and sanction the acts accomplished by the 
revolution, and thereby become the advocates and 
accomplices of the total spoliation and destruction 
of the sacred sovereignty of the Church, which they 
are now planning so noisily." 

Then follows a lengthy pledge of the entire 
priesthood with the Bishops to the service of the 
Holy See, and their fealty to the Vicar of Christ in 
the person of Pius IX. In conclusion the letter 
reasserts the right of the Pope to his temporal 


"And with regard to the sacred sovereignty and the 
temporal dominions, against which so many 
conspiracies and expeditions are planned, we 
accept no other sentiments and declarations than 
those of the Church herself, attested even in our 
day by the unanimous suffrage of the Catholic 
episcopate, and proclaimed by ourselves in our 
pastoral letters to our diocesans, and in many 

addresses on the same subject laid before the 
pontifical throne. While, in the sense of the 
definitions of the oecumenical councils, we 
acknowledge the invio- lability of the sacred 
endowments and ecclesiastical possessions, we 




■<-> i- 


4) (3. 


4 > 




no to 


.a v en 
a o 


£ D O 



_• 0 us 




0 , 

0 Pu 

a a 







• 4 -> 






• 4 _* 


' 5 , £ « 


a d ©> 






also consider this sacred sovereignty to be a 

special ordinance of Divine Providence which no 
human power may lawfully assail — an ordinance 
directed towards protecting the independence of 
the Church, towards securing to her Visible Head 
the fullness of the lib- erty necessary for the proper 
exercise of the supreme authority, bestowed on him 
by God, over the whole Catholic world. . . . 

"In the profession of such principles and 
convictions, and in fidelity to the Holy See and to 
your august person, we desire to be, with divine 
help, ever firm in the face of whatever may befall 
us, of the dangers and contradictions to which we 
may be exposed. Nay, more, the greater these may 
be, the more do we feel the duty of standing at your 
side, Most Holy Father, and to find in your invinci- 
ble constancy, in your serenity of soul amid all the 
tribulations which press upon you, inspiration and 
increasing comfort in the fulfillment of our pastoral 

Cardinal Pecci little thought, as he penned these 
prophetic words to Pius IX., that the extreme limit 

of the possibilities alluded to in this letter would 
find realization. 

While it cannot be claimed that Cardinal Pecci's 
efforts were always attended with success, still it 
is a matter for praise that these endeavors were 
never allowed to pass unnoticed by the civil 
author- ities to whom they were addressed. His 
adversaries could not but admire the fearless 
opposition which he waged against any encroach- 
ment on the rights of the Church. One statesman. 
Urban Ratazzi, writing to his wife from his 
temporary residence in Perugia, said of the 

"Pecci is a man of undeniable merit. He is gifted 
with great energy and powers of management, 
coupled with the mildest man- ners imaginable. 
The fact is, that in spite of his incorruptibility and 
his loftiness of mind, in spite of the deep-rooted 
respect he has inspired in our officials, the 
Cardinal's concessions will be mere matters of 
form He will give way just to the extent that 

would be 


expected from a man of the world, and no more. 
He is strongly attached to the Holy See, and his 
principles are unbending. A man of his invincible, 
almost aggressive firmness would not yield. He is 
distinctly one of those priests who compel 
admiration. He has con- siderable political talent, 
and his knowledge is still more extensive." 

The same writer, in another letter, refers to his 
consideration for the Cardinal, and adds some 
interesting details anent his personality: 

"Cardinal Pecci does not condescend to small 
compromises. When he took possession of his 
Seminary he merely stated that he needed a few 
rooms, and he is now living in his palace with his 

pupils from the Seminary. He invites them to dine 
and spend the evening with him. He is doing for 
Perugia what Cardinal Riario Sforza tried to do for 
Naples — he is creating a scientific movement. In 
the meantime, not one of our officials has been 
invited to cross his thresh- old. If he should 
encounter me, I believe he would run away as if he 
had seen the evil one." 



r I A HE extraordinary condition of affairs, both 
spiritual and polit- -*■ ical, in Italy during the 
years preceding the Piedmontese inva- sion of the 
papal dominions prompted the Holy Father to 
determine upon convening a general council for the 
purpose of defining certain universally accepted 
doctrines, which, in the course of impending 
events, might be attacked by those whose chief 

occupation was to undermine every fundamental 
truth of the religion of Jesus Christ. 

The calling of an oecumenical council, the first 
since that of Trent in 1563, had been contemplated 
by the Holy Father long before the actual invitation 
was extended to the Catholic hierarchies to attend 
such a council. 

On the return of the Holy Father from Gaeta, he had 
appointed fourteen Cardinals to consider the 
question of holding a council, each one being 
instructed to consult with a learned theologian in 
view of deciding upon a program He advised the 
Cardinals to approach the work in contemplation, 
with sentiments of humility and confidence in God. 
He exhorted them to unite with him in prayer, that 
light and strength from above might be given them 
to see the truth. Concluding, he said: "We must 
pray fervently and persever- ingly that the Holy 
Spirit may enlighten us." 

In 1864, on the 6th of December, while Pius IX. 

was presiding 

over a session of the Congregation of Rites, 
consisting of Cardinals 

and Church officials, he intimated to them his 
desire for securing the 

expression of the Bishops of the Church on some 
subjects of great 

interest. He asked that each of those present should 
consider the 

propriety of holding a general council, and submit 
to him, in wri- 



ting, the character of the matters likely to come up 

for discussion, and the exact phraseology in which 
these subjects should be couched, as also their, 
opinion regarding the scope of. the work which 
would be assigned to the council. 

This Bull contained the following declarations 
regarding the primacy of St. Peter, and the reasons 
for calling the proposed general council: "... And 
that the government of the Church should for- ever 
proceed rightly, and in order that the Christian 
people should ever abide in faith, hope and charity, 
doctrine and communion, Christ promised that He 
would remain with His Church even to the end of 
the world. And also, from all the Apostles, He 
chose Peter to be the Prince of the Apostles, His 
own Vicar here on earth, and the head of His 
Church, its foundation and center. . . . And, 
forasmuch as the unity and integrity of the Church 
and the government of the same, instituted by 
Christ, needs to be stable and perpetual, therefore, 
in the Roman Pontiffs, the successors of Peter, who 
have been called to this Roman See, there abide in 
fullness and vigor the same power, jurisdiction and 

primacy of Peter over all the Church. 

Continuing, he says: "All men know with what 
unwearied vigi- lance the Roman Pontiffs have 
labored to guard the deposit of faith, the proper 
education and discipline of the clergy, the holiness 
and dignity of the sacrament of matrimony, to 
promote the Christian education of persons of both 
sexes, to foster religion, piety and integ- rity of 
morals, to defend justice, and to provide also for 
the tranquil- lity, order and prosperity of civil 
society. Nor have they failed, when they judged it 
opportune, above all in times of grave 
perturbations and calamities, to convoke general 
councils, that with the counsel and united strength 
of the Bishops of the whole world, whom the Holy 
Ghost inspires to rule the Church, they might, with 
prudence and wisdom, dispose of all things 
necessary to defend the dogmas of faith, for 
destroying the errors which prevail, and for the 
correction of morals among the people." 


This explicit declaration of the motives which 
prompted the call for a general council of the aids 
and counsellors of the Sovereign Pontiff, 
embracing the entire hierarchy of the Church, was 
certainly sufficient to satisfy the minds of all well- 
intentioned persons, but so malevolent and 
perverse were the fanatical enemies of the Papacy 
that they seized upon the occasion to misconstrue 
and impugn the motives and the objects of the Holy 
Father. They set afloat the error that the Pope of 
Rome was about to invent a new dogma, designed 
to further subjugate the adherents of Catholicism to 
the whims of the Papal Sovereign. They circulated 
erroneous ideas regarding the business that would 
occupy the sessions of the council, and declared 
that the Pope was arrogating to himself divine 
prerog- atives in proclaiming himself infallible. 
The fact that the Pope cannot, even if so inclined, 
invent new dogmas, that he simply defines and 
declares doctrines already contained in the 
inherited deposit of faith, and promulgates them to 

the people of the world, never occurred to the 
leaders of these attacks upon the Holy See. They 
were so completely under the control of anti- 
Christian revolutionists that any fair consideration 
of the acts of the Holy Father and his counsellors 
was out of the question. The Pope ignored the 
charges and proceeded to convene the council. 


To the Catholic, enlightened by the rays of 
ecclesiastical history, the Council of the Vatican is 
a phase of the legitimate workings of the Holy 
Spirit, who guides, directs and vivifies the Church 
through the ever-changing vicissitudes of ages. 
There were, however, one or two points about the 
reassembling of the Bishops under the supreme 
authority of the successor of Peter, on the present 
occasion, which presented great food for thought to 
the earnest Christian. 

In the first place the world had made great material 
progress since the Council of Trent. Its physical 

appearance, even, had changed. 


To the Fathers of Nice the world was a vast chaos 
of Paganism. Here and there — fulfilling the 
mission of "teaching them all things whatsoever I 
have commanded you" — the bright light of the 
Gospel, tinctured by the blood of innumerable 
martyrs, shone out amid the total darkness. Ages 
and successive councils passed away. The storm ol 
Mohammedanism arose in the East. Rome, the 
Babylon of the Revelation and of Peter's Epistle, 
fell. The apostolic churches disappeared. The See 
of Peter alone remained; and Europe, with her 
feudalism, represented Christian civilization. 

Then Luther raised his hand against the Church, 
and the Fathers of Trent assembled and sustained 
the condemnation already fulmi- nated against his 
errors by the Holy See. From that hour Protestant- 

ism ceased to progress in the opinions of men. 
Whatever steps for- ward the heresy made after 
that, were by the internecine feuds of Catholic 
monarchs and the swords of apostates. But the 
Fathers of Trent saw approaching the dark cloud of 
sectarian strife, feud and persecution, which 
marked the succeeding ages. They left behind them 
the age of chivalry, of ’the military orders, of 
crusading Catho- licity. They saw the great clouds 
approaching, half upon them, which, until the rise 
of the French Republic, deluged Europe with 
blood, and rendered the lives and liberties of 
God's people so preca- rious that the assembling of 
an oecumenical council seemed an impos- sibility, 
and the very existence of the Church itself seemed 


At this council the vista of the Fathers embraced a 
new phase of the great human drama. The Roman 
See had perceived the approach of a new heresy. 
Kingly governments were ceasing to recognize 

Christ as present on earth in the Church which is of 
His "mystic body," and which He had appointed to 
save the world for which He died. Human 
government, even in Catholic countries, was a 
mingled power of heathenism, Judaism and heresy, 
which ignored true relig- 


ion entirely, or sought to subject it to error. 
Concordats supplanted the ancient mode of 
nominating the Bishops. Save in Ireland — and in 
Ireland alone — the firmness of the Roman See 
was the only guar- antee which the Catholic world 
had for the purity of the episcopate. The monarchs 
of Europe had really ceased to govern on Catholic 
principles. Hapsburg had ceased to be Catholic in 
its rule. The council about to assemble was to 
regulate the abuses of those con- cordat; was to 
define the relations between Church and State, ren- 
dered necessary by the Liberalism of the day; was 

to pronounce it an error that the State, as existing in 
modern society, can exercise any control over the 
government of the Church of God. Modern society 
gave to all men, Turk, Jew or Infidel, equal share 
in government and citizenship. Modern society, 
being no longer Catholic, could no longer pretend 
to control the Catholic Church. To hold the con- 
trary was an evident heresy; as such it had been 
condemned by Pope Pius IX.; and such 
condemnation would be sustained by the oecu- 
menical council, as the voice of Peter, for whom 
the Lord had prayed that, "being confirmed," he 
might also confirm his brethren. 


When the Holy Father promulgated the Bull of 
Convocation, he desired that the best theologians 
from all parts of the world should be called to 
Rome to form part of the committees to whom 
were intrusted the preparatory labors of the 
council. His object was to obtain exact and precise 
information, and to know, in order to give them 

attention, the wants, conditions and statistics of the 
various peoples who differ so widely in 
characteristics and customs. 

The Church was universal, and, like a tender 
mother, she had to provide for the necessities of all 
her children. The informations having been 
obtained and the preliminary labors completed, the 
committees framed those propositions which had 
the greatest importance, and which, by order of his 
Holiness, were transmitted to 


the Bishops to be examined by each of them, and 
afterwards returned to Rome with their written 
advice. Sustained thus by the opinions of the 
episcopate concerning the principal points, the 
committees or commissions, composed of 
Cardinals, Roman and foreign pre- lates, of 
illustrious theologians chosen from among the 

religious orders and of the secular clergy, had been 
enabled to meditate upon, study, combine and 
frame the canonical laws to be submitted to the 
wisdom and the discussion of the Fathers who 
were to meet in a general assembly in the Vatican. 


An eye-witness wrote as follows: "Let us now 
enter the Council Hall. It is a long parallelogram 
running north and south, and facing you as you 
enter is the throne of the Pope. It stands on a kind 
of raised dais, to which the ascent is six or seven 
low steps, and right and left are ranged seats, 
nearly on the same level, to each extremity of the 
dais, sufficient to accommodate sixty Cardinals, 
but there are not so many. On either side of the 
Pontiffs throne is a box erected, as it were, in the 
wall of woodwork, which boxes are reserved for 
royal personages, among whom are expected the 
Empress of Austria, to be present at the 
co nfi nement of the ex-Queen of Naples, Francis II., 

the ex-Grand Duke and Duchess of Tuscany, the 
Duke and Duchess of Parma, and the Queen of 
Wurtemburg. Just below the Cardinals, and on the 
dais, will be erected seats for five Patriarchs on 
either side. 

"The entire platform is covered with green baize, 
while the seats appropriated to the Cardinals are 
covered with crimson figured tapestry, the whole 
presenting a rich coup d'ceil. Seven tiers of 
benches on either side of the Cardinals offer 
accommodation for 616 Archbishops — no more, 
and not so many are expected, though, should they 
come, ioo more can be ranged on seats on the 
ground floor. All these seats are covered with rich 
green Brussels carpet 


with orange-colored flowers, the tops of the 
benches being bordered with purple-colored cloth. 

Each member of the Episcopal Body has two 
desks, which may be raised or lowered at will; 
those for the Cardinals will be movable, and will 
be used only at the private sessions. Let me 
conclude my description of this part of the scene 
by saying that the Archbishops will occupy the 
higher benches, and both they and the Bishops will 
be placed in the order of their appoint- ment. 
Besides these high ecclesiastics, there are a 
number of other persons who will attend the 
general sessions of the council, and those only. 
There are twenty-three well-trained shorthand 
writers, all selected from the various colleges, and 
embracing among them a knowledge of most of the 
languages spoken by the assembled body. These 
will be seated in the center; each will write five 
minutes and then retire to a room appointed for 
them, where they will transcribe their report. 
Towards the middle of the hall, and high above the 
Bishops, are two orders of galleries. In the lower 
gallery on the left will sit the theologians, and in 
the one above, the Diplomatic Body. "In the lower 
gallery on the right, which is divided into two 

com- partments, will be placed the singers on one 
side, and the Procuratori of those Bishops who are 
prevented from attending. Above this is another 
gallery which is reserved for the Consultori 
Pontificali and theologians. I have thus arranged 
the positions of this august assembly, and now ask 
you to accompany me while describing the 
decorations of the hall. They are highly 
appropriate, in good taste, and are well executed. 
Tapestry and carpets have already been noticed, 
and it remains for me to speak only of what relates 
to the fine arts. Paintings there are of characteristic 
subjects — not too many, but just enough to relieve 
what might otherwise be called the nude 
appearance of the hall. Over the papal throne, for 
instance, is a large painting representing the 
Descent of the Holy Spirit and the Gift of Tongues 
at the Feast of Pentecost. It is the work of Signor 
Piatti, a young Roman artist. On the right is 
represented the Coun- 


cil of Ephesus, by Cavaliere Nobili, a Roman, and 
on the left Signor Antonio Renini, of Ferrara, has 
painted the Council of Trent. Fur- ther down the 
hall, and above the gallery appropriated to the 
Diplo- matic Body, is a large picture of the 
Council of Nicaea, by Signor Me, a Roman, while 
opposite it and above the higher gallery is a large 
painting representing the Council of Jerusalem, by 
Signor Silverio Cappani, if I have not mistaken the 
name. Around this compart- ment of the Church, 
which lies between the tomb of St. Peter and the 
altars of Sts. Processus and Martinian, there are 
two orders of niches, the lower order only being 
filled by statues. The upper order has now, 
therefore, been filled or covered with colossal 
pictures of St. Chrysostom, St. Augustine, St. 
Jerome, and St. Ambrose. Still higher than these 
are medallion heads of twenty-two Popes who 
have pre- sided at or who have called councils. 
They are copies of those in the Church of St. Paul. 

"Nor have minor arrangements been neglected for 
the convenience of those who will assist at the 
assembly. On the left of the Grand Hall, for 
instance, is a door leading to the compartment 
where stands the altar of St. Petronilla, and here is 
a room for the Bishops to change their robes, for 
the buffet, and a room for the shorthand writers. 
Canova's lions, too, guard the entrance to wash- 
rooms and other places, which have been fitted 
with all the most modern improve- ments. On the 
left of the Council Hall, in what is usually called 
the Chapel of the Madonna, there are similar, 
though not such full arrangements. It has been 
generally reported that the hall is ill- constructed 
for hearing; of course I cannot be judge on that 
point, but I was assured by a gentleman whom duty 
has confined there for nearly three months that very 
recent trials have proved satisfactory; moreover, I 
was referred to the chief stenographist for a 
co nfi rmation of this statement. Should, however, 
any Bishop from age or infirmity be inaudible at a 
distance, a shorthand writer will be permitted to 
take a seat near him. 


"I am conscious that I have sent you, and 
necessarily so, a dry list of details, but there were 
no scenes to excite the imagination, and, indeed, 
my object was solely to present you with a correct 
carta topografica of a hall which will be famous in 
history. With this in the hand, everyone may well 
understand the descriptions which may be sent 
hereafter, and form a lively idea of the imposing 
spectacle that will be presented. I have omitted to 
say that facing the Pope, and just inside the 
entrance door, will be erected an altar, at which 
mass will be said on the morning of the 8th of 
December, when the assembly takes possession of 
the hall." 

Cardinal Pecci was one of the most prominent 
members of the council. His voice was seldom 
heard in the public sessions, but his advice was 
eagerly sought after in the committee rooms. 

Eighty- three sessions were held, and suffice it 
here to say that the principal question that came 
before the Fathers of the council was the declara- 
tion of the dogma of infallibility of the Pope as the 
Vicar of Christ on earth. After long discussion the 
question was submitted to a final vote on the 1 8th 
of July. 


There were present at this session forty-eight 
Cardinals; of these forty-two voted Placet; two, 
Mattei and Orfei, were ill; four, viz., 
Schwarzenberg, Rauscher, Mathieu, and 
Hohenlohe, were voluntarily absent from the 
Council Hall. 

Of eight Patriarchs actually in Rome, six said 
Placet; two, Antiochte of the Greek Melchior rite, 
and Babylon, of the Chaldean rite, were ill or 
voluntarily absent. 

Of Primates, nine took part in the council; six said 

Placet; one, Salerno, was absent through illness, 
but known as an infallibilist; two were voluntarily 
absent, viz., Grau and Lyons. 

Of Archbishops, there are one hundred and three 
on the official 


list; of these five were absent through illness; 
eighty voted Placet, and eighteen were voluntarily 

Of the Bishops, there were four hundred and forty 
on the official list of the council ; three hundred and 
fitty-nine said Placet; of the remaining eighty-one, 
Dromore, Northampton and Marianopolis had been 
allowed for some time to return home on account 
of health, and their names were not even read out 
in the Council Hall; twenty had received leave of 
absence from the Pope and the council for urgent 

reasons; the Bishop of Ischia, though very ill, was 
carried into the hall to record his vote; forty-five 
were voluntarily absent, and two were present and 
said Non Placet. 

Of Abbots and Generals of Orders, forty- four were 
actually on the official list. Of these forty said 
Placet; the Abbot of Monte Verigne was ill so also 
the General of the Camaldolese; Dr. Burchall, 
President of the English Benedictines, was 
legitimately absent; the Chaldean Abbot of St. 
Hormisdas was voluntarily absent. 

The following is the correct summary of the votes 
on the 1 8th of July: 


Cardinals 42 o 4 

Patriarchs 6 o 2 

Primates 602 

Archbishops 80 o 18 
Bishops 359 2 47 
Abbots and Generals 40 1 
533 2 67 

The late Archbishop Purcell, on his return from the 
Vatican Coun- cil, delivered in his see city, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, an address on the infallibility of 
the Pope as defined in the Council of the Vatican, 
which contains valuable information on the subject 
for the reader. It is as follows: 


"Infallibility was for me a subject far more 
delicate than any other. 

"I knew that the Holy Father was in favor of the 
dogma, and for good reasons — no doubt of it — 
for he is on a higher eminence than any of us, and 
he could see better than any of us what is for the 
good of religion and Christianity. As I say, the 
Pope was in favor of his own personal, 
independent, and separate infallibility, and, 
moreover, he was urged to do this by many others. 
There were five hundred and thirty Bishops who 
thought with the Pope that he was and is infallible. 
We saw at once from the beginning that there was a 
decided majority against us, and yet we thought we 
discovered incon- veniences in the definition of 
this dogma which it was important we should make 
known to the Holy Father, the Pope. There were 
twenty Bishops dwelling together in our American 
college in Rome, and we met to know what course 
we could pursue with regard to this matter. The 
Archbishop of Baltimore urged us to do what we 
pro- posed, viz.: to write to the Pope a most 
respectful letter, and implore him not to have this 
subject brought before the council. I drew up the 
address to the Pope in Latin, was the first to sign it, 

and twenty- seven Archbishops and Bishops 
signed also, — almost all Americans, except the 
Archbishop of Halifax and two others. The 
Archbishop of Baltimore, as I said, urged us to this 
course; but he declined to sign the petition, 
because he was a member of one of the committees 
on faith. 

"Some other Bishops made up their minds to sign 
no paper on this question, either for or against. 
Besides this, there were one hundred and forty 
German and Hungarian, and even Italian and 
French, Bishops who addressed a similar petition 
to the Holy Father. Others there were who 
declined, because, they said, it would show a want 
of unanimity and union among the Bishops, and 
would cause many things to be said in the heat of 
debate and discussion which 


might be unpleasant to the Holy Father, as well as 
to ourselves. The Holy Father did not think proper 
to adopt our suggestions. 

"When my turn came to speak on this subject of 
infallibility, I spoke after the venerable Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, whom I had known for many years. 
He stated in his discourse things that I took notice 
of, and to which I was obliged to answer. When I 
entered the pulpit I addressed myself to the 
council, and then before I delivered the discourse 
which I had prepared for this solemn occasion, I 
said, Be pleased to let me make some remarks on 
the oration which has now been delivered by the 
holy Patriarch of Jerusalem. In the course of his 
remarks he said that we were discussing a question 
that has long since been decided; that a certain 
Council of Lyons and the Council at Florence had 
declared the definition of the dogma, and that the 
Pope had full power to declare infallibility; that he 
had a plenitude of power to declare infallibility, so 
that the matter is settled; why waste our time in 
discussing it at the present time? Says I to the 

Cardinals and the council, I am exceedingly 
obliged to the vener- able Patriarch of Jerusalem 
for placing us in such good company. Everyone 
knew that this Council at Lyons, after the Council 
at Flor- ence, had examined the question of the 
Pope's infallibility, but they did not see their way 
through. They could not find sufficient evidence in 
Scripture or tradition to define the personal, 
independent, separate, and absolute infallibility of 
the Pope, and therefore they laid the question 
aside. Now, said I, the council can see whether the 
plen- itude of power assigned by these two general 
councils mentioned was sufficient or not. 

"Then I proceeded to say what I had proposed to 
say. Said I to the Cardinals, You must allow me the 
frankness to say that you have committed a great 
fault in not stating from the beginning what you 
meant by your dogma. You say the Pope has 
infallibility, but it has never been decided. At what 
time, or how, or in what’ manner? I want to know 
when I am to obey the Pope as an infallible inter- 


preter from the great God. Infallibility is in 
accordance with the teachings of the Holy 
Scriptures, and of the teachings of tradition. I want 
to know this only to obey when I do know it. You 
have never informed us. 

"I say this, my beloved friends, and I think it an all- 
sufficient vindication in reply to a paper in the east 
(which I will not name) which has greatly abused 
me. That paper said I was obstinately and 
irrevocably opposed to anything that emanated 
from Rome, and especially on the subject of 
infallibility. To refute that, I will turn to the whole 
tenor of my life in this city, since I have had the 
great honor of teaching under the Pope from God, 
and that will show the contrary. If you will refer to 
my book in the controversy with Alex- ander 
Campbell, you will see, page by page, what my 
views are on this subject, and that I maintain the 

right of the Pope, when he talks in connection with 
the Church congregated in council, or disposed all 
over the world, — that he teaches the true doctrine 
of Christ, and that he has the faith and power. You 
will take notice, when I read to you the definition 
of the dogma, that the Holy Father took notice 
himself, and tells us in the definition when it is he 
teaches Christ infallibly. Then I said, you tell us 
that there were some forty Popes in the early ages, 
who taught what is now regarded as an erro- neous 
doctrine by some. Cardinal Bellomang gives us the 
names of them and tells us what was taught. He 
tells us what was the nature of their teachings to a 
great extent. Now, says I, there are a great cloud of 
witnesses over our heads — these forty Popes. I 
called them one by one, and I said, Honorius, why 
do you teach that there is but one will of Christ, 
when there is a divine will of Christ as God, and a 
human will of Christ as man. Now, why should you 
say there is but one will? This definition has 
caused a great deal of trouble. It created schisms 
and differences of opinions, etc., in the Church. He 
never should have done so. This was his fault. He 

should have instructed that the two wills of Christ 
were not incompatible. Then 


I said to the council, in passing over this subject, 
here is another of these papers over our heads, as I 
imagine it was over Nicholas I. He taught that the 
baptism in the name of Jesus was all-sufficient, 
with- out the name of the Father and Holy Ghost. 
That he should not have taught. He was mistaken in 
that, and the Church says so now, and that he never 
should have taught the like. Here is John XXII., 
who teaches from the pulpit, and wishes others to 
teach, that those who died in the peace of God with 
the peace of God on their lips are in beatific 
condition until the day of judgment. Here, again, 
three great Bishops of the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
general councils called Honorius heretical. Were 
we to consider those teachings ex cathedra on 
those occasions, and pronounce an anathema? I 

will not delay you by adverting to other instances 
of the kind, but I was most happy to hear the entire 
council, as one man, concerning those of whom I 
spake, answer me, ’Those Popes never addressed 
such doc- trines to the universal Church. They only 
spoke to individuals. They did not speak as pastors 
of His universal Church, therefore they did not 
speak ex cathedra! I cannot tell you what a load 
that removed from my mind, when I heard that 
expression that those teachings were not ex 
cathedra, and therefore not binding on our action, 
and that our action would not be retroactive as 
binding on the teach- ings of those Bishops. I told 
the Cardinals in the council that there was another 
and a weightier objection which I wished to have 
removed before I gave my assent to that dogma, 
and that was, how we are to understand the claims 
of Boniface VIII., who said, ’Two swords are 
given me by God — the spiritual and the temporal!' 
I sought in the Dominican library of the Minerva in 
Rome to refresh my memory, and to see on what 
grounds they claim the right of con- trolling 
temporary affairs; of deposing Henry VIII. or 

Elizabeth, or any other temporal prince, and 
absolving their vassals from their oath of 
allegiance, if their sovereigns did not respect the 
act of excommunication by the Church. I could not 
find any text of author- 


*3 1 
<w O 
o x c 2 

.5 3 

a" -C .5 — 

”S A 

0 X 




o h 
u. O 
DC o 



O «J 5.5 




a 3 


V 4-J 


d <t> 



y A 

- rt 8 -2 

- 4 -> 

o a *r w 
3 > 


•s - 

» 0 

3 a 


o <u 
<ua. o 


3 XI o> 


X! o u 

r- to 
o a 5 a 
a 3 

— < a 




a 3 



* a 
A o 

1 — • a) 
X . +J 

cxx «£ x - 
3 5 

X a a 


4, X X O 


The above picture represents Pope Leo XIII. 
before the Blessed Virgin in his Private Chapel in 
the Vatican. 


ity for that in the Bible. Hence I wanted the council 
to say whether they asserted a right of that kind or 
assumed it as a right, and the entire council with 
one voice cried out: 'Those Popes had no authority, 
no commission from God to pretend to any such 
power.’ Well, I told them. Thank God, I have 
spoken and had it decided by this council, instead 

of assuming the responsibility of those by-gone 
times. The day has gone by when such things were 
possible, and were believed of force, and we have 
done a great deal by having these two important 
matters settled. The question was also raised by a 
Cardinal, ’What is to be done with the Pope if he 
becomes a heretic?’ It was answered that there has 
never been such a case; the Council of Bishops 
could depose him for heresy, for from the moment 
he becomes a heretic he is not the head or even a 
member of the Church. The Church would not be, 
for a moment, obliged to listen to him when he 
begins to teach a doctrine the Church knows to be a 
false doctrine, and he would cease to be Pope, 
being deposed by God Himself. 

"If the Pope, for instance, were to say that the 
belief in God is false, you would not be obliged to 
believe him, or if he were to deny the rest of the 
creed, ’I believe in Christ,' etc. The supposition is 
injurious to the Holy Father in the very idea, but 
serves to show you the fullness with which the 
subject has been considered and the ample thought 

given to every possibility. If he denies any dogma 
of the Church held by every true believer, he is no 
more Pope than either you or I; and so in this 
respect the dogma of infallibility amounts to 
nothing as an article of temporal government or 
cover for heresy." 

The Archbishop spoke severely of the 
misrepresentation that had been made about his 
views of infallibility by an interviewer of a city 
paper. He also read an extract from a Baltimore 
paper, which he pronounced insulting. The 
interviewer made him say the dogma could not be 
published until after it was signed. He said that the 
publication of the doctrine of infallibility need not 
wait for the official 


signing of the acts of the council before the 
proclaiming of the dogma, after it had been 

pronounced upon by nine hundred and seventy- five 
Cardinals, Bishops, Abbots, and Patriarchs — that 
the public needed not to wait for it until it had been 
signed. He said that he came there to proclaim the 
personal infallibility of the Pope. In his own 
words, he was a true Roman Catholic, as he had 
said there, as he had written in his letters to the 
Pope, as he had proclaimed in the council, as he 
had affirmed in Cincinnati and elsewhere in this 
country. In his dis- cussion with Mr. Campbell, he 
had indicated the infallibility of the Church in the 
strongest language and with the strongest arguments 
of which he was capable, and he was not going 
back on all that he had hitherto said upon the 


The Archbishop then read the text of the dogma of 
infallibility, translating it as he read. He prefaced 
it thus: "I want the editors of the newspapers and 
the reporters who are here present to send it on the 
wings of the press, north, south, east, and west, that 

I, JohnB. Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnati, am 
one of the most faithful Catho- lies that ever swore 
allegiance to Rome." 

His Grace said in conclusion: ’The Bishops were, 
many of them, afraid that outside influences would 
be brought to bear on the Church, and very often 
they said, ’It is not the Pope with the white cassock 
that we have to fear, but certain ecclesiastics who 
dress in black cassocks, who may influence the 
Pope and make him say what they please, — but 
wherever there are men there will be vices and 
defects. So the Holy Father has to watch as well as 
to pray, and he has sometimes to be even a little 
distrustful of those who pretend to be his officious 
minions, and who tell him things they should not. 

"But, my dear friends, as I have said, where there, 
are men there will be defects and vices, and 
wherever will you find in history anything to 
compare with the freedom from vice, error, crime. 


and disorder such as you will find in the conduct of 
the Catholic Church by the Pope whom God has 
now placed over her? In the tenth century there 
were persons who had political power in Rome 
and were thrust into the chair of St. Peter; but God 
soon thrust them away; and if you are ever called 
to answer this argument against your Church, you 
can say that, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ there 
were very bad men, and that as that did not make 
Jesus Christ bad, so in the pontifical succession 
also, there were a few bad men, but that did not 
make the pontifical succession vicious. And 
beyond this, we can see the Church going on her 
safe and glorious course for eighteen hundred 
years, amid all sorts of dangers and persecutions, 
to glorious immortality. Or to take another image, 
we can see the bark, guided by Christ and His 
vicars, riding through the winds and waves, and 
sure to reach at last the haven of refuge with its 
precious freight of immortal souls." 



~ A HE summer of 1870 was full of surprises for the 
religious and political world. With the 
declaration of war by the French Emperor, Louis 
Napoleon, against Prussia, the Piedmontese 
govern- ment made preparations to enter Rome and 
declare it the capital city of Italy. Hostilities 
between the two nations began with the advance of 
the French troops to the Rhine in the week 
following the decla- ration of war. 

Early in the campaign Louis Napoleon had 
recalled the French troops from Rome, against 
which act the whole Christian world pro- tested. 
Against it also the most powerful nobles and the 
Roman hierarchy voiced loud protests. Cardinal 
Bonaparte wrote in the strongest terms to the 
Empress Regent of France imploring her to reflect 

while there was yet time, to avert such a step as the 
recall of the troops, but the letters and telegrams 
were not answered. Mean- while, notification of 
the neutrality of the pontifical States was formally 
sent to the European powers, and the press in 
Rome was at once instructed to maintain the 
strictest impartiality in giving expres- sion to the 
questions at issue, which it scrupulously obeyed. 
The Italian troops, who had been commissioned to 
guard pontifical frontiers, were now ordered to go 
to the north of Italy, where it was feared the 
Austrians were aiding the Prussians, since that 
nation was concentrating its armaments in the 
southern Tyrol. 

Italy looked upon this movement in the light of a 
threat and, therefore, massed her troops in the 
Quadrilateral. An attempt of the legislative body to 
bring before the Chambers a proposition to send a 



large army into France did not succeed. There 
were rumors of a Prussian protectorate over Rome, 
which caused much alarm for a time, as no good 
Roman citizen desired to see the French defenders 
of the Holy See withdrawn from the pontifical 
territory to be followed by a Prussian protectorate. 
The Prussian government attempted nothing of the 
kind, however, going no further than vetoing for the 
time being the occupation of Rome by any power. 

General unrest followed the French evacuation of 
the patrimony of St. Peter, as it was taken for 
granted that such action would leave the Holy See 
at the mercy of the revolutionists and place the 
person of the Holy Father in jeopardy. 

A prearranged inflow of foreign sectaries and 
vagabond soldiers into the unprotected city of 
Rome made the duty of preserving order a difficult 
matter, and many arrests followed the departure of 

the army of occupation. Hardly had the last 
detachment of French troops sailed fromCivita 
Vecchia when the information came of the dread- 
ful battles of Forbach, Woerth and Hagenau, in 
which the flower of the Napoleon army was hurled 
back, crushed, defeated, almost anni- hilated, 
before the conquering Prussians. This result came 
upon the world unexpectedly. The most sanguine 
friends of Prussia did not anticipate it. Even the 
London Times prophesied that the first great battle 
would be a victory for the French. Every human 
probability pointed that way. Mitrailleuses and 
chassepots hurled their showers of lead and iron in 
vain, while the Turcos and Zouaves rushed with 
the impetuosity of despair upon the Prussians, only 
to be mowed down like ripened wheat before the 

It was whispered about that the seat of the Italian 
government would be removed from Florence to 
Rome following the occupation of the latter city by 
the Italian troops, owing to the fact that Gari- 
baldi's army was preparing to take possession of 

the remaining pon- tifical States. The Italian ships 
of war kept cruising in pontifical waters without 
any special cause being given, which was regarded 


ominous. When five vessels anchored off Civita 
Vecchia in the latter part of August the pontifical 
authorities were greatly alarmed. 

General Cadorna was asked by an American at 
Terni if there was any possible chance of the 
Sardinian government at that stage of events 
abandoning the movement. He started at the 
question, and replied, "Don't you see the spirit of 
the army? To draw back now would be to ruin the 
government." All the great powers looked on at 
these preparations to rob the Pontiff of his rightful 
territory with- out a single protest. Austria, hostile 

to Pope Pius IX., remained silent. Prussia declared 
herself neutral, desiring to conciliate at the same 
time both the Catholics of her domain and the 
freethinkers of Germany. England looked on 
approvingly. Spain was too weak to step into the 
breach, while Russia refused to take any action. 

Hence followed the unparalleled confiscation of 
the papal domin- ions, and it was connived at by 
every so-called nation through motives of 
selfishness. Italian troops on the frontiers were 
only waiting for a pretext to invade the pontifical 
States, and it was frequently asked, On what 
possible grounds can these enter a neutral territory, 
loyal to its own sovereign and desirous of no 
change? There was not a pretext of disaffection to 
justify such an action, and it was directly contrary 
to the treaties of international rights to permit it, as 
well as an iniquitous violation of international law. 
The sworn faith of nations availed little in the 
seizure of the temporal sovereignty. The inde- 
pendence of the papal States in their integrity was 
the keystone to order in European states, and 

universal disorder would follow upon its 


It was believed for a time that the King of Prussia 
would repudi- ate Bismarck's temporizing with 
revolution, and restore the Pope to a real state of 
freedom, which it was in his power to do, but he 
let slip the opportunity for accomplishing a right 
which would have 


earned for him the eulogy of the entire world, and 
merited for him a name equal to that of 
Charlemagne. An attache of the Prussian legation at 
Rome visited King William at Coblentz for the 
purpose of ascertaining his Majesty's intentions in 
regard to the temporal power. The King replied 

that he should in no way oppose any Catholic 
German power, who, after the war, might desire on 
being requested by the Pope to replace the French 
garrison by a German one, or any power who, 
during the war, had not been engaged in the cause, 
if for instance Austria should be willing to do so. 
His Majesty expressed at the same time his 
consideration that the Pope should be treated as an 
independent sovereign. Austria, who could alone 
of the German nations, act as a military protector 
to the Pope during the war, was in league with Italy 
for the withdrawal of the French, and had made 
that act a condition of her neutrality; therefore there 
was no possible hope of any aid being rendered by 
any German power to the Holy See. 

Victor Emmanuel was ordered to move on the 
Eternal City by the combined revolutionary 
interests, and his life was threatened should he 
disobey the command. General Cadorna was, 
therefore, com- manded to advance southward. At 
Civita Castellana, the papal Zouaves having 
opened fire on him, a battle ensued, which lasted 

about an hour, when the Zouaves surrendered. They 
were taken to Spoleto as prisoners of war. 
Following this the citizens of several towns 
opened their gates to the King's troops. On the 13th 
of Sep- tember the papal troops evacuated 
Frosinone, which was immediately occupied by 
General Angelletti and his army. Cometo, twelve 
miles from Civita Vecchia, was held by General 
Bixio, while the Fourth corps moved from Civita 
Castellana towards Rome. 

In the meanwhile Victor Emmanuel sent to the Pope 
a letter in which he explained that, considering the 
important events which had taken place, he deemed 
it his duty to occupy papal territory, promis- ing 
the Holy Father that he would guarantee to him the 
free exercise 


of the duties of his spiritual office. This autograph 
letter was con- veyed to the Sovereign Pontiff by a 

The audience at which the envoy Count Ponza da 
San Martino presented the King’s letter was very 
short. The Pope took the letter, did not even open 
it, but threw it on the table, saying: "That is my 
answer. I have no other for those who ask me to 
betray my most sacred rights and my honor." Count 
Ponza began to bluster, and was very insolent in 
his manner, saying: "But your Holiness knows that 
whilst you talk thus, there are possibly four Italian 
divisions crossing the frontier." The Pope rose 
with all the dignity you know, and said: "And what 
do four or more divisions, more or less, signify to 
me? My cause and this city are in the hands of the 
Almighty. Tell your master that I shall defend 
myself to my last soldier and to my last cartridge; 
and that I will never surrender my rights and those 
of the Holy Roman Church." The Pope rang the 
bell, pointed to the door, and Pontius Pilate, as the 
Romans had already named Count Ponza, retired. 

The Pope called in General Kanzler, the minister 
of arms, and said: "I have given my answer, 
General. They offer me five days to consider, but I 
have settled the matter in five minutes. Take all the 
measures necessary for the defense, and Mary 
Most Holy will help us." 

From this it is seen how far the Holy Father was 
from acting at the mere dictation of the foreign 
troops, and how far he stood to the last in defense 
of his rights and those of Christendom in his august 

Colonel Chavette, in command of the papal forces, 
determined to resist the invasion. His troops were 
concentrated near Montefias- cone, consisting of 
1,700 well armed, well equipped men, having 
Remington rifles and several mitrailleuses. The 
Italian army was divided into detachments, three of 
which were encamped at Terni, and several were 
occupying the cities of Viterbo, Civita Castellana 
and Monte Rotondo, while still another column, 
under General Bixio, 


at Civita Vecchia, cooperated with the fleet under 
the command of Admiral Cerrati. 

The time had now arrived when the Piedmontese 
government proceeded to carry out its 
contemplated plan of moving the capital of Italy 
from Florence to Rome, guaranteeing all rights to 
the Pope as Sovereign Pontiff of the Catholic 
Church, and protection to all other interests in the 
exercise of his prerogatives. King Victor 
Emmanuel ordered his troops to march to Rome, 
and several strategic points were soon occupied. 
General Bixio left Bologna with a flying column, 
eager to be the first to enter the Eternal City. It was 
his avowed desire to exterminate the entire Roman 



In the meanwhile Baron Ricasoli had an audience 
with Pius IX., and submitted terms which the Pope 
jefused to accept. "At five o'clock," writes an eye- 
witness, "we heard the first shot. A battery had 
been posted some two hundred yards from where I 
was standing on the terrace and its aim was to 
open a breach on the right of the Porta Pia. General 
Ferneri’s artillery attacked the Porta del Popolo, 
while General Angelini was opening breaches at 
the gates of St. Giovanni and near St. Lorenzo. 
These attacks had been going on several hours, and 
long columns of black smoke arose above the city. 
We perceived that a house belonging to the 
Bonaparte family had taken fire. At nine o'clock a 
bomb shell fell on the roof of the Church of St. 
Agnes, smashed through the ceiling and landed on 
the floor of the edifice. An order was given to 
hoist aloft on the church- tower the white flag of 
the Geneva Convention. At half past ten a strong 
fire of musketry was heard, and as I ran along the 
Via Nomentana, I saw that the two cannon worked 

by the papal troops on the road had ceased firing. I 
then entered the Villa Torlonia and in a few 
moments was opposite the Porta Pia. Here the 
firing had ceased and the Zouaves had hoisted the 
white flag. General Cazeny, 


in command of the attacking forces, with his 
wounded arm, followed by his staff and ine fortieth 
and forty-first regiments of infantry, marched to the 
barricade. The first officer who advanced was a 
Signor Valuziana, who had been exiled from Rome 
eleven years before, and he was congratulating 
himself upon his return. Just as he reached the top 
of the barricade he fell dead, struck by a bullet in 
the forehead. The papal artillery at this moment, 
acting under instructions from the Holy Father, 
surrendered, all resistance ceased, and Rome was 
occupied by the Italian troops. 

While these portentous events were transpiring in 
Italy the hitherto proud French nation was 
experiencing disaster after disas- ter, until finally 
the very abyss of degradation and humiliation was 
reached in the surrender of arms and the cession of 
two of the fairest provinces of her dominions to the 
Prussian conquerors. 

There began immediately after the occupation of 
Rome a pro- longed series of public 
demonstrations, during which all manner of insults 
and indignities were perpetrated against the Holy 
Father and his sympathizers. A plebiscite was 
announced to convene on the second of October for 
the ostensible purpose of getting an expression of 
the people of the usurped Roman states on 
annexation to the Kingdom of Italy. The Leonine 
City, that part of Rome now occu- pied by the Holy 
Father, was threatened with exclusion from the ple- 
biscite, but upon reconsideration the minority vote 
which would issue from that quarter was deemed 
to be of so slight importance that a representative 
was allowed. As might have been expected the 

plebiscite was a farce. Out of the forty thousand 
citizens who were promised to vote, exactly two 
thousand and seventy approached the ballot box, 
embracing the five districts of the city. 

A correspondent of the London Tablet, writing 
from Rome on this subject, made public the 
following facts in connection with this pie- biscite: 
"The booths were well-nigh deserted; in the Piazza 
Colonna, where the principal one was stationed, 
the lieges of Victor Emmanuel 


were appealed to by the eloquence of three brass 
bands to come forward and vote, but the sovereign 
people were deaf to the voices of the choruses, and 
the hymns of Savoy and Garibaldi's March fell 
alike unheeded on the ears of the people. Good 
fathers of families and workmen passed 

contemptuously by the urns, and shrugged their 
shoulders on their way to mass, as the voting was 
on Sunday. The Republicans took little interest in 
the business, and save in two districts let the 
plebiscite have its way." 

On the nth of October General La Marmora entered 
Rom* 1 and issued a proclamation. He claimed 
that the "plebiscite nobly crowned the national 
edifice," and expressed the hope that the Popj, as 
Head of the Church, would exercise his spiritual 
rights in perfect freedom. "This feeling," he said, 
"is sacred, but the national senti- ment is no less 
sacred." He then appealed to all citizens to 
preserve order and tranquillity. 

Pius IX. sent a letter to King Victor Emmanuel 
saying in conclu- sion, "I bless God who has 
allowed the last days of my life to be filled with 
sufferings for His Church through you, and I place 
in His hands my cause, which is not my cause 
indeed but wholly His own." 



n A HE long struggle, during which this usurpation of 
the papal -*■ possessions was agitated, had at last 
seen its realization. The first publication of 
pernicious literature injurious to the Holy See had 
seen light fourteen years before the first armed 
soldier moved upon the Eternal City. This 
pamphlet was followed by numerous others, all 
intent upon educating the masses in the doctrines of 
the revolu- tion against civil authority. One of these 
had for its subject, "Reform in the Papal States." It 
was published simultaneously in European 
capitals. Upon the appearance of the tract, the 
French clergy hastened to defend the rights of the 
Pope's temporal dominions. One of the foremost 
was the celebrated Mgr. Dupanloup, Bishop of 
Orleans, who, with all the ardor of his soul and the 

eloquence of his mighty tongue and pen, denounced 
intriguers who threatened the temporal 
independence of the Holy Father. Then came the 
war with Austria; and the annexation of Nice and 
Savoy in a measure satisfied the Catholics of 
France for the spoliation of a portion of the 
temporal domain of the Holy See. The Holy Father 
was sold "for a few acres of Alpine snow," as one 
writer puts it. The trend of modern thought was for 
more than a decade towards rampant infi- delity. 
The disasters certain to ensue upon the conversion 
of a people or peoples to its doctrines were 
imminent. In a letter written by Dr. Manning to Dr. 
Newman in 1861, he says: 

"The laws of nations, public rights, established 
treaties, and legiti- mate possession are, no doubt, 
to the modern school of statesmen, null and without 
meaning; they are, nevertheless, the realities which 

bind society together, and they constitute the moral 
tests by which 



the justice of a cause is to be tried. The policy 
which violates them is immoral; its end is public 
lawlessness, and its success will be its own 
punishment. Now I have no deeper conviction than 
that this anti-Catholic movement, led or stimulated 
by England, will have its perfect success, and will 
reign for a time supreme; and next, that perhaps 
before we are in our graves, all who have partaken 
in it — princes, statesmen, people — will be 
scourged with a universal con- flict, with 
revolution, and a European war, to which 1792 and 
the wars of the First Empire are a faint prelude. 
What shames and alarms me most is to see men 
who once believed in a higher order of Christian 
politics, now propagating against the Holy See, the 
doctrine of nationality and the lawfulness of 


. It seems as if men had lost their light. How 
otherwise can we explain the blindness which 
cannot see that the conflict of France and Austria 
has weakened the Catholic society of Europe, and 
has given to the Protestant policies of England and 
Prussia a most danger- ous predominance. It will 
not be long before European war will wear out and 
waste the powers of the Christian society, and will 
give a fatal predominance to the anti-Christian 
society or revolution which is everywhere 
preparing for the last struggle and for the 
supremacy. The Catholic society of Europe 
weakened, the Christian society will soon, in turn, 
give way. Then comes the scourge. The conviction 
that I feel, that a great retribution is impending 
over the anti-Catholic movement of England, 
France, and Italy, is rendered all the more certain 
by the fact that the critical point in the whole 
conflict, the key of the whole, and the last success 
to be gained is the dethrone- ment of the Vicar of 
our Redeemer." 

This foreshadowing of events which ten years later 
saw their literal fulfillment, would give to the 
words of the learned Archbishop of Westminster 
the weight and character of genuine prophecy. All 
that he portrayed as probable occurred, and the 
reign of infidelity and revolution prevailed in 
every European country early in the next 


decade. The governments which approved the first 
spoliation of the Church, on the plea of non- 
intervention in the internal affairs of Italy, 
continued to offer the same reason for their 
inaction in the occupa- tion of the patrimony of St. 
Peter. One of the most potent influences in bringing 
about the usurpation of the temporal dominions of 
the Holy See was the revolutionary press, which 
for years abounded in attacks on the Pope and his 
ministers, some of these going so far as to give him 

instructions as to the course of conduct he should 
pursue. Some of these journals insisted that the 
Sovereign Pontiff was now living under the pious 
and beneficent regime of the King of Italy, and that 
he ought to yield obedience to him and his 


A system of espionage was adopted regarding the 
papal court and its functionaries. People leaving or 
entering the Vatican were submitted to search; 
letters, telegrams, and every other means of com- 
munication between the Pope and his subjects 
were liable to suppres- sion. Public officials and 
press correspondents, time and again, complained 
of their mail being tampered with before delivery, 
and it was also proven that sums of money and 
negotiable papers were abstracted from the letters 
and satchels of visitors to Rome, if they were 
suspected of being in sympathy with the Holy See. 

Thirty-five thousand francs, paid to the Pope's 

private account by a French gentleman, the father 
of a Zouave, which was deposited in the Roman 
Bank, was confiscated by the Italian authorities. 
The condition of the laboring classes became most 
serious, as it was almost impossible for them to 
obtain means of subsistence. As it was from this 
class that most of the public construction employes 
were engaged under the pontifical government, 
these industrious heads of families found 
themselves proscribed by the new government, and 
they could with difficulty get any work to do. 

Rents increased, living became more and more 
expensive, taxes 


multiplied, so that the average salaried artisan 
found himself hard pressed for the necessities of 
livelihood. Not one of the reforms promised by the 

municipality for the improvement of the citizens, 
was fulfilled. The convents and religious houses 
were invaded and plundered, without pretext or 
semblance of authority, the inmates of these 
establishments being thereby reduced to a state of 
terror and physical prostration. The hatred of the 
revolutionists for the priest- hood was especially 
intense, and every opportunity was taken to excite 
the populace against the ministers of Christ. An 
American, living in Rome, saw three priests 
stabbed in one night by a patriotic tailor named 
Pietro Sardi. Their names were preserved by the 
relater: Fathers Ceccarelli, Giovanni Christofani, 
and Tito Gioni. An oriental Bishop visiting Rome, 
who was clad in plain clothes and who wore a 
long beard, being taken for a Zouave, was attacked 
and almost beaten into insensibility. These and 
many other atrocities were of daily occurrence, 
and it was at the risk of life that respectable 
citizens walked the streets of Rome. 


The Italian government, fearing the Catholic and 
the extreme revolutionary parties, hesitated about 
adopting a policy entirely agreeable to either. It 
sought to conciliate both by following a course 
offensive to each. While seizing the property of the 
Church to please the extremists, it offered to 
Catholics the excuse that this was made only to 
protect the Pope from his enemies. The guarantee 
which the government offered to the Holy Father, 
defined in the proclamation which followed the 
entrance of the army into Rome, was violated in 
every particular. It will be interesting to review 
some of the provisions contained in the act of 

The terms were as follows: "All political authority 
of the Pope and the Holy See in Italy is abolished, 
and will remain so. The Pope will be entirely free 
to exercise the ecclesiastical rights he now pos- 



sesses, as the Supreme Chief of Catholicism, and 
will enjoy all the honors and liberties which 
constitute sovereign rights. He will dis- pose of, 
and provide for, his court as he has up to the 
present time. A territorial immunity will be 
accorded to the Holy See, so that it may be free 
and independent at home and abroad, and take care 
of the interests, and exercise the authority of the 
Church. All Italian and foreign Prelates, Cardinals, 
Bishops, spiritual bodies and ecclesi- astical 
orders will enjoy certain immunity at the place of 
residence of the Supreme Head of the Church, 
whether summoned for council or other purpose. 

"The Holy See will be free to communicate, at 
home and abroad, with the powers and the clergy. 
Special postal and telegraphic service will be 
placed wholly at its disposal, and the 
representatives of foreign powers at the Holy See 
will enjoy unlimited liberty as at other sovereign 
courts. The Pope's legates and envoys will be 

treated like ambassadors of foreign sovereigns. 

The Pope and the Church will enjoy unlimited 
liberty of publication of all personal and 
conciliatory affairs. The Pope shall have full 
liberty to travel at all times, in and out of the 
country. Italy will consider him as a foreign 
sovereign, and he will be treated and honored as 
such throughout the kingdom. The appanage of his 
Holiness and his court shall be fur- nished by Italy, 
which also assumes the debts hitherto contracted 
by the pontifical States. Italy is disposed to 
guarantee the liberties of the Church, and the 
independence of the Pope, by sanctioning them in 
an international treaty. By these acts the 
government wishes to prove to Europe that Italy 
respects the sovereignty of the Pope, con- formably 
to the principle of a free Church in a free State." 

The government, in offering these liberal terms, 
was not, however, able to keep them. Whatever 
may have been the disposition of the king and his 
ministers, they were, by their own confession, 
powerless to maintain any of the conditions with 

the Holy Father. The same fear of the revolution 
which precipitated them into the occupation of 



< H 





, o 

B is 







> K 


0 ) 






0 ( 1 ] 

0 , 

0 cu 




o o 


0 ) 


cr 1 






.2 "7. a uo o 

c <uo 


i a 
8 u> 

.5 x 

> Oh 5 « 





c/1 3 

ci O 


8 « 



* £ 

s f* 

c i-J 

O — ’ 








o o 

8 *' 




S A 


8 fr 


£ xi 







w 3 


a. o a. 

of the 

was 1 






ex, 1 




bo a 



3 .a 









o c 



o — 


"TS in 



o o 


1 ) 



( 1 ) 




s a rep 
g othe 

t3 a) in 


v 2 



4J c« 


A -d 


O. O 



° S 

•° £ 


* a 


«> *. 














Rome was ready at any time to force them to 
undertake further attacks on the Church, even to the 
suppression of every order cf religious workers in 
Italy, the banishment of the priesthood, the con- 
fiscation of ecclesiastical property, and the 
imprisonment of the Pope himself Circumstances 
combined to make the Vicar of Christ a veritable 
prisoner after he had withdrawn within the 
precincts of the Vatican. 

Any overture which the government of Italy of that 
day may have made to the Holy Father, savoring of 
friendship, must be taken as simply a ruse to bring 
him to accept the situation as an accomplished fact, 
and submit to the subordination of the Church to the 
State. The guarantees offered were only intended 

to deceive foreign Catho- lies who, by reason of 
their distance from the actual scene of trouble, 
could not possibly judge of their being carried out. 
No one in Rome for a moment thought that the 
provisions would be observed, least of all that 
wing of the political party considered as the "Left," 
who openly laughed at the hypocrisy of the 
Cabinet. The nullity of these guarantees was a 
foregone conclusion among Romans. Pius IX. frilly 
understood the scope of the scheme to destroy the 
papal influence in Italy, and substitute for the 
religion of Jesus Christ the revolutionary doctrine 
of social anarchy. He refused absolutely to 
compromise himself, or the cause he represented, 
by negotiating with the government, and to every 
species of trickery in the name of friendliness, on 
the part of his arch-enemies, he courageously and 
defiantly replied that he could not consider them 
His non possumus, "we cannot," has passed into 
history with a significance all its own. His mind 
was fully made up that he would not temporize 
with the usurping government, nor receive its 
representatives on any pretext whatever, thus 

maintaining his rights to the territory hitherto the 
possession of the Holy See. Meanwhile his 
Holiness lived within the enclosures of the Vatican 
grounds, taking his daily exercise in the gardens, 
either walking, or riding in a small carriage 
assigned to 


his use. Cardinals Antonelli, secretary of state, and 
Bonaparte took up their residence with him. The 
other Cardinals came and went to the Vatican, but 
always dressed in black, without any emblem of 
their dignity. They had to do so. The troops of the 
government took possession of the principal 
entrance to the Vatican, and mounted guard in the 
interior courtyard of San Damaso, where they 
quar- tered all visitors to the Pope's apartments. 

A few Swiss Guards were allowed to stand on the 

staircase lead- ing to the papal chambers, but at the 
foot of the steps the Italian government maintained 
a detachment of spies, with instructions to report to 
the authorities anything which might be deemed of 
a suspi- cious nature. Not a person, a letter, or a 
telegram was permitted to leave the palace without 
inspection. His Holiness refused to receive 
General La Mamora, the lieutenant-governor of 
Rome, persistently denying an interview, or to 
enter into any contract whatever, with him, or any 
representative of King Victor Emmanuel. 

As an instance of the privileged telegraphic 
service guaranteed the Holy See in its workings, 
we might cite the attempt of the Bel- gian consul, 
Mgr. de Merode, who desired to send a telegram to 
his government at Brussels, giving an account of an 
attack which was made upon a countryman and 
friend of his. When he presented the same for 
transmittal, the telegraph office at Monte Citorio 
refused to receive it. The entire Catholic and non- 
partisan press were time and time again proscribed 
and suppressed, until it became practically an 

impossibility to get any reliable news to the world. 
This fact influ- enced the Pope to have several 
important documents printed in Swit- zerland. 

Victor Emmanuel, meanwhile, keptthe people"of 
Rome in suspense regarding the date of his 
triumphal entry into Rome. Several times the day 
was set, and each time recalled. The King 
hesitated to enter the Eternal City; every sense of 
justice and humanity prompted him to delay 
humiliating the aged and suffering Pontiff 


whose rightful sovereignty he had usurped, 
notwithstanding the con- secration of centuries of 

One of the reasons assigned for the failure of the 
King to proceed to Rome was, "that the vote of the 

Chambers must ratify the recent annexation of the 
pontifical States before his Majesty could prop- 
erly, as a constitutional king, take possession." The 
real reasons, however, for his postponement of the 
disagreeable task of personally entering the 
Quirinal so recently occupied by the Holy Father, 
espe- cially on the date in December arranged by 
his ministers, were first, the refusal of the "Corps 
Diplomatique" of Florence to accompany him; 
second, the complications occasioned by a 
Prussian note; and third, the extreme repugnance of 
the King to the journey, and his ter- ror of lodging 
in the Pope's apartments in the Quirinal. To these 
reasons might be added the fact that the wife of 
Prince Humbert and her daughters were 
exceedingly averse to the King's habilitation of 
himself in Rome, and openly expressed themselves 
as fearing the results of such an act, imploring 
Victor Emmanuel not to go to Rome. 

In this connection, it may be stated that the 
sympathies of the majority of women of all ranks 
and conditions in the Eternal City were with the 

Holy Father, and among those of patrician and 
noble birth the disapproval and denunciation of the 
unjust seizure of the estates of the Pope received 
open approval. 

The Duchess of Sora refused to return to Rome 
while the condi- tions were such as to render the 
Holy Father a prisoner in the Vati- can. The Prince 
and Princess Barberini also refused to return, 
remaining at their country home, occupying 
themselves in prayer and works of charity. They, at 
the same time, refused to rent their palace to the 
royal family. The Marchesa Teodoli courageously 
headed the subscription for the Roman gendarmes 
and soldiers who refused to take service under 
Italy. The young Roman patrician members of the 
Urban Guards joined in the effort to keep up the 


courage of their more despairing brothers of the 
papal army. But these acts on the part of faithful 
souls could not prevent the onward march of 

The public atrocities against the person and the 
privacy of the Pope multiplied in number and 
character. Especially disgraceful were the scenes 
enacted on the 8 th of December, 1861, and the 
three following days, which gave occasion to the 
appended communication of Cardinal Antonelli, 
the Pope's secretary of state, to the Nuncios to 
foreign governments. 


* 4 I have already informed your Eminence about 
the sacrilegious acts that took place on the morning 
of the 8th inst. in the Basilica of the Vatican, and 
the outrageous insults then offered to the numerous 
faithful who had repaired thither on a pilgrimage to 
the tomb of the Prince of the Apostles. It might 
have been hoped that, in conse- quence of events 

which have so profoundly afflicted this city, the 
existing administration and military authorities 
would have taken proper measures to prevent their 
recurrence. This hope has been disappointed, like 
all the other hopes hitherto cherished by us. What 
has since happened, namely on the 9th and 10th, 
yesterday, Sunday the nth, proves that respectable 
citizens can no longer count on the protection of the 
government, which has ample force at its command 
for the purpose, when they need it for their own 
personal safety and for the security of principles 
they hold equally dear and sacred. A pretext was 
wanted for continuing the lawless acts of the 8th of 
the present month, and the newspapers undertook 
to furnish it. These published hints that it was 
Colonel Azzanesi, the commander of the pontifical 
corps, now disbanded, who had on the previous 
day dispersed the demonstration made around the 
Vatican. Nothing more was necessary to determine 
the mob to make an assault upon the house in which 
Colonel Azzanesi was stopping, and to demand. 


with violent outcries, his arrest. Explanations and 
remonstrances had no effect in dissuading the 
rioters from their purpose. Embold- ened by the 
absence of any force for the preservation of order, 
they made preparations for bursting open the door. 
This was about to be done, when the people of the 
house contrived that Colonel Azzanesi could 
escape by means of a skylight on the roof, by 
which he was enabled to get into a neighboring 
street, to elude the pursuit,, and thereby save his 

"About the same time several persons of 
distinction, who hap- pened to be in the Corso, 
were assailed with insults and outrages, and would 
have been subjected to even worse treatment had 
they not hastily withdrawn to a place of safety. 

"Lastly, about dusk, another noisy demonstration 
took place under the windows of a cafe frequented 

by a number of young men of the most 
distinguished families of Rome, who were well 
known to be attached to the Holy Father and the 
cause of religion. 

"What is most lamentable and astonishing is that 
after the fair promises, so repeatedly made, to 
respect the person of the Holy Father, after the 
official and semi-official declarations of the news- 
papers about the full personal liberty of the Holy 
Father, at the very time when these painful scenes 
were taking place in the very center of the city, the 
disorders of the previous days were all repeated in 
the most savage manner in front of the Vatican and 
before the very eyes of the Pope himself All who, 
for any cause, went in or came out of the palace 
were pursued with obscene cries and foul epithets, 
by a mob posted in front of the principal gate, 
although a detachment of Italian soldiers were 
there on duty at the time. Subsequently, groups of 
these vagrants attacked several men who had lately 
belonged to the pontifical gendarmes, and a Swiss 
Guard who happened to be passing in civilian 

attire, whom they arrested and dragged to prison 
with shouts and threats. These disorderly acts were 
repeated both on the nth and 12th without any kind 
of hindrance or interference 


on the part of the government, who were well able, 
if disposed, to have prevented them 

"I dare not repeat the vile songs and cries of death 
shouted against the Sovereign Pontiff and the chief 
dignitaries of the Church, which resounded 
incessantly in the public streets and close to the 
residence of his Holiness. I cannot describe the 
insults which were offered to the clergy. One priest 
was knocked down and seriously injured, and 
everybody who was suspected of harboring 
sentiments of pity for him was treated likewise. 

The boldness of the perpe- trators of these 

outrages, encouraged by the supineness of the 
author- ities, not to say the connivance, has 
reached such a pitch that nobody can, without 
personal risk, even go into a church, especially 
those churches which heretofore, on account of 
special graces, have been most frequented by the 
faithful, these being on that very account made the 
scenes of the special orgies of the mob. 

"What clearly results from all this is that the plan 
of action decided on, and openly avowed by the 
revolutionary press, is to force the Holy Father to 
dismiss from his service the Swiss Guard and the 
few soldiers who still protect his person, and to 
give himself over to the keeping of the National 
Guard; or, to surrender himself to the guardianship 
of the regular troops, whose disposition and 
principles are hardly more to be depended on. 

"What intense grief all these sad doings must and 
do cause the Holy Father, it is easier to imagine 
than to describe, and his affliction cannot fail to 
become more acute as he sees the boldness of the 

disor- derly growing greater every day, and 
becoming more formidable in proportion as the 
authorities show themselves indifferent to its 
repression. It is not, certainly, very far from the 
truth to say that all these facts, these constant and 
unrepressed disturbances on the occa- sion of 
every new arrival of troops, the encouraging 
tolerance openly expressed when the need arises to 
restrain offenses against the dignity and person of 
the Holy Father, constitute so many 


means for bringing about the resolution of the Holy 
Father to leave Rome. 

"For myself, I leave to your Excellency the work of 
deducing the consequences which must follow 
from the adoption of such a resolu- tion. My 
business was to supply you with the knowledge of 

all the odious acts above mentioned, so that you 
may lay them before the minister of foreign affairs, 
with the view of convincing him that the present 
state of things cannot last, and that it is offensive to 
the Holy Father. It is even more injurious to 
religion and to the Church, already thrown into 
deep affliction by the lamented circumstances of 
their August Head." 

The unification of Italy was a plausible pretext for 
the most gigantic piece of treachery and wholesale 
robbery of territory that the world has been called 
upon to witness. The aspiration of the Italian 
people for unity, national unity, was a strong 
argument to advance for the attempt to wrest from 
the Papacy her ancient dominions. The trend of 
thought at the time was the unification of all 
peoples speaking the same tongue under one 
central government, as exemplified in the attempt 
to consolidate all countries where the German 
language was spoken, on the part of Germany. The 
Eternal City was the only one for ages where 
communal self-government existed, and if the 

government of the Popes was not absolutely repub- 
lican in an age when the sword ruled all things, it 
was the nearest approach to it, even at the hour of 
its suppression. 




/ ~|~ VHE year 1887 witnessed the fiftieth 
anniversary of the episcopate of the reigning Pope, 
Pius IX., and the Golden Jubilee cele- bration 
brought innumerable pilgrims from all parts of the 
world to Rome, for the purpose of congratulating 
the venerable Pontiff The ceremonies attending the 
religious celebration were set for June 3, and on 
that day the entire Italian hierarchy gathered in the 
Eternal City to do homage to their beloved Pontiff 

The Cardinals, Arch- bishops and Bishops of the 
former States of the Church assembled at the 
Vatican where they were granted a special 
audience by the Holy Father, during the course of 
which an address was made by the Cardina- 
lBishop of Perugia, who had been chosen for the 
occasion. It was as follows: 


"Most Holy Father, surely it is by an admirable 
design of God's providence that, while under your 
Pontificate, the worst enemies of the Catholic 
Church and of her Divine Head, Jesus Christ, were 
per- mitted to wage against both the most bitter 
war which the memory of man can recall, in past 
ages as well as in the present, we should, on the 
other hand, be given to behold a succession of 
happy events, bringing into the most prominent 
light the ardent love of the Chris- tian world for the 
Church and the most faithful obedience towards the 
Apostolic Chair. 

"More than that, the more skillfully devised were 
the plans of our 

adversaries, the more successful did the assaults of 
the revolutionary 

sects prove — thanks to the connivance or the aid 
of the temporal 

powers; the more closely, on the other hand, did 
faith and charity 

draw souls together among the Catholic nations, 
the nearer did the 



bonds of union draw the flock to the shepherd, the 
children to their parent; the firmer appeared the 
faith of all in the pontifical authority, the more 

constantly, oh, Most Holy Father, shone forth the 
love of the whole world for your person. 

"We cannot help feeling that events are directed 
towards a happy and prosperous issue, when we 
see the faithful of every land pouring as pilgrim- 
crowds towards the Vatican, or laying their liberal 
offerings of Peter's pence at your feet, uniting in 
solemn and public prayer, or giving vent in some 
other way to the common joy — all striving in 
concert to celebrate the happy anniversary of the 
day on which, fifty years ago, God gave you to be 
consecrated a Bishop. 

"Therefore it is, Most Holy Father, that we, the 
pastors of your provinces, especially those of the 
Marches, Umbria, and /Emilia, and the flocks 
confided to us, can yield in fervor to none, both in 
our dutiful obedience to you, in our reverence for 
the supreme power of Peter, and in our enthusiasm 
in celebrating this most happy day. You, Holy 
Father, were born in the Marches, of the noble 
blood of Sinigaglia; happy Umbria first received 

you as a Bishop, and first of all the Church of 
Spoleto had the benefit of your labors and was 
graced by your virtues; and last, /Emilia, glorified 
by your pastoral care and the splendor of your 
Roman purple, sent you to Rome to ascend the 
sublime chair of Peter. 

"Hence, while in our own name we again and 
again renew to you to-day the solemn profession of 
our inviolable union with this same Apostolic 
Chair of Peter, and of our loving devotion to your 
person; we also declare in the deepest joy of our 
hearts that both our Priests and our people share 
with us this same solemn profession and heart- felt 
sentiment. Manifold as are the frauds and the 
insolence by which ungodly men unceasingly try to 
shake our constancy in the Christian religion, 
nevertheless we remain bound to you by unswerv- 
ing obedience and love, and we accept the 
teachings which your exalted office imparts to us. 
They unite with us in placing at your 


feet their loyalty to you as the Prince of Pastors, 
and imploring that God will shower upon you the 
fullness of His choicest gifts, comfort- ing and 
directing you in the bitter trials which press upon 
you, saving and preserving you for the honor and 
increase of religion, and for the support and 
defense of His Church. That you may have also 
some visible proof, though never so small, of the 
most dutiful love and reverence which we and they 
bear you, we pray you to accept, Most Holy Father, 
the little offering they freely make to relieve your 
own needs, and which we beg you to estimate from 
the love of the givers, not from its material amount. 

"It only remains. Most Holy Father, that you, who 
love us all, bestow on ourselves and on all the 
faithful of our dioceses who have so much to 
contend with in the present difficult times of 
revolution, the Apostolic Benediction, which shall 
bring them wisdom and strength. This we ask for 
all the more readily that we have good reason to 

hope that God, at your prayer, on this day of great 
joy to yourself and your children, will pour down 
forthwith on all of us the plentiful streams of 
heavenly blessings." 


Cardinal Pecci had lost his coadjutor, Bishop 
Monsignore Pascucci, by death in 1874, and it was 
not till his arrival in Rome in 1877 tnat one was 
appointed to assist him in the arduous labors of his 
diocese. He succeeded in obtaining the 
appointment of Monsignore Laurenzi, who had 
been his Vicar-general since 1847, as coadjutor 
Bishop. Monsignore Charles Laurenzi was 
consecrated Bishop of Amata in partibus 
infidelium by Cardinal Pecci in his own titular 
Church, St. Chrysogonus, situated in the 
transtiberian quarter of Rome. 

The death of Cardinal Philip de Angelis, 
Archbishop ofFermo, in the papal States in July, 
1877, affected Pius IX. most deeply. The Cardinal 

had held the office of Chamberlain of the Holy See 
and had presided at the Vatican Council. He had 
ever been the most 


outspoken of the many protestors against the 
outrages leveled at the Sovereign Pontiff, having 
on account of his activity been imprisoned in the 
fortress in Ancona in 1848, and there subjected to 
the greatest humiliations for a period of forty days; 
and again in i860, he was made a captive by the 
Italian government in Turin, where he was 
imprisoned for six years. There existed a bond of 
union between the two friends, exceeding that 
between ordinary earthly friends, for their 
religious pursuits and inclinations being identical, 
cemented the union more closely. 

It was no easy matter to decide upon a chamberlain 
to fill the post left vacant by the death of Cardinal 

de Angelis. He had possessed the Pope's 
confidence to such a degree that the Holy Father 
acted always upon his suggestions. Then, too, the 
position carried with it the responsibility of acting 
as the Head of the Church during the vacancy of the 
Holy See, and pending the election of a successor. 

The summer months wore on, ill health on the part 
of Cardinal Pecci causing him to remain in the 
Eternal City till the end of August, when he 
returned to Perugia to superintend the examinations 
at his seminary. Before his departure Pius IX. 
intimated to him that he had practically decided to 
appoint him to the post of Chamberlain to the Holy 
See in the approaching consistory, which would 
take place in September. These tidings brought to 
the heart of Cardinal Pecci intense sorrow, for the 
appointment meant separation from his beloved 
diocese of Perugia. 

The office of Chamberlain of the Holy See is of 
unusual responsi- bility, embracing in its sphere of 
duties the financial management of the Church 

affairs, the actions of the civil magistrates, the 
guarding of treaties of peace and the general 
supervision of the entire admin- istrative offices of 
the Church in Rome. The appointment took place in 
the September consistory, and as Cardinal Pecci 
was present, his selection was approved by the 
Cardinals present and the ceremony of investiture 
immediately followed. The Holy Father presented 


him with the staff of office, saying: "Receive this 
staff in token of thy jurisdiction and thy authority, 
and be henceforth the Camcrlcngo (Chamberlain) 
of the Holy Roman Church." 

He returned to Perugia, but Pius IX., foreseeing 
that his life was fast approaching a close, urged the 
Cardinal to hasten his departure and come to 
Rome. Cardinal Pecci was now sixty-eight years 
old, an age when most men feel like laying down 

the cares and activities of life and withdrawing 
from public concerns. But Cardinal Pecci looked 
upon the call as imperative, and immediately 
prepared to change his residence to Rome. The 
clergy and people of Perugia, while elated over- 
the honor paid to their Cardinal and their city, 
were at the same time deeply pained to lose their 
good pastor. When the day of departure arrived the 
clergy and people assembled at the episcopal 
palace, and they followed him beyond the walls of 
the city, where, kneeling, they received his last 
blessing as their beloved Bishop, — and Cardinal 
Pecci, in tears, left that city which had been his 
home for thirty-two years. 

It had been his rule to address, before the Lenten 
season on each year of his episcopate, a pastoral 
letter to his flock, urging all to keep up their good 
works, and aim for greater sanctification. In the 
letter of 1877 he emphasized the need of 
uprightness in social and domestic life. After a few 
preliminary remarks he asked: "Is the Catholic 
Church hostile to the progress of industry, art, 

science? Is there, as her adversaries declare, a 
natural and irredeemable incompatibility between 
the Church and civilization?" 

"No," he answered, "the Catholic Church is hostile 
to no phase of progress, is not incompatible with 
civilization even in its purely material aspect." 

He explained in this letter to his people what 
civilization was, and what were its merits and 
advantages, saying among other things: "A 
celebrated French economist, Bastiat, has grouped 
and shown as in a picture the multiplied benefits 
man finds in society, and it is a 


wonder worthy of admiration. Consider the 
humblest of men, the poorest laborer — he has 
wherewith to clothe himself and provide shoes for 
his feet. Think how many agencies and persons had 

to be put in motion to furnish this clothing and 
these shoes! Daily every man places to his lips a 
morsel of bread. Behold here what labor ! How 
many hands it has taken to reach that end, from the 
husband- man who painfully turned the furrow to 
confide to it the seed, to the baker who converted 
the flour into bread! Every man has rights; he finds 
in society lawyers to defend them, magistrates to 
make them sacred by their sentence, soldiers to 
compel respect for them. Is he ignorant? He finds 
schools, men to write books for him, others to print 
and publish them. To satisfy his religious instincts, 
his aspira- tions towards God, he finds those of his 
brethren who, laying aside all other occupations, 
give themselves up to the study of sacred lore, 
renouncing business, pleasure, and home,, the 
better to discharge these lofty duties. But this is 
enough to prove to you clearly that society is 
indispensable in order that our wants, which are as 
urgent as they are varied, may be satisfied. 

". . . Society, being made up of men essentially 
perfectible, can- not remain at a standstill; it makes 

progress and perfects itself. One century inherits 
the inventions, discoveries and improvements of 
its predecessor, and thus the sum of physical, 
moral and political benefits grows marvelously. 
Who would compare the miserable huts of 
primitive peoples, their rude utensils, their 
imperfect tools, with all that we of the nineteenth 
century possess? Nor is there any more 
comparison between the articles produced by our 
ingeniously con- structed machinery and those 
toilsomely wrought by the hands of man. There can 
be no doubt that the old highways, unsafe bridges 
and long and disagreeable journeyings of past 
times, were not the equals in value of our 
railroads, which, as it were, fastened wings to our 
shoulders and have made our globe smaller, so 
near have they brought its nations. Is not our era, 
by the gentleness of its manners, 


superior to the rude and brutal days of barbarism, 
and are not reciprocal relations on a more friendly 
footing? From certain stand- points, has not the 
political system been improved under the influence 
of time and experience? No longer is private 
vengeance or torture tolerated, and the petty feudal 
tyrants, the wrangling communities, the wandering 
bands of free companions — have they not all 
disap- peared? It is then true that man in society 
goes on perfecting himself in physical comfort, his 
moral relations with his fellows, and his political 
condition. And the different degrees of this 
successive development to which man in society 
attains are civilization; this civilization is new- 
born and rudimentary when the conditions under 
which man grows more perfect, in this threefold 
sense, are but par- tially developed. It is great and 
high when they attain a larger development; it 
would be complete were all the conditions 
perfectly satisfied." 

He then referred to the errors condemned in the 
Syllabus, pub- lished by Pius IX. Among them was 

one asserting that the Papacy was inimical to 
science and civilization. "The Syllabus," he said, 
"did not condemn true civilization — that whereby 
man perfects himself — but it did condemn the 
civilization which would supplant Christianity and 
destroy with it all wherewith Christianity has 
enriched us. It is not directed against civilization 
and science, but against atheism and materialism." 


Cardinal Pecci entered upon the duties of 
Chamberlain, residing at the Falconieri palace, and 
he wrote encouraging words to his people of 
Perugia, who felt keenly the absence of their 
beloved Cardinal. In one of these he dwelt upon 
the painfulness of his sep- aration from his devoted 
friends. "Closely connected," he wrote, "with you 
as we have been during all these long years, by the 
holy bonds of pastoral ministry and by mutual 
relations which have ever 


begotten an interchange of affectionate sentiments, 
we feel now, dearest children, how heavy is the 
weight of a separation, which however justified by 
reasons the most imperative, is still grievous to us. 
In this state of mind we look forward, as you can 
well imagine, with no little satisfaction, to the near 
approach of the Holy Season of Lent, when we can 
break our enforced silence and address you words 
of pastoral instruction. Since, therefore, we may 
not return to your midst in person we do so by this 
letter in order to converse with you and to gather 
mutual comfort from the interchange of our 
common sentiments of faith. These are the 
consolations which God keeps in store for 
Bishops, to make up for much sorrow and 

"For what can be more grateful to us than to hold 
converse with the flock who are our crown, our 
dearest joy; than to speak to them of God, and of 
His Christ, and of His Holy Church, of the duties 

of our religion, and of its immortal hopes, and to 
repeat to them the apostolic words: ’Therefore, my 
dearly beloved brethren, and most desired, my joy 
and my crown, so stand fast in the Lord, my dearly 
beloved.’ " 

All during the autumn and winter months of the 
year 1877 Cardinal Pecci was the support of the 
declining Pontiff, who, not- withstanding the 
increasing feebleness characteristic of advanced 
age, continued to receive delegations of pilgrims 
from every nation on earth. The Feast of the 
Immaculate Conception (1877) was cele- brated 
with great pomp, and also that of Christmas, 
although the exercises were conducted in 
comparative privacy, owing to the Pope being a 
prisoner in the Vatican. There was no indication on 
the morning of the New Year, 1878, that within a 
comparatively short time the leaders of the two 
opposing forces in Italy, that of the Church in Pius 
IX. and of Italy or the State in Victor Emmanuel, 
would be no more. Early in the month the King was 
seized with a malignant disease, and he passed 

away to be succeeded by his 


son Humbert. The news of the King’s death 
affected the Holy Father deeply, and he 
commended the soul of the excommunicated King 
to the mercy of God. 

On the 2d of February the seventy-fifth anniversary 
of the Pope's first Communion was celebrated by 
the people of Rome with special fervor. Thousands 
of the faithful received communion for the intention 
of the Holy Father. At the Church of the Gesu the 
Cardinal-Vicar Monacadel la Valletta administered 
Holy Communion without interruption from dawn 
till ten o'clock. It was most edifying to see the 
throngs of Roman patricians with the plebeian 
uniting in this public act of religion. The Holy 
Father appeared unusually well on this day, and no 
one supposed from his animated and sprightly 

manner that in a few days he would be called to 
give an account of his stewardship. He himself, 
however, had a premonition of his approaching 
demise, for on the morning preceding the day of his 
death he was heard to say, "I have finished my 

On January 17th of this year he issued a protest in 
which he declared that "he maintained intact, as 
against the iniquitous spolia- tion, the right of the 
Church to her most ancient domains." The cause 
for this document being sent out to the world was 
that King Victor Emmanuel died eight days before 
the above date, and his son Humbert had 
succeeeded to the throne of United Italy. He 
empha- sized the protest by stating that, on his 
election to the high office of Sovereign Pontiff of 
the Catholic Church, he had received in trust those 
temporalities which guaranteed the Holy See a 
temporal sov- ereignty and thereby an 
independence, and he had pledged himself by 
solemn oath on the day of his coronation to 
transmit the Church’s temporal possessions intact 

to his successor. 

In an audience granted to a diplomat and his little 
son, Pius IX., uttered these memorable words: 
"When the moment shall arrive I will go joyously 
with confidence and certainty, as it is God who 
rules my dynasty, my heritage, the Church. What 
will become of me I 


Pope Leo resting himself at the threshold of the 
summer house — Vatican Gardens. 



The figure indicated by 5 is that of James J. 

McGovern, author of this book. 






bO ■£ A 

9 rt «2 
d r/1 <0 
Xi A 5 M 


B 9) 01 
T 3 <U 

to pg .£* 
1> o 

Oh *J ."J 

c/3 ’d 4> 

DO) .C 
o -£ " M 
a <q ° 
t; a fi 

? c <u 

A rtw 

w * a 

ries ofRapha in the 

r/1 A * 

KO J) 

gt/3 0) 

bo a p 

i= 2 . 


6 h A 


B c to o 5 pi 
1- P <D 

A £ A 


J. £-5 
=3 Gi v„ 

*-> s- bO 

.c A .5 

Dh <D T3 


CTJ t— ■ r~> 

*- 5P ? 


+-> tn *-> 


O <U c/3 

°" to A 

rt <SU 




•*« 5" in 

O « *j 


tion ese t esen 


° A k 


3t A f< 



4 ) 

t! • <D 

4 -» 



g a <u 




rt 3 « 


t/j aj a) 


- > > 



In 1) A 


3 fid 

i — i 

+-< +J 

o a) 




A** JA 



The side ar i 






« » 
s - A 


know not, but when this boy will return here, he 
will find in this spot where I am standing another 
like me robed in white." 

When he felt that the hour had arrived he called for 
his Confessor, Monsignore Marinelli, master of the 
papal palace, and after making his confession he 
received the Holy Viaticum, and immediately 

there- after the prayers for a departing soul were 
said aloud, in which the Holy Father joined, 
seeming to have gained a new strength for the 
purpose. Still praying, he fell back upon his 
pillow, while a glow of celestial brightness lit up 
his face. The Sacrament of Extreme Unction was 
then administered, and at the words of the prayer, 
"Depart, oh, Christian soul," his Confessor paused 
for a moment and looked at the dying Pontiff, when 
the Holy Father responded in full consciousness, 
'\Sy proficisce" (yes, depart). These were the last 
words spoken, and in a few moments, on February 
5, 1878, Pius IX. 's soul went to God for judgment. 
Such was the death of the staunch defender and 
protector of the Church of Christ against the 
combined forces of the world and the devil. As he 
opened his eyes on the celestial vision, joyous 
indeed must have been the glories of Heaven 
awaiting him. 

The death of Pius IX. came like a shock to the 
Catholic world. Though his advanced years did not 
promise a continuance of a vigor- ous old age, still 

the Holy Father, at the beginning of the year 1878, 
surprised not only the immediate members of his 
household, but all those who had audience with 
him at this time. From every nation and clime came 
letters of sympathy to the secretary of state on the 
great loss which the Catholic world had sustained 
in the death of Pope Pius IX. Naught but words of 
good were heard on all sides, even from the lips of 
those who had made his days on earth so 
supremely sorrowful. As the office of Chamberlain 
of the Holy Roman Church does not cease with the 
death of the Pope, Cardinal Pecci immediately 
assumed the duties of the Holy See, exercising 
them faithfully until he was elected to fill the 
vacant chair. 



/CARDINAL PECCI had been summoned to the 

presence of the A - A dying Pontiff immediately upon 
the latter's symptoms of final dissolution. He was 
deeply moved by the deathbed scene and wept 
tears of grief All who witnessed the last hours of 
Pius IX. partook of the deep sorrow which the 
Cardinal felt. 


The first act of Cardinal Pecci was to order the 
prelates of the apostolic chamber to take 
possession of the Pope's apartments, make an 
inventory of their contents, and he commanded that 
all effects, personal and official, be securely 
placed under lock and key and the keys be given to 
him. Outsiders were excluded from the Vatican, 
and the formalities attending the certification of the 
death of a Pope were observed. On an iron bed 
covered with red silk lay the body of the deceased 
Pope, a white coverlet concealing it, with the 
exception of the head. The Cardinal-Chamberlain, 
robed in purple, approached the bed, and kneeling 
on a violet cushion, said a short prayer and then 

proceeded to verify the Pope's demise. He touched 
the pallid brow three times with a silver hammer, 
repeating the bap- tismal name, "John, John, John." 
No response coming from the corpse, Cardinal 
Pecci announced in a clear, solemn voice, "The 
Pope is dead." 

The removal of the Fisherman’s Ring from the 
finger of the deceased Pontiffby the chief usher 
followed, and he handed it to the 



Cardinal, thereby making the important transfer to 
him of the authority of the Holy See. 

The official notice of Pius IX. 's death was made 
public by notices signed by the Cardinal-Vicar, and 
posted on the door of all Churches in Rome. 

The death of the Pope brought to the Cardinal- 
Chamberlain great responsibilities, as he had to 
assume all the administrative powers connected 
with both the spiritual and temporal affairs of the 
Papacy. He entered upon the duties of this position 
with that energy and prudence so characteristic of 
his nature, and he met the obligations courageously, 
exercising the most consummate skill in 
maintaining harmony and good feeling. 

He at once took upon himself the task of 
safeguarding the rights and interests of the Church, 
which were menaced by the existing political 
conditions in Italy. 

The enemies of the Papacy publicly declared that 
the opportunity had now arrived for the Italian 
government to have a Pope of its own choice, 
elected even at the risk of a schism, one who 
would accept accomplished facts, submit to the 
demands of Italy, and put an end to the co nf lict 
between Church and State, which had been waged 
so incessantly throughout the long reign of Pius IX. 

King Humbert and his ministers were not inclined, 
however, to heed the voices of the anti-Christian 
sects, and to their credit be it said they took 
deliberate action to prevent any attempt at interfer- 
ence with the plans for the Pope's funeral and the 
electing of a sue- cessor. Official notification was 
sent to Cardinal Pecci that the obsequies of the 
deceased Pope would be guaranteed protection 
from violent interference, as also the proceedings 
of the Conclave of Car- dinals which must 
necessarily soon convene for the purpose of elect- 
ing a successor to Pius IX. This act of conciliation 
and generosity was fully appreciated by the 
Cardinal, who published to the world this 


One of the difficulties confronting the Chamberlain 

was that of deciding upon the place for the public 
obsequies of the deceased Pope. Here again the 
good judgment of the Cardinal surmounted the 
difficulty. As Pius IX. died in the Vatican he 
decided that the remains of the late Sovereign 
Pontiff should lie in state in the Church of St. Peter 
during the nine days before the final interment. 

Here all Rome would be free to view the corpse of 
the beloved Pontiff. Moreover, it was feared that 
the revolutionary factions might take the 
opportunity of entering the Vatican to further show 
their disre- gard and hatred for everything 
pertaining to the Papacy. 

In accordance with his orders the remains of the 
deceased Pontiff, vested in pontifical* robes and 
miter, were carried in solemn pro- fession from the 
Pope's apartments in the Vatican, and placed on a 
•catafalque in the chapel of the Blessed Sacrament 
in such a position that the feet of the deceased 
extended outside of the bronze gates, which shut 
off the enclosure. The members of the hierarchy, 
the clergy, the religious orders of men and women, 

and also the students bo I' the universities and 
ecclesiastical seminaries, and thousands of 
citizens, watched and prayed in St. Peter's night 
and day. On the ninth day, Sunday, February 17, 
Pontifical High Mass was celebrated by the 
Cardinal-Dean in the Sistine Chapel, all the 
Cardinals then in Rome being present. Cardinal 
Pecci then sealed the casket, which A before a vast 
multitude was carried and placed in a niche in the 
colonnade near the Chapel of the Canons in St. 


The funeral over, the duty next demanding Cardinal 
Pecci's atten- tion was that of calling the Conclave 
for the election of a new Pope. The summons was 
extended to every Cardinal of the Sacred College, 
wherever resident, and they were to come to Rome 
without delay. 


Heretofore the Conclave which determined the 
election of the pre- ceding four Popes, was held in 
the Quirinal, which was admirably adapted for 
such purpose, but this palace was now occupied by 
King Humbert and his court, which precluded the 
possibility of the Con- clave being held there. The 
Cardinal-Chamberlain therefore named the place 
of Conclave, the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, and 
orders were given that suitable preparations be 
immediately undertaken to, give ample 
accommodation to the Cardinals who would 

Five hundred workmen were employed in making 
ready for their Eminences and their retinues. Every 
possible effort was made to secure the Conclave 
against intrusion or any interference by the powers, 
Catholic or non-Catholic, of Europe. 

Since the time of Gregory VII., the need of 
independence for the Conclaves was insisted upon. 

Pius IX. had provided the freedom of the Sacred 
College in the election of his successor, by Bulls 
and regu- lations which demanded absolute 
inviolability, and Cardinal Pecci declared in his 
letter of summons that the Conclave must be intan- 
gible, and for that intangibility to be complete, it 
must be maintained materially, diplomatically and 
morally; materially, against the sur- prises of force; 
diplomatically, against the abolished privileges of 
the "crowns," that is to say, the right of exclusion, 
and also against the influence of hostile states; and 
morally, against confidential negotia- sions and 
secret influences. Governments should have no 
weight on the Sacred College save, as in all other 
matters, through the irrepres- sible working of 
facts and of ideas. 

The history of the Papacy is the story of the 
struggles for the freedom of the vote in the 
Conclave. First selected by the clergy, then 
submitted to the people, this method broke down 
the preten- sions of Byzantium to have the vote 
co nf irmed by its officials.. Between attacks of 

Roman partisans and the diplomatic supervision, 
usurped -by the Hohenstaufens, the Church passed 
through the con- fused period that came to an end 
with the definite organization of 


the Sacred College by Gregory VII. and Alexander 
III. A little later, in 1271, at Viterbo, the "forced 
Conclave" was established and Gregory X. made it 
a permanent institution. At the very moment when 
the nations came into being, the Popes raised the 
Con- clave and the central government of the 
Church into that higher region in which the Papacy 
appears under the aspect of the great free power, 
the moderator of the world. When finally Gregory 
XV drew up the laws that Pius IX. and Leo XIII. 
completed later, the Emperors, and the Kings of 
Naples, France, and Spain, jealous of the tiara and 
envious of the moral force installed in the Vatican, 
snatched back their control in the form of 

privileges granted by concordats. 

From Louis XIV to the day of the breach in the 
wall at Porta Pia the right of "exclusion," always 
active, created a sort of unwritten law, which Herr 
Wahrumund called "customary"; a favor of which 
Spain made use as late as 1831 in favor of Gregory 
XVI., which Austria tried to oppose, in 1846, to 
Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti. 

In 1871, by a first Bull, "In hoc sublime," Pius IX. 
abolished all intervention by any state in the 
election. In 1874, after Bismarck's declaration to 
the Reichstag, after the publication in the Staatsan- 
zeigcr of the circular note to the Ambassadors, and 
after the fabrica- tion of an imaginary document, 
"Presente Cadavere," the Pope devoted his second 
Bull, "Licet per Apostolicas," to forestall the 
aggression of the Quirinal and its allies. When in 
1877 Italy tried to isolate the Holy See, when the 
"Kulturkampf ' broke out or became more bitter 
everywhere, the third Bull, "Consulturi," defined 
the canonical strictures of the preceding, and on the 

brink of the grave, January 10, 1878, he set the 
crown on the new legislation by "Regula- tions" 
inspired by the dangers threatening all around. 

The Cardinal-Camerlengo held the pen; he was 
guarding the security of the Conclave in which he 
was to receive the tiara. He added to the strictness 
of the former regulations new and stricter rules. He 
showed that he possessed a more delicate and 
deeper con- 


sciousness of the unchangeable rights that 
appertain to the successors of St. Peter. With 
singular penetration he had followed the thread of 
intrigues and scented secret maneuvers, he 
prepared in silence the aegis that should protect the 
intangibility of the corning election -against 
interference. He upheld the privilege of exclusion. 
"If the Papacy," he said, "out of prudence, had 

tolerated its use for a long time, it had never in any 
way recognized its legal force." Cardinal Wise- 
man said: "It is a privilege which the three great 
Catholic powers possess rather in virtue of custom 
than of any formal recognition." 

A privilege that arises out of any condition ends 
when the condi- tionends. From Eugene II. and 
Lothair to Clement XII. the favor which the 
"crowns" demanded consisted in the prolongation 
of the right of patronage, which Rome recognized 
on all occasions in the case of the Hohenstaufens, 
the Hapsburgs, the Kings of Naples, France, and 
Spain. " Sublata causa tollitur cffcctics" say the 
philoso- phers, and here they speak wisely. 

The basic reason, the persistent root of the right of 
"exclusion," is found in the beginnings and in the 
course of the territorial independ- ence of the 
Pope's civil principality. The interference of 
parties and monarchs arises and grows with the 
fate of the material force which surrounds the 
external fragility of the apostolic ministry like a 

rampart. When the temporal power of the Pope has 
reached its cul- minating point "inclusion" and 
"exclusion" weigh at once on the action of the 
Conclave. Through the interweaving of interests 
and the natural play of combinations emperors and 
kings mark out a part for themselves and take to 
themselves a guarantee in the manage- ment of the 
Papacy, a political power, and consequently in the 
direct control of the votes in the Conclave. 


The Cardinals present in Rome are obliged by the 
pontifical laws .governing Conclaves to enter upon 
the duties of electing another Pope 


without waiting for their colleagues, after the 
expiration of ten days following the death of the 
Pope. There were thirty-nine Italian Car- dinals 

who attended the Conclave: Amat, Di Pietro, 
Sacconi, Bilio, Morichini, Pecci, Asquini, Carafa 
di Traetto; Antonucci, Panebianco, De Luca, Pitra, 
Bonaparte, Ferrieri, Berardi, Monaco la Valletta, 
Chigi, Franchi, Oreglia di Santo Stefano, 
Martinelli, Antici Mattel, Giannelli, Simeoni, 
Bartolini, D’Avanzo, Apuzzo, Dicanossa, Serafini, 
Parrochi, Moretti, Caterini, Mertel, Consolini, 
Borromeo, Randi, Pacca, Nina, Sbaretti, and 
Pellegrini. There were seven Germans and 
Austrians: De Schwarzenberg, De Hohenelohe, 
Simor, Ledochowski, Franzelin, Miehalowitz, 
Kutscheker; seven French: Donnet, Regnier, de 
Bonnechose, Guibert, Caverot, De Falloux, De 
Coudray; four Spaniards: Moreno, Benavides, 
Garcia Gil, Paya y Reco; two English: Cardinals 
Manning and Howard; one Belgian: Deschamps; 
and one Portuguese, Moraes Cardozo. Among the 
absentees were Cardinal Brouissais de Saint- 
Marc, who was on his deathbed; Cardinal Cullen, 
Archbishop of Dublin, detained at first by illness, 
and who arrived in Rome to find the Pope elected, 
and Cardinal McCloskey, Archbishop of New 

York, who was en route when the election took 

While the preparations for holding the Conclave 
were claiming the attention of Cardinal Pecci, the 
result of the election was discussed by the entire 
Christian world. Among the Roman people the 
adage prevailed that a Chamberlain is never 
elected to the Papacy, and this prevented any 
forecast of the result in favor of Cardinal Pecci — 
and the thought was far, very far removed from his 
own heart that he of all other Cardinals assembled 
would be selected for the high office. 

In the minds of many, however, the prophecy of St. 
Malachy was looked for fulfillment and the hope 
was that the Lumen in Caela (light from Heaven) 
would succeed the Crux de Cruce. 


~ A HE ceremonies attending the formal opening of 
the Conclave observed in the elections of the 
four preceding Popes did not take place on this 
occasion. In former elections they consisted in the 
meeting of the Sacred College in the Hall of the 
Consistory in the Vatican, whence the Cardinals, 
surrounded by their retinues, garbed in robes of 
mourning, proceeded in state to St. Peter's, where 
the Mass of the Holy Ghost was celebrated by the 
Cardinal-Dean. At its close a sermon was 
delivered in which the electors were admonished 
of the important trust confided to them, and to 
remember that it was. not their individual interests 
that they were to take into considera- tion, but the 
welfare of the Church. After these solemn services 
were concluded the Cardinals went in state to the 
Ouirinal, where the electors took their places, 
preceded by their attendants and the papal choir, 
chanting the hymn "Come, Holy Ghost," etc. The 
people of Rome joined in the procession and the 
pageant was most solemn, impressive and edifying. 

The opening of this Conclave lacked all the public 

accom- paniments which attended former ones. 

The magnificent proces- sion of the Cardinals and 
their retinues from the Hall of the Consistory in the 
Vatican to the Church of St. Peter, where mass was 
celebrated by the Cardinal-Dean of the Sacred 
College, thence to the palace of the Quirinal, the 
citizens of Rome joining in the pro- cession, was 
dispensed with. 

On Monday morning, February 18, 1878, the 
Cardinals assembled in 

the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican, where the Mass 
of the Holy Ghost 



was celebrated by Cardinal Di Pietro. The entire 
diplomatic corps in uniform and representatives 
from the resident Roman nobility were present at 

the mass. A sermon was preached by an eloquent 
member of the Franciscan order, who alluded most 
forcibly to the sacred duty upon which the 
Cardinals were about to enter, and he ’ explained 
the manner in which the Conclave would proceed 
to elect the new Pontiff In the afternoon they again 
met at four o’clock in the royal hall of the Vatican, 
the entire number named in the previous chapter 
being present. Cardinal Amat, the dean of the 
Sacred College, was carried in on a litter from a 
bed of sickness, and during the Conclave he 
remained in his room, unable to attend any of the 
sessions. Two other Cardinals, Morichini and 
Caterini, though their physicians protested, caused 
themselves to be brought into the Conclave. The 
Cardinals then went in procession through the 
Sistine Chapel, where the opening ceremonies of 
the Conclave were observed. The senior Cardinal- 
Archbishop intoned the hymn "Come, Holy Ghost," 
which the papal choir and all present took up with 
inspiring fervor, and it was closed with the prayer, 
"O God, who has taught the hearts of the faithful, 
by the light of the Holy Spirit, grant us by the same 

Spirit to have a right judgment in all things, and 
ever more to rejoice in His consolation, through 
Jesus Christ, our Lord." 


The Cardinal-Dean, as soon as all were seated, 
read the pontifical laws observed in Conclaves 
and each of the Cardinal electors made solemn 
oath to faithfully obey them Then Prince Chigi, the 
heredi- tary Marshal of the Holy Roman Church 
and guardian of the Con- clave, the secretary and 
the officials who were permitted to take part, were 
sworn to the strictest secrecy. Cardinal Pecci now 
announced that the Cardinals should attend to all 
business needing their imme- diate consideration, 
as at the evening hour all must retire into the 

precincts of the enclosure, and no communication 

of any kind could be held with the outside world. 
The great bell in St. Peter's soon tolled the "Ave 
Maria," and the voice of the master of ceremonies 
was heard, ordering all who were not to take part 
in the Conclave to leave. "Exeunt omncs!" — 
(Depart all!). 

Then each Cardinal was escorted by a noble guard 
to his cell, which had been chosen by lot. Cardinal 
Pecci, as Chamberlain, with three other Cardinals, 
then closed the great door of the chapel, and 
locked it on the inside, while the Prince Marshal 
locked it on the outside, and placed the key in a 
crimson velvet bag which he carried in his bosom. 

When this ceremony was observed, as the laws 
regulating the Conclave prescribed, Monsignore 
Ricci Parraciani, moderator of the Conclave, 
proceeded to examine every part of the enclosed 
quarters, complying with his oath of office that 
nothing should be left undone to prevent any 
communication being had with those inside, as 
well as any news sent to outside parties. The 

pontifical laws are so strict in enforcing this 
seclusion that should there be found the least 
violation of it, the election, even though 
thediscovery was made after all was over, would 
be null and void. These ceremonies were 
completed at nine o'clock in the evening. 

It was admitted by everyone present that the 
success of the above preliminary arrangement and 
services attending the opening of the Conclave was 
due to Cardinal Pecci's splendid administrative 
abilities. The auspicious beginning of the most 
important event of the latter part of the nineteenth 
century forboded a speedy conclu- sion, and the 
Cardinals seemed to feel that their retirement 
would be speedily ended. 

On Tuesday morning, February 19th, the master of 
ceremonies went to each cell and said, "In 
Capcllam, Dominc" — (To the chapel, my Lord). 
The Cardinals, with the exception of Cardinal 
Amat, who was unable to leave his bed, proceeded 
to the Sistine Chapel. 


Cardinal Pecci's seat was numbered nine. It was 
on the Gospel side of the chapel, near the altar. 

The sub-dean celebrated a low mass, then all took 
their seats, the names of the Cardinals were called 
by the Secretary of the Sacred College, 

Monsignore Lassagni, and the announcement made 
that the balloting for the successor of Pius IX. 
would take place. 

Before the voting commenced the Cardinals 
unanimously declared that they approved and 
co nf irmed the protest issued by Pius IX. on the 
17th day of January, "that they thereby renewed all 
the protests and reservations made by the deceased 
Sovereign Pontiff, either against the occupation of 
the States of the Church or against the laws and 
decrees enacted to the detriment of the same 
Church and of the Apostolic See, and that they 
were determined to follow the course marked out 

by the deceased Pontiff whatever trials might 
happen to befall them through the force of events. 


Three Cardinals were appointed to see that the 
ballots were properly cast, count them and 
announce the result. To each elector was then 
handed a ballot, prepared according to the law 
regulating the voting. This was divided into three 
squares. On the first was stamped the words, "I — 
(Christian name), Cardinal — (family name)." On 
the second was the name of the candidate, "elect 
for Sovereign Pontiff, My Most Reverend Lord 
Cardinal N — ." The third square was left blank. 
Upon this the law commanded that the Cardinal 
elector should write a verse from the Scriptures 
for the purpose of iden- tification. The upper and 
lower squares were folded and sealed by the voter, 
leaving exposed only the name of the candidate for 
whom that vote was cast. When all had signified 
that they were ready to cast their votes, each 
Cardinal, following their order of numbers, 

proceeded to the altar, on which stood a large 
chalice and paten that was used only for this 
purpose. Kneeling on the altar steps he pro- 


nounced the words: "I call Christ our Lord, who 
will judge me, to witness that I elect the person 
whom before God I think should be elected, and 
whom I shall make good in the accession." He then 
ascended to the altar, placed the ballot on the 
paten, visible to all, and lifting it up he dropped it 
into the chalice. Cardinal Amat’ s vote was taken in 
his cell by the three Cardinals. After all the 
Cardinals' votes had been put in the chalice the 
Cardinal tellers went to the altar. One took up the 
paten and placed it on the chalice, which he raised 
and shook thoroughly. The second Cardinal 
removed the paten, took out one by one the ballots, 
counted each by numbers, deposited it in another 
chalice, announcing that there were sixty-one votes 

cast. The three Cardinals brought the second 
chalice to a square table, draped in purple and 
centrally placed, where all the electors could view 
the proceedings and hear the names of the candi- 
dates voted for, as they would be called out. Then 
the senior teller drew the first ballot, read in a 
clear voice the name written on it, and handed it to 
the second teller, who also read the name aloud 
and passed it to the third, he doing the same, and 
making a note of it, as the other two. Each of the 
electors had been provided with a printed list of 
the sixty-four Cardinals then living, and as the 
names on the ballots were called, the Cardinals 
marked the names and the number of votes on their 
respective sheets. In former Conclaves the first 
ballot was not only complimentary, but a formal 
nomination of candidates. When the first counting 
in this session took place it was found that the 
names were many, but none received more than 
seven, while Cardinal Pecci's name was read out 
twenty-three times. 

The laws governing the election of a Pope demand 

that there must be a two-thirds majority vote of the 
Cardinals present in order to elect. As this did not 
occur the ballots were taken to a stove and burned, 
while the smoke from the stovepipe put through a 
small window indicated to the multitude of people 
who had gathered in 


the square of St. Peter's, that there had been no 
election. The Car- dinals then retired to their cells, 
not being permitted by the rules to speak to one 

At three o'clock in the afternoon the second session 
of the Con- clave was held and the same formal 
vote ceremony was observed. As the names of the 
candidates were called, it was noticed that 
Cardinal Pecci's name was oftener heard; in fact it 
reached thirty- eight, but not yet a two-thirds 

Cardinal de Bonnechose, Archbishop of Rouen, 
made the follow- ing statement after the Conclave: 
"Cardinal Pecci, to whom on the afternoon of the 
first day a majority of the votes were given, looked 
on Wednesday morning pale and frightened. Just 
before the voting began he went to one of the most 
revered members of the Sacred College. ’I cannot 
control myself,' he said; T must address the Sacred 
College. I fear that they are about to commit a sad 
mistake. People think I am a learned man; they 
credit "me with possessing wisdom, but I am 
neither learned nor wise. They suppose I have the 
necessary qualities for a Pope. I have nothing of 
the kind. This is what I want to say to the 
Cardinals.' The other said to him: 'As to your 
learning we, not you, can best judge of that. As to 
your qualifications for the pontifical office, God 
knows what they are; leave it all to Him.’ " 

Cardinal Donnet, Archbishop of Bordeaux, whose 
seat was next to Cardinal Pecci's, describes what 
he beheld: "I remarked that when Cardinal Pecci 
heard his own name mentioned so often, and that 

everything pointed to him as the successor of Pius 
IX., great tears rolled down his cheeks, and his 
hand shook so violently that the pen it held fell to 
the ground. I picked it up and gave it to him, 
saying: 'Courage! There is no question here of you; 
it is the Church and the future of the world that are 
in question.' He made no reply, only lifting his eyes 
to Heaven to implore the divine assistance." 


The ballots were gathered and put in the stove, and 
again the people of the city and the awaiting world 
were disappointed. On Wednesday, the 20th day of 
February, the Cardinal electors assembled in the 
Sistine Chapel. It was noticed that a satisfied 
feeling prevailed among the majority, while 
Cardinal Pecci was pro- foundly moved. The same 
formalities were observed at this morning session, 
the third of the Conclave. The ballots were read 
aloud, the Cardinals marked the names of the 

candidates, and when the last name was 
pronounced it was found that Cardinal Pecci had 
received forty-four votes, which was more than a 
two-thirds majority. 


There was unbounded enthusiasm among the 
Cardinals at the announcement of the choice of 
Cardinal Pecci, and all joined in casting a 
unanimous vote for him Each Cardinal then untied 
a cord that held up the canopy over his seat, that of 
number nine, Cardinal Pecci's, remaining 
untouched. The Pope-elect sat with closed eyes, 
silent and absorbed in deep thought. In his old age 
a heavy burden had been placed upon his 
shoulders. Could he carry it? Would his poor body 
withstand the exacting strain of the tremendous 
response bilities of the Pontificate? These and 
other like thoughts filled his soul. He was aroused 
from his apparent stupor by the voice of the master 
of ceremonies, who, accompanied by the Cardinal 
sub-dean, the senior Cardinal priest and Cardinal- 

Deacon, advanced to the simple canopied throne of 
the Pope-elect. In a loud voice he asked, "Joachim, 
Cardinal Pecci! Do you accept your election, 
canonically made, as Supreme Pontiff of the 
Catholic Church?" With a supreme effort the Pope- 
elect arose and in a voice broken by emotion, he 
answered in the affirmative, "As it is the will of 
God to elect one who is so unworthy of such an 
exalted office, Vice-Regent of Christ on earth, I 
accept." The Cardinal sub-dean then asked him, 
’"By what name do you wish to be called?" and he 
answered, '"Leo." ’"Let it be 


so," exclaimed the sub-dean, "You shall bear the 
name of Leo XIII.," and each Cardinal said, "Hail 
Holy Father, Leo XIII.!" The act of acceptance of 
the Supreme Pontificate, which had already been 
drawn up ready for signature, was now presented 
to his Holiness, Leo XIII., who signed it in the 

presence of witnesses, who were Monsignore 
Lassagni, Secretary of the Sacred College, and 
Monsig- nore Marinelli, Bishop of Porphyria. 


His Holiness was then conducted to the sacristy of 
the chapel where his Cardinal’s robes were 
removed, and he was vested in the papal garments, 
consisting of a white cassock, cincture, rochet, 
skull cap and stole, while scarlet slippers 
embroidered with golden crosses were placed on 
his feet. 

Having been vested in his pontifical robes, 
preceded by two Apostolic notaries on each side, 
Cardinal-Deacons Mertel and Conso- lini, and 
followed by Monsignore Ricci, master of the papal 
house- hold, he went back to the chapel where the 
Cardinals awaited him He received the 
Fisherman's Ring from Cardinal Schwarzenberg, 
pro- Chamberlain, then the Cardinals gave him the 
kiss of peace, and all the officials of the Conclave, 

kneeling, kissed the cross of gold on his right 

The number of people in the great square of St. 
Peter's had dirnin- ished at the noon hour, 
especially when they saw the smoke issuing again 
from the stovepipe. At one o’clock, however, those 
who remained, noticed that the bars of the great 
loggia, on the facade of the Basilica, were 
withdrawn, and Cardinal Caterini appeared, the 
oldest Cardinal-Deacon, preceded by acolytes, 
mace-bearers, masters of ceremonies and prelates 
of various rank. They hastened into the Church and 
amid a solemn stillness they heard these words: "I 
announce to you tidings of great joy. We have as 
Pope his Emi- nence the Most Reverend Joachim 
Pecci, Cardinal-Priest of the 

Archbishop of New York. 





;• i 





u3 . 



a> .q 






i— ( 













hi j £ 

l— t 

<-> as 







► — < 

.a 6 



.a o 

J: £ u o 


• A 0 



















( 1 ) 





- 4-1 






0 ) 









Titular Church of St. Chrysogonus, who has taken 
the name of Leo and will be known as Leo XIII." 

At this the great bell of St. Peter's rang forth in 
joyous peals; then all the Church bells joined in 
and all Rome cried out, "A Pope is elected! Who is 
he?" In less than an hour the name of the new Pope 
was on every lip. "Cardinal Pecci has been 
elected! He has chosen the name of Leo, — Leo 
XIII." The electric wires flashed the news to every 
crowned head in Europe, to distant lands, to 
Perugia, to the dear ones in Carpineto. Thousands 
of people flocked to St. Peter's, — the great square 
was soon thronged with the multitude who had 
come to see the Pope-elect. Entering the Church the 
great nave was filled with people as far as the high 



Their wishes were granted when at half past five 
o'clock Pope Leo XIII. made his first appearance 
to the world as Supreme Pontiff of the Roman 
Catholic Church. He was greeted with loud 
exclama- tions of delight, many shedding tears of 
joy at the happy result. An impressive stillness 
ensued as soon as they saw their new Pontiff arise 
from the portable throne and advance to the railing 
of the loggia. In a slow, clear, solemn voice he 
intoned the prayers which preceded the ceremony, 
in which a choir of thousands of voices joined; and 
leaning over the railing, he imparted his first 
solemn benediction to the assembled people and to 
the Christian world. 

The usual proclamation of the papal election was 
then made as follows: "Since God Almighty has 
deigned to raise to the papal throne his Holiness, 
Leo XIII., it is ordered that the Te Deum be sung, 

and the prayer which is found in the ritual under 
the title, 'Prayers to be said in the procession of 
thanksgiving,' be recited in the Churches of the 
Holy City, without any exception on the 22d day of 
this month at 10 A.M. Moreover, all the bells of 
Rome shall be rung solemnly at the same time 
during one hour. Finally we pre- 


scribe that in thanksgiving for the exaltation of his 
Holiness, Leo XIII. , during the next three days, 
viz., the 22d, 23d and 24th inst., the collect pro 
gratiarum actione — for thanksgiving, be added in 
every sacrifice of the mass. 

"Given at our residence on this, the 20th day of 
February, 1878. 

"Raphael, Cardinal-Vicar. "Card. Placidus Petacci, 

The news of Cardinal Pecci's election was 
received by Monsignore Laurenzi, Bishop of 
Perugia, at the close of a solemn high mass, pro 
eligendo summo Pontifice, (for the election of a 
Supreme Pontiff). The Bishop, without delay, 
issued a circular to the clergy and people of 
Perugia in which he said: "We perfectly understand 
with what joy this providential event must fill our 
clergy, so long the object of his wise and loving 
care, and all our people who, on so many occa- 
sions and in so many ways, have had opportunities 
to admire his rare gifts of soul, his pastoral virtues 
and the exalted wisdom of his administration, 
whether as our civil governor long ago, or as the 
Bishop of this illustrious diocese, which he loved 
as his own native land, as a choice vineyard 
confided to his husbandry." 

The Perugian "Evening Gazette" had the following: 
"Our city heard with incredible joy of the 
exaltation of our revered Bishop to the See of St. 
Peter. We have witnessed unusual emotion on this 
occasion — tears of joy in the eyes of many; 

persons of every rank calling on Monsignore 
Laurenzi to offer their congratulations; all the bells 
sending forth a glad peal, and houses illuminated. 
They are now forming a deputation of 
distinguished ecclesiastics and laymen charged to 
go to Rome to offer the Holy Father the 
felicitations and best wishes of the entire city." 

an extraordinary phenomenon 

Up in Piedmont, in the village of Bra, is a shrine 
dedicated to Our Lady, under the title of "Madonna 
de Fiori" (Madonna of the 


Flowers), and near the shrine are some white thorn 
bushes which burst into bloom every year, in 
December. People may account for the fact as they 
will, but that it is a fact is undeniable. For five 
centuries this extraordinary phenomenon has been 

observed, and the first time in the memory of man 
that blossoms failed to appear was in the 
December of 1877. It was believed that for that 
year the Madonna was not to have her winter 
garland, but, strangely and wonderfully, on the 
morning of February 20, 1878, the day of Pope 
Leo's election to the Supreme Pontificate, the white 
thorn put on a quite unprecedentedly beautiful 
garment of bloom. It was as though the Queen of 
Heaven herself had wished to greet the great event 
that made Joachim Pecci the Vicar on earth of her 



/~\N THE morning of February 2 1st the Pope, the 
Cardinals and A - A members of the papal household, 
many distinguished members of the Roman 
nobility, and strangers from other lands, assembled 

in the Sistine Chapel to take part in thanksgiving 
services. In the afternoon the ambassadors of the 
Catholic powers went in state to offer their homage 
and congratulations to Leo XIII., and with 
admirable judgment the Holy Father hastened to 
send autograph letters to the heads of the nations 
informing them of his elevation to the Pontificate. 
His letters to the Emperors of Russia and Germany 
caused great satisfaction, as did also the one sent 
to the President of the Swiss Confederation. The 
court at the Quirinal, however, received no formal 
notification as Prime Minister De Pretis and the 
minister of the interior, Crispi, were violently 
opposed to everything papal. 

The Holy Father arranged that the ceremony of 
coronation should take place in St. Peter's, on 
Sunday, March 3d. Preparations were going on 
when the authorities of Rome-sent word to the 
Pope that they could not offer him any protection 
on that occasion. The Pope, having also heard that 
inimical demonstrations against the Papacy would 
be made in the Church by bands of revolutionists, 

decided to hold the ceremony of coronation in the 
Sistine Chapel. He ordered that none of the 
ceremonial handed down for ages and used by his 
predecessors should be omitted. 

When the morning of the 3d of March was ushered 
in, at the 



appointed hour his Holiness left his apartments and 
was carried on his portable throne, surrounded by 
his court, to the Pauline Chapel; thence the 
procession passed through the Royal Hall to the 
Sistine Chapel. Flax was thrice lifted on high 
before him and lighted with a candle, and as the 
smoke ascended and vanished, a chaplain chanted, 
"Holy Father, thus passeth the glory of the world." 
An eye-witness describes the ceremonies that 


"A magnificent spectacle was now presented to the 
eye in the Sistine Chapel. A large number of 
persons were present in the trib- unes. In the royal 
gallery were their Royal Highnesses, the Duke and 
Duchess of Parma, with their suite. In the other 
tribunes were the ambassadors and ministers 
accredited to the Vatican, with the persons attached 
to the embassies, and representatives of the Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem and of the Knights of 
Calatrava, all in grand uniform and sparkling with 
decorations. On the same side, in another tribune, 
were the Roman princes and patricians with their 
families, and many distinguished personages, 
Italian and foreign. A tribune to the right was 
occupied by ladies in black dresses and veils. 

"When the Pontiff arrived before the altar he 
descended from the sedia gestatoria, and after a 
brief prayer began the Introit of the mass. The 
Confiteor being finished, the Pope sat on the 
throne, and the three first Cardinal-Bishops, Di 

Pietro, Sacconi and Guidi, recited the three 
customary prayers, super electum Pontificem (on 
the Pontiff- elect), after which he descended, and, 
standing before the first step of the altar, the first 
Cardinal-Deacon removed the miter from his head, 
and the second Cardinal-Deacon, Mertel, placed 
upon his shoul- ders the pontifical pallium, which 
the Pope first kissed, and which was fastened by 
three gold pins. When his Holiness had received 
the pallium he ascended the altar and thence 
proceeded to the throne, where he received the full 
obedience of the Cardinals, who kissed his hand 
and then received the kiss of peace, for which his 
Holiness rose from his throne. The Pope then 
proceeded to the altar and 


the mass was continued, with all the prayers 
proper for the coro- nation. 

"On the conclusion of the mass the Holy Father 
removed the maniple, sat again upon the throne 
while the choir sang 'Corona aurea super caput 
ejus' (the crown of gold on his head), composed 
expressly for this occasion by the maestro, Signor 
Pasquali, of Car- pineto, the birthplace of the 
Sovereign Pontiff The Cardinal-Dea- con intoned 
the prescribed versicles and the usual prayer. Then 
the second Cardinal-Deacon, who stood at the left 
of the throne, removed the miter from the head of 
the Pontiff, and the first Cardinal-Deacon, who 
stood at his right, imposed the tiara upon his head, 
at the same time saying in a loud voice these words 
: 'Receive the tiara with its three crowns, and 
know that thou art Father over princes and kings, 
the Ruler of the World, the Vicar on earth of the 
Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom belongs 
honor and glory for ever and ever.’ 

"The tiara placed upon the head’ of Leo XIII. was 
that presented to the Holy Father Pius IX. by the 
Palatine Guard of Honor. 

"This was a most beautiful and touching part of the 
ceremonies, and produced a deep impression upon 
the hearts of all present. Many an eye was wet with 
tears as the Cardinal placed this crown, this 
symbol of majesty and power spiritual and 
temporal, upon the head of a Pontiff who, it 
seemed, was rapidly nearing the ordinary term of 
human life." 


Nicholas I., who was the first Pope to be crowned, 
and wno occu- pied the chair of St. Peter from 
A.D. 850 to 869, was crowned with an >r dinary 
episcopal miter, surrounded by a single crown. In 
1290 Face VII. added a second crown to this miter 
in order to Lte his sovereignty over things temporal 
as well as spiritual. 1 his gave much offense to the 
German Emperor and to the rulers of France and 
England, and it was partly in consequence of this, 


Pope Clement V added the third crown to indicate 
the spiritual supremacy of the Papacy over the then 
three known quarters of the globe, that is to say, 
Europe, Asia and Africa. 

There are several tiaras in the papal treasury; the 
one given by Napoleon I. in 1805 to Pope Pius 
VII., covered with jewels and sur- mounted by the 
largest emerald in existence, is so heavy that it 
cannot be worn; and the two usually used by Leo 
XIII. have been the tiara made for Gregory XVI., 
adorned with some two hundred precious stones, 
and the one presented by Queen Isabella of Spain 
to Pius IX., weighing three pounds, and adorned 
with no less than 19,000 precious stones, of which 
18,000 are diamonds. The papal tiara, instead of 
being divided in the center, as is the episcopal 
miter, is perfectly closed. 


The act of coronation being accomplished, his 
Holiness imparted the triple benediction to all 
present. This was followed by the reading in Latin 
and Italian of the Bulls of Indulgence by the 
Cardinal-Deacons. Then in the midst of breathless 
silence and a religious respect, the Pontiff, seated 
on the sedia gestatoria, with the tiara on his head, 
accompanied by the Cardinals and the procession 
as before, passed from the chapel, blessing the 
people kneeling on both sides. Then, having laid 
aside the pontifical vestments in the hall of 
tapestries, and surrounded by the Sacred College, 
by Arch- bishops and Bishops, and Penitentiaries 
of St. Peter's, he listened to the following address 
read by his Eminence, Cardinal Di Pietro: 

"Since our votes, inspired by God, have caused the 
selection for the great dignity of Sovereign Pontiff 
of the Catholic Church to fall upon your Holiness, 
we have passed from profound affliction to a 
lively hope. To the tears which we shed upon the 
tomb of Pius IX., a Pope so greatly venerated 
throughout the whole world, and so beloved by us, 

succeeds the consoling thought that there arises 


rapidly a new dawn with well-founded hopes for 
the Church of Jesus Christ. 

'Yes, Most Holy Father, you gave sufficient proofs 
of your piety, of your Apostolic zeal, of your many 
virtues, of your high intelligence, of your prudence, 
and of the deep interest you took in the glory and 
the majesty of our Sacred College, when you ruled 
the diocese intrusted to you by Divine Providence, 
or took part in the grave affairs of the Holy See, so 
that we can easily persuade ourselves that being 
elected Sovereign Pontiff you will do as the 
Apostle wrote of himself to the Thessalonians: 

'For our Gospel hath not been to you in word only 
but in power also, and in the Holy Ghost, and in 
much fullness.’ 

"Nor, indeed, was the divine will slow to manifest 
itself, — that will which by our suffrages repeated 
to you the words formerly spoken to David when 
he was declared King in Israel: ’Thou shalt feed 
my people Israel; and thou shalt be ruler over 

"To which divine disposition it is gratifying to us 
to see how sud- denly the general sentiment 
corresponds, and’ how all concur in venerating 
your sacred person, as the tribes of Israel 
prostrated themselves in Hebron before the new 
pastor allotted to them by God. So we likewise 
hasten, on this solemn day of your coronation, like 
the elders of the chosen people, to repeat to you, in 
pledge of affection and of obedience, the words 
recorded in the sacred pages: ’Behold we are thy 
bone and thy flesh.’ May Heaven grant that, as the 
Book of Kings adds that David reigned forty years 
— quadraginta annis rcgnavit — so ecclesiastical 
history may record for posterity the length of the 
Pontificate of Leo XIII. 

"These are the sentiments and the sincere wishes 
that, in the name of the Sacred College, I place at 
your sacred feet. Deign benignantly to accept them, 
by imparting to us your Apostolic Bene- diction." 

The Holy Father received these sentiments of the 
Sacred College 


in the most benignant manner, and replied to them 
in the following words: 

"The noble and affectionate words which your 
Most Reverend Eminence, in the name of the 
whole Sacred College, has just addressed to us, 
deeply touch our heart, already deeply moved by 
the unexpected event of our exaltation to the 
Supreme Pontificate, which has happened without 
any merit of ours. 

The weight of the sovereign keys, already of itself 

so formidable, which has been imposed upon our 
shoulders, is rendered heavier still by our 
littleness, which is overburdened by it. 

’The very rite which has now been accomplished 
with so much solemnity has made us understand 
still more the majesty and height of the See to 
which we are raised, and has increased in our soul 
the idea of the greatness of this sublime throne on 

"And since you, Lord Cardinal, have wished to 
compare us to David, the words of the same holy 
King recur spontaneously to our minds, when he 
said: ( Quzs ego sumDomine Deus, quia adduxisti 
me hucusquef (Who am I, O Lord God, that Thou 
hast brought me here ?) 

"Nevertheless, in the midst of so many just reasons 
for alarm and discomfort, it consoles us to see all 
Catholics, in unanimous concord, pressing around 
this Apostolic See to give it a public testimony of 
obedience and of love. 

’The concord and the affection of all the Sacred 
College, which is most dear to ns, and also the 
certainty of their cooperation in the ful- fillment of 
the difficult ministry to which their votes have 
called us, consoles us. 

"Trust in the most merciful God, who has deigned 
to raise us to such a height, comforts us; whose 
assistance we will never cease to implore with all 
the fervor of our heart; and we desire that by all 
He may be implored, mindful of that which the 
Apostle says: 'Our sufficiency is from God.' 


"Persuaded then that it is He who selects the weak 
things of the earth to confound the strong, — 
Infirmamundi eligit ut confundat fortia — we live 
in the hope that He will sustain our weakness and 
raise up our humility to show forth His power and 
to make His strength resplendent. 

"With all our heart we thank your Eminence for the 
courteous sentiments and for the sincere wishes 
which you, in the name of the Sacred College, have 
addressed to us, and which we accept with our 
whole soul. 

"We conclude by imparting with all our heart the 
Apostolic Bene- diction." 

The Holy Father then retired to his apartments in 
the Vatican. 



1 A VERY word and act of the new Pontiff was 
keenly watched by ■* — ’the European nations 
with a view of ascertaining what policy the Papacy 
in the person of Leo XIII. would pursue in 
reference to their governments. The revolutionists 
were deeply concerned as to whether the successor 

of Pius IX. would accept the popular ideas of their 
party embodied in the words "progress" and 
"modern civiliza- tion." They would have been 
elated if the Holy Father had declared himself in 
accord with the existing occupation of Rome, the 
seizure of the papal temporalities, the suppression 
of the religious orders, the sequestration of Church 
property, and their views on marriage and 
education. But Pope Leo XIII. was equally 
intolerant of the imposed restrictions on the 
Supreme Head of the Church, as had been his 
precedessor, and he felt just as keenly as did Pius 
IX. the humili- ating position to which the Church 
and his own person were reduced. 


Naturally the personality of the new Pope became 
an object of much interest to the world at large. 

His ascetic life while Bishop of Perugia had 
accustomed him to live within himself, little 
recognized beyond his environments, and after his 
accession to the Pontificate he continued the same 

methods of living which had obtained at Perugia; 
in fact he became more exacting in the observance 
of the rules which he had years before laid down 
for himself. 

He usually rose about six o’clock, his chamber 
door having been 

unlocked by his faithful body servant. As soon as 
he was dressed he 

recited the prayers before mass, passing, directly 
afterwards, into an 



adjoining chapel, where, robed in his sacerdotal 
vestments, he cele- brated mass. Persons whose 
privilege it was to see the Holy Father in the first 
days of his Pontificate offering up the Holy 
Sacrifice of the mass, describe that ceremony as 
full of great beauty. His form, standing before the 
altar, suggested a spiritualized presence. His voice 
was sweet and sympathetic, his utterances 
partaking of the per- fection of emphasis. 

After his mass there followed a second, the mass 
of thanksgiving, celebrated by the Pope's chaplain, 
at which the Holy Father assisted. He then returned 
to his apartments where an attendant brought him a 
cup of chocolate and a slice of bread, this being 
his morning colla- tion, preparatory to a day of 
incessant labor. His first duty was the interview 
with his secretary of state in his private study, 
during the course of which he heard and discussed 
the details of the entire political and diplomatic 
questions that had arisen with foreign gov- 

ernments or public affairs. The Cardinal- 
Presidents of the numerous congregations attached 
to the Holy See then followed with their reports, 
after these the Ambassadors, Archbishops, 
Bishops, pilgrims and deputations were given 
audience. Catholic congresses, unions and 
committees availed themselves of this daily 
opportunity to present their addresses and 
petitions, all of whom were received with the 
utmost benignity and most cordial greeting by the 
Holy Father. It was said of him that he never forgot 
a face, which statement was verified shortly after 
his coronation as Sovereign Pontiff, when a del- 
egation of Bishops from Belgium came to Rome to 
congratulate him upon his election. He readily 
recognized them and adverted to matters which had 
transpired while he was acting as Nuncio to the 
Court of Brussels. His noonday meal was frugal, 
and after it he retired to his bedroom for an hour's 

In the afternoon it was his custom to walk in the 
gardens of the Vatican, or when too fatigued to 

walk, to ride in his carriage. This rule he had 
constantly adhered to throughout his long 
Pontificate, and it 


was the only form of diversion apart from duty and 
study h „/ ever allowed himself. The evening hours 
were devoted again to audi- ences, which 
sometimes lasted to midnight. After night prayers 
and the finishing of his office he retired to his 
room. Considering the arduous labors of the day, 
one would suppose that the aged Pontiff would 
eagerly seek his couch, but Leo XIII., in the 
seclusion of his room, seized the opportunity of 
complete privacy to write the master- ful 
Encyclicals which have from time to time 
surprised the thinking world, the Consistorial 
Allocutions which have so materially influ- enced 
the relationship between the Church and nations, 

the Bulls and constitutions, etc., which have 
regulated the affairs of the Church and individuals 
of all lands. These were the occupations which 
consumed the greater part of the night, and the 
solitary light which shone forth over the seven- 
hilled city from the Holy Father’s room was a 
matter of comment with the citizens of Rome. 


The city of Rome is divided into districts, or 
Rioni, and the Vati- can is situated in the Rione del 
Borgo, one of the most unhealthy corners of the 
Eternal City. Tacitus, 55 A.D., speaks of the preva- 
lence of malaria in that district in his remote days. 
Notwithstanding this fact Caligula, 12-41 A.D., 
built his circus there, adjoining the gardens of his 
mother, Agrippina. It afterwards became the circus 
of Nero, 37-68 A.D., and its arena, during this 
tyrant's reign, was the scene of the martyrdom of 
multitudes of Christians, many of whose bodies he 
ordered to be covered with pitch and set on fire to 
serve as torches for his nightly promenades. 


On this site, hallowed by the blood of numberless 
martyrs, the first papal residence was erected 
about 498 A.D., and it was in this old palace that 
Charlemagne is believed to have lodged during his 


several visits to Rome, in the reigns of Adrian I. 
and Leo III. For many years, however, the Vatican 
palace was used only for state functions, the Pope 
preferring to live at the Lateran palace. To try to 
trace the history and describe the buildings 
composing the Vatican proper would be a great 
task. The length of the palace is eleven hundred 
and fifty-one feet; it contains eight grand 
staircases, besides innumerable small ones, and 
eleven thousand rooms. The palace is open to 
visitors at nine o'clock each morning, and go 

where you will there is never a glimpse of broom 
or duster, yet everything looks in the highest degree 
orderly and spotlessly clean. 

To give some idea of the buildings grouped 
together and compo- sing the whole, it is well to 
say that there are two immense parallel structures, 
each over three hundred and fifty yards long and 
about eighty yards apart. These are joined by two 
other buildings, the Braccio Nuovo and a portion 
of the library, in such a manner as to form two 
courts. Across the ends of these two buildings, 
nearest the city, is another huge structure, very 
irregular, and about two hundred yards long. This 
contains the papal residence, the apartments of the 
Cardinals, the Sistine Chapel, the Borgia Tower, 
the Stanze and Loggia of Raphael, and the Court of 
St. Damasus. There are also many other buildings 
grouped about, the barracks of the Swiss Guards, 
and last of all, the Pope's gardens, with the Casino. 
There are numerous connecting galleries and 
underground pas- sage ways, of which the visitor 
never dreams, and one's first impression of the 

whole pile is that it is a labyrinth of edifices and a 
wilderness of art. The private apartments of the 
Holy Father are in the eastern wing of the part 
facing St. Damasus' Court, and the windows 
overlook the great Square of St. Peter's. 


On entering the palace the first place visited is 
usually the Sistine Chapel, built by Sixtus IV about 
1473, whose art treasures are the 


wonder of the universe. The lower part of its walls 
on occasions of festival or special celebration are 
hung with the priceless tapestries designed by 
Raphael, above which are the many beautiful 
frescoes of Botticelli, Perugino and other Italian 
artists, while on the ceiling overhead Michael 

Angelo has left the most superb creation of his 
artist-genius, in the "Creation and Fall of Man, and 
Its Conse- quences." Perhaps no work of art has 
elicited so much admiration from critics and 
painters, unless it be that other offspring of his 
master mind, "The Last Judgment," which is the 
great altar piece in the chapel. 

The latter painting was executed when Michael 
Angelo was in his sixtieth year, and subsequent to 
the realization of his artistic dreams, when he had 
reached the zenith of his fame. The artist had 
grown weary of labor and he stopped the work 
already commenced. It was feared that death might 
claim the mighty genius before the completion of 
the masterpiece. Princes of both Church and State 
implored him to finish, but to no avail. Finally the 
Pope himself, Paul III., went to Angelo's house and 
persuaded him to proceed with his work. This 
hitherto unheard-of honor conquered the stubborn 
spirit of the artist and he at once resumed the great 

The renowned Chapel is full of well-known 
creations of great artists, and there is also the 
seldom mentioned fairy-like marble screen carved 
by Baccio Pintelli. 

The Sistine Chapel has been the semi-private 
chapel of the Popes for centuries. The dignity and 
pomp of the services at which the Popes 
personally officiated, were seen in St. Peter's, and 
these the public to the number of thousands were 
permitted to witness. Pope Leo XIII. never 
celebrated Pontifical High Mass on the great 
festival of Easter or the feast of St. Peter and Paul 
in St. Peter's. Only twice each year, on the 
anniversary of his own coronation, and the anni- 
versary of the death of Pius IX., did he hold 
solemn religious cere- monies in the Sistine 



The scene attending one of these impressive 
services was thus described by an eye-witness: 
"There were present the entire Sacred College of 
Cardinals, Bishops and Prelates of various 
degrees, the Roman nobility, the Knights of Malta, 
the Diplomatic Corps, and a number of visiting 
foreign princes. All the laity were in court dress. 
The Cardinals entered first, clad in purple robes, 
with ermine capes. They seated themselves on the 
gospel side of the chapel, while the priests who 
carried their trains placed themselves at their feet. 
All turned their faces towards the door through 
which his Holiness was to enter. The silence was 
intense, until at length appeared in the doorway the 
imposing figure of the Holy Father and his 
attendants. He was borne in, seated in the great 
chair called the sedia gestatorta, supported by six 
attendants. On either side were the noble guard, 
and the Swiss Guard was stationed at different 
parts of the Chapel. 

"It is said that the dress of the Swiss Guards, the 
Pope's army, as they were sometimes called, was 
that designed for them by Michael Angelo. The 
noble guard consisted of fifty titled gentlemen, 
whose duty was to guard the Pope's person. 
Perhaps the most noticeable thing about the Pope, 
after you detached your eyes from his wonderful 
face, was the papal ring. It was worn upon the 
third finger of the right hand, the stone being a ruby 
so large, so brilliant that with every movement of 
the hand its beams seemed to dart to the darkest 
corner of the Chapel. The ceremony slowly 
proceeds, the voice of the Pope, while not at all 
loud, has a ringing and penetrating quality, which 
makes it grateful to the ear. When the Mass was 
over, he was borne out again, and the congregation 
slowly dispersed, leaving the Chapel once more to 
its dim repose." 


In passing from the Sistine Chapel, with its wealth 
of the crea- tions of the great masters, one finds 

that in the loggia and stanze, as 


Cardinal Oreglia, the Dean of the Sacred College 
of Cardinals, acted as the temporary representative 
of the papal power until a successor to Leo XIII. 
was elected. At the death of the Pope, the supreme 
power of the Church of Rome passes immediately 
under the control of the College of Cardinals until 
a new Pope shall have been decided upon. 

































i /: 

h HI 
o 5 


03 > 

3 u 



well as in the galleries, Raphael has stamped his 
name. Besides the fifty-two subjects treated in the 
loggia there are in the stanze three rooms frescoed 
by Raphael by order of Popes Julius II. and Leo X. 
The picture-galleries in the same building as the 
stanze are rich in works of art, and here may be 
found the "Transfiguration," pro- nounced the 
grandest picture in the world. 

Titian, Murillo, Domenichino, Fra Angelico, 
Perugino, Botticelli, and the brightest lights of the 
Florentine School, have all contributed to these 
superb galleries. Napoleon I. plundered some of 
the choicest treasures of this collection and carried 
them to France, but many were afterwards restored 
to the Vatican. The halls of sculpture abound in 
masterpieces of art and collections from the ruins 
around Rome. Towering above all is the great 
Torso, found in the baths of Caracalla, the work of 
Apollonius, son of Nestor of Athens, to which 
Michael Angelo declared that he owed his power 
of depict- ing the human form; and it is certain that, 
after the artist Angelo became old and blind, he 
used to request that he be led up to the Torso in 
order that he might pass his hands over it and enjoy 
its grandeur. The Apollo Belvidere and Antinous 
are also in this collection, with other scarcely less 
known models of the sculptor's art. 

Antiquities of every description and of every age 
fill the great halls, producing in the mind a 
sentiment of awe as well as of deep reverence, so 

close is the present linked with the past. 

The Vatican library was founded by Nicholas V, 
who transferred to his palace the manuscripts 
which had been collected in the Lateran. The 
library, at the death of Nicholas, is said to have 
con- tained nine thousand manuscripts, but many of 
them were soon scattered or lost. These losses 
were not repaired until the time of Sixtus IV, 
whose zeal in restoring and augmenting the library 
is celebrated by Ariosto and by Pladeletina, who 
was appointed its librarian about 1480. The 
present building was erected by Sixtus V, 


in 1588, from the designs of Fontana, a new 
apartment having become necessary to receive the 
collection made by his immediate predeces- sors, 
and particularly by Leo X., who, like his father, 

Lorenzo the Magnificent, had sent agents into 
distant countries to collect manu- > scripts. 


The celebrity of the library dates properly from the 
close of the sixteenth century, when the 
munificence of the Popes was aided by the 
acquisition of other important collections. The first 
was that of Fulvius Ursinus, in 1600, followed by 
the valuable collections of the Benedictine 
monastery of Bobbio, composed chiefly of 
palimpsests — that is, manuscripts which have 
been written upon twice, the first writing having 
been erased to make place for the second. The 
library then contained 10,660 manuscripts, of 
which 8,500 were Latin and 2,160 were Greek. 

The Palatine library, belonging to the Elector 
Palatine, captured at Heidelberg by De Tilley, and 
presented to Gregory XV, in 1621, by Duke 
Maximilian of Bavaria, was the next accession. It 
contained 4,388 manuscripts, 1,956 of which were 
Latin and 432 Greek. In 1658 the Vatican received 

the library of Urbino, founded by Duke Federigo, 
whose passion for books was so great that at the 
taking of \blterra, in 1742, he reserved nothing but 
a Hebrew Bible for his own share of the spoil. 

This collection enriched the Vatican with 1 ,7 1 1 
Greek and Latin manuscripts. 

In 1600 the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, the collection 
of Christina, Queen of Sweden, was added to the 
library; it comprehended all the literary treasures 
taken by her father, Gustavus Adolphus, at Prague, 
Wtirzburg, and Bremen, and amounted to 2,291 
manuscripts, of which 2,101 were Latin and 190 
Greek. Clement XL, in the begin- ning of the last 
century, presented fifty-five Greek manuscripts to 
the collection; and in 1746 it received the splendid 
library of the Otto- 


buoni family, containing 3,862 manuscripts, of 
which 3,391 were Latin and 474 were Greek; 
about the same time it was augmented by 166 
manuscripts from the library of the Marquis 
Capponi. The last addition of importance was that 
of 162 Greek manuscripts from the convent of San 
Basilio, at Grotta Ferrata. At the peace of 1815, 
the King of Prussia, at the suggestion of Humboldt, 
applied to Pius VII. for the restoration of some of 
the manuscripts, which had been plundered from 
the Heidelberg library by De Tilley. A more favor- 
able moment for this request could not have been 
chosen; the service rendered to the Church by the 
restoration of the Pope to his throne was 
acknowledged by that enlightened and virtuous 
Pontiff on all occasions; and in this instance the 
request of the King of Prussia was immediately 
answered by the restoration of many manuscripts 
of great importance to the German historian. At the 
present time, — for we do not know certainly of 
any additions since twenty-five years, — the 
Vatican library contains in the Oriental collection 
590 Hebrew, 787 Arabic, 80 Coptic, 71 Ethiopic, 

459 Syriac, 64 Turkish, 65 Persian, 1 Samaritan, 

13 Armenian, 2 Iberian, 22 Indian, 10 Chinese, and 
18 Slavonic manuscripts. The amount of the whole 
collection of Greek, Latin and Oriental 
manuscripts is 23,580, the finest collection in the 
world. The number of printed books is estimated at 
30,000, and includes the collection of Cardinal 
Mai, a munificent donation of Pius IX. to the 
library of the Vatican. 

The principal manuscript treasures of the library 
are the following: The celebrated "Codex 
Vaticanus," or "Bible of the End of the Fourth or 
Beginning of the Fifth Century," in Greek, 
containing the oldest version of the Septuagint, and 
the first Greek one of the New Testament. This 
most important document in Biblical literature was 
published by the late Cardinal Mai in 1857. The 
"Virgil" of the fourth or fifth century, with fifty 
miniatures, including a portrait of Virgil, well 
known by the engravings of Santo Bartoli; the 
"Terence" of the ninth century, with miniatures; a 
"Terence" of the fourth or 


fifth century, the oldest known; "Fragments of a 
Virgil" of the twelfth century. The "Cicero de 
Republica," the celebrated palimp- sest 
discovered by Cardinal Mai under a version of 
"St. Augustine's Commentary on the Psalms." This 
is considered the oldest Latin manuscript extant. 
The "Palimpsest of Livy, lib. 91," from the library 
of Christina, Queen of Sweden. The "Plutarch," 
from the same collection, with notes by Grotius. 
The "Seneca" of the fourteenth century, with 
commentaries by the English Dominican monk, 
Triveth. A "Pliny," with interesting figures of 
animals. "AMene- logia Graeca; or Greek 
Calendar of the Tenth Century," ordered by the 
Emperor Basil; a fine example of Byzantine art, 
brilliantly illuminated with representations of 
basilicas, monasteries, and martyr- doms of 
various saints of the Greek Church. The "Homilies 

of St. Gregory Nazianzen" of the year 1063, and 
"Four Gospels" of the year 1 1 28, both Byzantine 
manuscripts of great interest. A Greek version of 
the "Acts of the Apostles," written in gold, 
presented to Innocent VIII. by Charlotte, Queen of 
Cyprus. The large "Hebrew Bible," in folio, from 
the library of the Duke of Urbino, for which the 
Jews of Venice offered its weight in gold. The 
"Commentaries on the New Testament," with 
miniatures of the fourteenth century, by Nicola da 
Bologna. The "Breviary of Matthias Corvinus," of 
the year 1492, beautifully written and illuminated 
by Allavanti. The parchment scroll of a Greek 
manuscript of the seventh century, thirty-two feet 
long, with miniatures of the history of Joshua. The 
"Officium Mortis," with beautiful miniatures. The 
"Codex Mexicanus," a calendar of immense length. 
The dedication copy of the "Assertio Septem 
Sacramentorum adversus MartinumLutherum," by 
Henry VIII., printed on vellum, at London, in 1 52 1 , 
with the King’s signature and the autograph 
inscription on the last page but one, "Finis f Henry 

Anglorum rex Henricus, Leo Decime, mittit, Hoc 
opus et fidei testis et amicitiae. 


Letters from Henry VIII. to Anne Boleyn, seventeen 
in number; nine are in French, and eight in English. 
The "Dante" of the fifteenth century, with 
miniatures by Guilio Clovio. The "Dante del 
Boccacio," in the very beautiful writing of the 
author of the "Decam- eron," to which the signature 
of Johannes de Certaldo is affixed, and with notes 
said to be by Petrarch. Tasso's autographs, 
Petrarch's autographs. Several manuscripts of 
Luther and the principal part of the "Christian 
Catechism," translated into German by 
Melanchthon; 1566, the Latin poem of "Donizo, in 
honor of the Countess Matilda," with her full- 
length portrait, and several historical miniatures of 
great interest, which represent the repentance of 

the Emperor Henry IV, his absolution by Gregory 
VTL, and similar subjects. 


In addition to these treasures there is another 
collection less widely known, but equally 
valuable, that of the musical manuscript collection. 
All the music sung in the Sistine Chapel is from 
manu- script, as also that used in the service at St. 
Peter's. No rehearsal or practice precedes the 
actual hymnal service in either place, the 
manuscript being put into the hands of the singers 
immediately before the time for singing it. The 
perfection of sight singing is here manifested, and 
the rendition, whether of choral or solo and part 
music of an ornate or florid character, attains the 
full height of masterful execution. The papal choir, 
which is the choir of the Sistine Chapel, is paid by 
the Holy Father himself, and is an entirely separate 
organization from the choir of St. Peter's, which is 
sup- ported by the chapter. 

A visit to the home of the Popes — the Vatican — 
causes indescrib- able emotions in the heart of 
every visitor. Wandering through its chapels, halls 
and galleries, one feels a sentiment unlike that 
produced in any other museum The loud voice is 
insensibly hushed, and the solemn silence of a 
Church broods over the place. Whether the 


scholarly and methodical arrangement of the 
antiquities tends to this feeling, or the monuments 
of a glorious past and historic dead cause it, we 
cannot say. As we step out on the square, and cast 
our eyes upward to the dome of St. Peter's, which 
came from the dominant mind and master hand of 
Michael Angelo, we feel not only that there has 
passed before us the greatest in art which the 
world has to offer, but that we have looked 
backward, and in these monuments have witnessed 

the birth of the Christian religion. 




HE first allocution which Leo XIII. issued was a 
document of so much importance that we give it in 


"To the Venerable Brothers, All the Patriarchs, 
Primates, Arch- bishops and Bishops, Holding 
Grace and Communion with the Apostolic See : 

"Venerable Brothers, Health and Apostolic 
Benediction: — As soon as, through the 
inscrutable counsel of God, we were raised, 
though unworthy, to the summit of the Apostolic 
dignity, we imme- diately felt ourselves impelled 
with the desire and almost the neces- sity of 
addressing you by letter, not only to express -to 
you our sentiments of sincere love, but also, by the 
office divinely intrusted to us, to strengthen you, 
who are called to a part of our solicitude, to 
sustain with us the struggle of these times for the 
Church of God and for the salvation of souls. 

"For, from the beginning of our Pontificate, the sad 
spectacle pre- sented itself to us of the evils with 
which the human race is every- where oppressed: 
this widespread subversion of the supreme truths 
upon which as foundations human society rests; 
this insubordination of minds, impatient of all 
legitimate authority; this perpetual cause of 
discords, whence intestine struggles, cruel and 
bloody wars spring; the contempt of the laws 
which regulate morals and defend justice; the 

insatiable cupidity of transient goods and the utter 
forgetfulness of eternal things, even to that mad 
fury in which many hesitate not 



to lay violent hands upon themselves; the thriftless 
administration, the squandering of the public 
moneys, and the impudence of those who, when 
most guilty, give out that they are the vindicators of 
country, of liberty, and of every right; finally, that 
deadly poison which works itself into the very 
vitals of human society, never allows it to be quiet, 
and presages for it new revolutions with 
calamitous results. 

"We are convinced that the cause of these evils lies 
principally in the rejection of the august authority 
of the Church, which presides over the human race 

in the name of God, and is the safeguard of all 
legitimate authority. The enemies of public order, 
knowing this full well, thought that nothing was 
more conducive to uproot the founda- tions of 
society than to attack the Church of God 
pertinaciously, and by foul calumnies bring her into 
odium and disrepute, as if she were the enemy of 
real civilization, and destroy the supreme power of 
the Roman Pontiff, the champion of the 
unchangeable principles of eter- nal justice. Hence 
have come those laws destructive of the divine 
constitution of the Church, which we grieve to see 
enacted in many countries; hence emanated 
contempt for Episcopal power, impedi- ments to 
the exercise of the ecclesiastical ministry, the 
dissolution of the religious corporations, and the 
confiscation of the goods with which the ministers 
of the Church and the poor were supported; hence 
public institutions consecrated to charity were 
taken from the salutary administration of the 
Church; hence sprang that license to teach and print 
every iniquity, while on the other hand the right of 
the Church to instruct and educate youth is violated 

and trampled under foot. 

"This, too, is the end and object of the usurpation 
of the civil principality which Divine Providence 
gave to the Bishop of Rome many centuries ago, 
that he might use freely the power given by Christ 
for the salvation of souls. 

"We have called to mind this sad accumulation of 
evils, venerable 


brothers, not with a view of increasing your grief, 
which this most wretched condition of things of 
itself produces in you, but because we know that 
thus you will clearly see how serious is the 
situation of affairs which calls for our zealous 
solicitude, and how assiduously we must labor to 
defend and vindicate to the best of our power the 
Church of God and the dignity of this Apostolic 

See, charged with so many calumnies. 

"It is evident, venerable brothers, that human 
civilization lacks a solid foundation unless it rests 
upon the eternal principles of truth and the 
unchangeable laws ofjustice, and unless sincere 
love binds the wills of men together and governs 
their mutual relations. Now, who can deny that it is 
the Church that, by preaching the Gospel to the 
nations, brought the light of truth among barbarous 
and supersti- tious people, and moved them to 
recognize the Divine Author of things and to 
respect themselves; that, by abolishing slavery, 
recalled men to the pristine dignity of their noble 
nature; by unfurling the banner of redemption in 
every clime of the earth, by introducing or 
protecting the arts, by founding excellent 
institutions of charity which provide for every 
misery, cultivated the human race everywhere, 
raised it from its degradation and brought it to a 
life becoming the dignity and the destinies of man? 
And if any one of sound intelli- gence will 
compare this age in which we live, so hostile to 

religion and the Church of Christ, with those happy 
times when the Church was regarded by nations as 
a mother, he will clearly perceive that this our age, 
full of disorders and revolutions, is going rapidly 
to ruin; whereas those ages advanced in the 
excellence of their institu- tions, in tranquillity of 
life, in wealth and prosperity, in proportion as the 
people were more subject to the authority and laws 
of the Church. And if the many benefits which we 
have cited, effected by the minis- try and salutary 
assistance of the Church, are the real works and 
glories of civilization, the Church, so far from 
abhorring and repudiat- ing it, rather makes it her 
glory to be its nourisher, teacher, and mother. 


"But that kind of civilization which is opposed to 
the holy doctrines and laws of the Church is only a 
shadow of civilization, an empty name without 
reality, as appears from the example of those 

people upon whom the light of the Gospel has not 
shone, and in whose life a glimmer of civilization 
is to be seen, but its real and solid benefits do not 
exist. That certainly is not to be regarded as the 
perfection of civilization which contemns 
legitimate authority, nor is that to be reputed as 
liberty which basely and miserably thrives on the 
unrestrained propagation of errors, on the free 
indulgence of every wicked desire, on the impunity 
of crimes and offenses, on the oppression of good 
citizens of every class. For since such things are 
false, wicked, and absurd, they certainly cannot 
render the human family prosperous, for 'sin 
maketh nations miserable’ (Prov. 14:34), for when 
the mind and heart are corrupt, they drag men down 
into every misfortune, disturb all order, and 
destroy the peace of nations. 

"Moreover, considering what has been done by the 
Roman See, what can be more unjust than to deny 
the eminent services rendered by the Bishops of 
Rome to the cause of society? Certainly our pred- 
ecessors, in order to provide for the good of the 

people, never hesi- tated to undertake struggles of 
every kind, to perform great labors and expose 
themselves to serious difficulties; and, with their 
eyes fixed upon Heaven, they neither quailed 
before the threats of the wicked, nor suffered 
themselves to be led astray from their duty by 
flattery or promises. It was this Apostolic See that 
gathered up and united the remnants of ancient 
society; it was the torch to shed light on the 
civilization of Christian times; it was the anchor of 
safety in those violent tempests by which the 
human race was tossed about; it was the sacred 
bond of concord which united nations of diverse 
customs together; finally, it was the common center 
whence all men derived, together with the 
doctrines of religion, encouragement and counsels 
to peace. It is the glory of the Sovereign Pontiffs 
that they ever 


threw themselves into the breach, that human 
society might not sink back into ancient 
superstition and barbarism. 

"Oh, that this salutary authority had never been 
neglected or repu- diated ! Certainly the civil 
power would never have lost that august and 
sacred glory which it received from religion, and 
which alone rendered obedience noble and worthy 
of man; nor would so many seditions and wars 
have raged, which rendered the earth desolate with 
calamities and slaughter; nor would once 
flourishing kingdoms, now fallen from the height of 
prosperity, be oppressed with the weight of 
misfortune. A signal proof of this are the people of 
the East, who, having burst asunder the bonds 
which joined them to this Apostolic See, have lost 
the splendor of their former greatness, the glory of 
the sciences and arts, and the dignity of their 

"But the distinguished benefits which the 
illustrious monuments of every age declare to have 

been bestowed by the Apostolic See upon every 
clime of the earth, were particularly experienced 
by this land of Italy, which, being nearer to the 
source, received more abundant blessings. For to 
the Roman Pontiffs Italy is indebted for the glory 
and greatness in which she surpassed other nations. 
Their paternal authority and solicitude often 
protected her from the assaults of her enemies, and 
brought her assistance, that the Catholic faith might 
always be preserved entire in the hearts of the 

"These services of our predecessors, to pass over 
many others, are recorded in the history of St. Leo 
the Great, of Alexander III., Inno- cent III., St. Pius 
V, Leo X., and other Pontiffs, by whose zeal and 
protection Italy escaped from the utter ruin 
threatened by the bar- barians, retained the old 
faith incorrupt, and, amid the darkness and 
degradation of an uncultured age, nourished and 
maintained the light of science and the splendor of 
the arts. This fair city, the seat of the Pontiffs, 
bears witness to these benefits, of which it 

received so great a share, becoming not only the 
fortified citadel of faith, but also the asylum and 
home of the fine arts and of learning, which have 


for her the admiration and respect of the whole 
world. And as the greatness of these things is 
consigned to eternal remembrance in history, it 
will easily be understood that nothing but base 
calumny and malice could have published, by 
word of mouth and in print, that the Apostolic See 
is a hindrance to the civilization and happiness of 
the people of Italy. 

"If, then, all the hopes of Italy and of the whole 
world repose in that useful and salutary power, 
which is the authority of the Apos- tolic See, and 
in that bond which unites all the faithful with the 
Roman Pontiff, we can deem nothing more 

important than to pre- serve the dignity of the- 
Chair of St. Peter entire, and to render more 
intimate the union of the members with the Head, 
of the children with the Father. 

"Wherefore, in the first place, that we may assert 
to the best of our power the rights and liberty of 
this Holy See, we shall never cease to contend for 
the obedience due to our authority, for the removal 
of the obstacles which hinder the full liberty of our 
ministry, and for our restoration to that condition in 
which the counsels of the Divine Wisdom first 
placed the Roman Bishops. We are not moved, 
venerable brothers, to demand this restoration by 
ambition or the desire of dominion; but by our 
office, and by the religious oaths which bind us; 
and because this principality is necessary to 
preserve the full liberty of the spiritual power, and 
it is most clear that in the question of the temporal 
principality of the Apostolic See, the cause of the 
public good and the safety of society are 
involved.- Hence we cannot omit, because of our 
office, by which we are bound to defend the rights 

of the Holy Church, to renew and confirm by these 
our letters all the declarations and protests which 
our predecessor of holy memory, Pius IX., 
published and reiterated against the occupation of 
his civil principality, and against the violation of 
the rights of the Roman Church. At the same time 
we turn our discourse to the princes and supreme 
rulers of the nations and we adjure them again 


and again, by the august name of the Most High 
God, not to reject the assistance of the Church 
offered to them in such a critical time, but to gather 
in a friendly manner around this center of authority 
and safety, and be united more inseparably with it 
in the bonds of sincere love and obedience. God 
grant that they may recognize the truth of what we 
have said, and may know that the teaching of 
Christ, as St. Augustine says, ’if it be observed, 
will be very salutary to the Republic;' and that in 

the preservation of the Church and in obedience to 
her their own prosperity and peace are included. 
Let them turn their thoughts and cares to removing 
the evils which afflict the Church and her visible 
Head, so that the people over whom they preside, 
entering upon the way of justice and peace, may 
enjoy a happy era of prosperity and glory. 


"And, finally, that the harmony between the entire 
Catholic flock and the Supreme Pastor may be 
more lasting, we appeal to you with particular 
affection, venerable brothers, and we warmly 
exhort you in your sacerdotal zeal and pastoral 
vigilance to inflame with the love of religion the 
faithful instrusted to you, that they may cleave more 
closely to this chair of truth and justice, and 
receive all its doctrines with the full assent of their 
mind and will; rejecting all opinions which they 
know to be opposed to the teaching of the Church. 
The Roman Pontiffs, our predecessors, and 
especially Pius IX., of holy memory, in the 

GEcumenical Council of the Vatican especially, 
mind- ful of the words of St. Paul, ’Beware, lest 
any man cheat you by phi- losophy and vain deceit, 
according to the tradition of men, according to the 
elements of the world, and not according to Christ,' 
never neglected, when it was necessary, to 
condemn current errors and brand them with the 
Apostolic censure. Following in the footsteps of 
our predecessors, we confirm and reiterate all 
these condemnations, and at the same time we 
earnestly beg the Father of Lights that all 


the faithful, united with us in the same sentiments, 
may think and speak in accord with us. But it is 
your duty, venerable brothers, to use sedulous care 
that the seed of heavenly doctrines be scattered 
widely through the vineyard of the Lord, and that 
the teachings of the Catholic faith be early instilled 
into the minds of the faithful, strike deep root there, 

and be preserved incorrupt from the conta- gion of 
error. The more earnestly the enemies of religion 
try to instil into the unwary, and especially into 
youth, those things which becloud the mind and 
corrupt morals, the greater should be your efforts 
to obtain not only a solid method of education, but 
also to make the teaching itself agreeable to the 
Catholic faith, particularly in philosophy, upon 
which the right study of the other sciences depends, 
and which, far from destroying revelation, rather 
rejoices to point out the way to it, and defends it 
against those who attack it, as the great Augustine, 
the Angelic Doctor, and other teachers of Christian 
wisdom prove by their example and writings. 

"Moreover, it is necessary that the proper training 
of youth to insure the true faith and good morals 
should begin with the earliest years in the family 
itself, which, being miserably disturbed in these 
our times, can be restored to its dignity only by 
those laws according to which it was instituted in 
the Church by its Divine Author. He raised the 
contract of marriage, by which He wished to 

signify His own union with the Church, to the 
dignity of a sacrament, and thus not only sanctified 
that union, but also prepared for both parents and 
children the most efficacious aids, by which, 
through the observance of their mutual duties, they 
may more easily obtain temporal and eternal 
happiness. But when impious laws, setting aside 
the sanctity of this great sacrament, reduced it to 
the level of civil contracts, the consequence is that, 
the dignity of Christian union being violated, 
citizens live in legal concubinage, instead of 
legitimate union, and neglect the duties of mutual 
faith; children refuse obedience to parents, the 
bonds of domestic love are loosened, and, to the 


tion of public morals, foolish love is often 
succeeded by pernicious and disastrous 
separations. These wretched and deplorable facts 

cannot, venerable brothers, but arouse your zeal, 
and move you to admonish the faithful intrusted to 
your vigilance, that they may observe the doctrines 
which concern Christian marriage, and obey the 
laws by which the Church regulates the duties of 
parents and children. 

"It is thus that you will bring about a desirable 
reform in the morals and manner of life of 
individual men; for, as from a corrupt root bad fruit 
cannot fail to spring, so the poison which depraves 
the family produces vice in individual citizens. On 
the contrary, when the family circle is regulated by 
the rules of a Christian life, the indi- vidual 
members begin by degrees to love religion and 
piety, to abhor false and pernicious doctrines, 
follow virtue, obey their elders, and suppress that 
selfish interest which enervates and enfeebles 
human nature. For this purpose it will be very 
useful to promote those pious associations which 
have been established to the great advance of 
Catholic interests, especially in this age. 

"Great, indeed, and superior to human strength, are 
these things which we hope and desire, venerable 
brothers; but, since God has made the people of the 
earth capable of being reclaimed, since He has 
founded His Church for the salvation of nations, 
and promised to be with her unto the consummation 
of the world, we firmly trust, with your 
cooperation, that the human race, sensible of its 
many calamities, will finally seek salvation and 
prosperity in submission to the Church and the 
infallible teaching of this Apostolic See. 

"Meanwhile, venerable brothers, before we close, 
we must con- gratulate you on that admirable union 
and harmony which unite you together and j oin you 
with this Apostolic See. We deem this perfect 
union not only an impregnable; bulwark against the 
enemy, but also a happy omen of better days for the 
Church; and, while it brings great comfort to our 
weakness, it also lifts up our soul, that in the 


office which we have accepted we may sustain 
every labor and every struggle for the Church of 

"Moreover, these motives of hope and joy which 
we have expressed to you cannot be separated 
from the tokens of love and obedience which, in 
the beginning of our Pontificate, you, venerable 
brothers, and, together with you, many 
ecclesiastics and laymen, have given us, by letters, 
by offerings, by pilgrimages, and by other offices 
of piety, showing that the love which they had felt 
for our worthy predecessor remains so firm, so 
lasting, and entire, that it wanes not even toward 
the person of so unequal a successor. For these 
splendid testimonies of Catholic piety we humbly 
praise the Lord because He is good and merciful, 
and from the bottom of our heart we publicly 
profess the sentiments of our gratitude to you, 
venerable brothers, and to all the beloved children 
from whom we received them, while we cherish 

the confidence that in these sad and critical times 
your zeal and affection and those of the faithful 
will never fail us. And we doubt not that these 
excellent examples of filial piety and Christian 
virtue will avail much, and move the most merciful 
God to look more propitiously upon His flock, and 
grant peace and victory to the Church. But as we 
believe He will give this peace ar*d victory more 
readily if the faithful pray for it with constant 
fervor, we earnestly exhort you, venerable 
brothers, to excite the zeal of the faithful to ask for 
it through the intercession of the Immaculate Queen 
of Heaven, of St. Joseph, patron of the Church, and 
of the holy Princes of the Apostles, Peter and Paul, 
to whose powerful patronage we sup- pliantly 
commend our own humble person, all the orders of 
the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and the entire flock of 
the Lord. 

"For the rest we pray that these days, on which we 
celebrate the resurrection of Jesus Christ, may be 
to you, venerable brothers, and to all the faithful, 
blessed and full of holy joy, while we beseech the 

most merciful God, through the blood of the 
Immaculate Lamb, by whom the handwriting which 
was against us was erased, to pardon 


- v "5 W73*S5B!’WW2SSa A '-» A SSS A :sS ip ? , B 


The Blessed Sacrament was administered by 
Cardinal Serafino Vannutelli. There were present, 
Cardinals, members of the household and relatives. 


the faults we have committed, and remit the 
punishments we deserve for them. 

"The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the 
charity of God, and the communication of the Holy 
Spirit be with you all, venerable brothers; to all 
whom, as to all our beloved children, the clergy 
and faithful of your churches, as a pledge of 
particular benevolence and a token of heavenly 
protection, we most lovingly impart the Apostolic 

"Given at St. Peter's, Rome, on the solemn day of 
Easter, April 21, 1878, the first year of our 

"Leo XI 1L, Pope." 


/~\N THE day following his coronation, March 

4th, Pope Leo A S XIII. published a letter, 
reestablishing the Catholic hierarchy in Scotland. 
Pius IX. had taken action on this work, but his 
death had prevented its consummation. Pope Leo 
XIII. wrote that he accepted the duty as "a happy 
omen with which to begin the exercise of the 
Suprem Peastorate, which we have taken upon 
ourselves with fear and trembling, amid the 
calamities of the present times." In this letter he 
recounted most interesting facts regarding the 
Catholic religion in Scotland, the progress made, 
the loyalty of many of the ancient Highland clans, 
who, in the face of the most severe persecu- tions, 
had remained faithful in the practices of the ancient 
faith. He praised the freedom of worship granted 
by the English government, and he expressed the 
hope that the Church in Scotland would resume its 
ancient splendor, owing to the creation of 
Episcopal Sees through- out the country. He 
rejoiced that he was permitted to reestablish the 
ancient See of St. Andrew, and bestow upon it 
metropolitan rank with the title of the See of 


"From the highest summit of the Apostolic office," 
he wrote, in part, "to which, without any merits of 
ours, but by the disposition of Providence, we 
have recently been raised, the Roman Pontiffs, our 
predecessors, never ceased to watch, as from a 
mountain-top, in order that they might perceive 
what, as years rolled on, would be most con- 
ducive to the prosperity, dignity, and stability of all 
the Churches. 



Hence, as far as was given them, they were 
exceedingly solicitous, not only to erect Episcopal 
Sees in every land, but also to recall to life such as 
had through evil times ceased to exist. For, since 
the Holy Ghost has placed Bishops to rule the 

Church of God, wherever the state of religion 
allows the ordinary episcopal government to be 
either established or restored, it certainly is not 
lawful to deprive the Church of the benefits which 
naturally flow from this divinely estab- fished 

"Wherefore our immediate predecessor, Pius IX. 
of sacred memory, whose recent death we all 
deplore, seeing, even from the beginning of his 
Pontificate, that the missions in the most noble and 
flourishing kingdom of England had made such 
progress that the form of Church government which 
exists in Catholic nations would be bene- ficial to 
religion, restored to the English their ordinary 
Bishops by an Apostolic letter, dated 1st October, 
1850, beginning Universalis ccclesice; and not 
long after, perceiving that the illustrious regions of 
Holland and Brabant could enjoy the same salutary 
dispositions, he there also restored the episcopal 
hierarchy by another Apostolic letter, dated 4th 
March, 1853, beginning Ex qua die. The wisdom 
of these measures — to say nothing of the 

restoration of the patriarchate of Jerusalem — has 
been amply proved by the result, which, through 
the divine grace, has fully realized the hopes of 
this Holy See; since it is evident to all that a great 
increase was given to the Catholic Church in each 
of those countries, through the restoration of the 
episcopal hierarchy. 

"The loving heart of the Pontiff was grieved that 
Scotland could not as yet enjoy the same good 
fortune. And this grief of his pater- nal heart was 
increased by his knowledge of the great progress 
made by the Catholic Church in Scotland in past 
days. And, indeed, who- ever is even slightly 
conversant with Church history must have known 
that the light of the gospel shone upon the Scots at 
an early date: for, to say nothing of what tradition 
has handed down of more 


ancient Apostolic missions, it is recounted that 
towards the end of the fourth century, St. Ninian, 
who, as Venerable Bede attests, had been correctly 
taught the faith and the mysteries of the truth in 
Rome, and in the fifth century, St. Palladius, a 
deacon of the Roman Church, having been invested 
with the sacred miter, preached the faith of Christ 
in Scotland; and that St. Columba, abbot, who 
landed there in the sixth century, built a monastery, 
from which many others sprang. And, although 
from the middle of the eighth century to the 
eleventh, historical documents concerning the 
ecclesiastical state of Scotland are almost entirely 
wanting, still it has been handed down that there 
were many Bishops in the country, although some 
of them had no fixed sees. But after Malcolm in. 
came into possession of the sovereign power, in 
the year 1057, through his exertions, at the 
exhortation of his sainted spouse Margaret, the 
Christian religion, which, either through the 
inroads of foreign peoples, or through various 
political vicissitudes, had suffered heavy losses, 
began to be restored and spread; and the still 

existing remains of churches, monasteries, and 
religious buildings bear witness to the piety of the 
ancient Scots. But, to come more directly to our 
subject, it is known that in the fifteenth century the 
Episcopal Sees had increased to the number of 
thirteen; to wit, St. Andrew's, Glasgow, Dunkeld, 
Aberdeen, Moray, Brechin, Dumblane, Ross and 
Caithness, Withorn and Lismore, Sodor or the 
Isles, and Orkney, — all of which were 
immediately subject to the Apostolic See. It is also 
known — and the Scots are justly proud of the fact 
— that the Roman Pontiffs, taking the kingdom of 
Scotland under their special protection, regarded 
the above-named Churches with special favor: 
hence, while they themselves acted as 
metropolitans of Scotland, they more than once 
decreed that the liberties and immunities granted in 
past times by the Roman Church, mother and 
teacher of all the Churches, should be preserved 
intact; so that, as was decreed by Honorius III. of 
holy memory, the Scottish Church should be like a 
favorite daughter, immediately subject to 


the Apostolic See without any intermediary. Thus 
Scotland was without a metropolitan of its own to 
the time of Sixtus IV, who, reflecting on the 
expense and delays to which the Scots were sub- 
jected in coming to the Roman metropolis, by an 
apostolic letter of the 17th August, 1472, beginning 
Triumphans Pastor Ait 'emus, raised the See of St. 
Andrew's to be the metropolitan and 
Archiepiscopal See of the whole kingdom, the 
other Sees being subjected to it as suffragans. In 
like manner the See of Glasgow was withdrawn 
from the ecclesiastical province of St. Andrew's 
by Innocent VIII., in 1491, and raised to the dignity 
of a metropolitan See, with some of the above Sees 
as suffragans. 

"The Scottish Church thus constituted was in a 
flourishing condi- tion, when it was reduced to 
utter ruin by the outbreak of heresy in the sixteenth 

century. Yet never did the anxious care, solicitude, 
and watchfulness of the Supreme Pontiffs, our 
predecessors, fail the Scots, that they might 
persevere strong in their faith. For, moved with 
compassion for that people, and seeing the wide 
havoc wrought by the storm, they labored 
strenuously to succor religion, now by sending 
missionaries of various religious orders, again by 
apostolic legations and by every kind of 
assistance. By their care, in this citadel of the 
Catholic world, besides the Urban College, a 
special college was opened for chosen youths of 
the Scottish nation, in which they should be trained 
in sacred knowledge, and prepared for the 
priesthood, in order to exercise the sacred ministry 
in their native land, and to bring spiritual aid to 
their countrymen. And as that beloved portion of 
the Lord's flock was bereft of its pastors, Gregory 
XV, of happy memory, as soon as he had it in his 
power, sent William, Bishop of Chalcedon, with 
the ample faculties which belong to ordinaries, to 
both England and Scotland, to assume the pastoral 
charge of those scattered sheep; as may be seen in 

the apostolic letter, beginning Ecclesia Roinana, 
dated 23d March, 1623. To restore the orthodox 
faith in the same regions, and to procure the 


salvation of the English and Scots, Urban VIII. 
granted ample faculties to Francis Barberini, 
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, as is shown 
by his brief Inter Gravissimas, dated 18th of May, 
1630. To the same intent also is another letter of 
the same Pontiff, begin- ning Multa sunt, written to 
the Queen of France for the purpose of 
recommending to her good offices the faithful and 
the afflicted Church of those countries. 

"Again, in order to provide in the best manner 
possible for the spiritual government of the Scots, 
Pope Innocent XII., in 1694, deputed as his Vicar 
Apostolic, Thomas Nicholson, Bishop of Perista- 
chium, committing to his care all the kingdom and 

the islands adjacent. And, not long after, when one 
Vicar Apostolic was no longer sufficient for the 
cultivation of the whole of the said vineyard of the 
Lord, Benedict XIII. gave the aforesaid Bishop a 
companion, in the year 1727. Thus it came to pass 
that the kingdom of Scotland was divided into two 
Apostolic Vicariates, one of which embraced the 
southern, the other the northern portion. But the 
division which had sufficed for the government of 
the number of Catholics then existing was no 
longer sufficient, when through the Lord’s blessing 
their numbers had increased. Hence this Apostolic 
See perceived the necessity of providing 
additional help for religion in Scotland, by the 
institution of a third vicariate. Wherefore Leo XII., 
of happy memory, by an apostolic letter of the 13 th 
of February, 1827, begin- ning Quanta Iwtitia 
affecti simus, divided Scotland into three districts 
or Apostolic Vicariates; namely, the eastern, 
western and northern. 

"But Pius IX., of happy memory, had exceedingly 
at heart the restoration to its pristine beauty of the 

illustrious Scottish Church; for the bright example 
of his predecessors urged him, they having, as it 
were, smoothed the way for him to the 
accomplishment of this work. Considering, on the 
one hand, the condition of the Catholic religion in 
Scotland, and the daily increasing number of the 
faithful, of sacred workers, churches, missions and 
religious houses, as well as 


the sufficiency of temporal means; and seeing, on 
the other hand, that the liberty granted by the 
British government to Catholics had removed 
every impediment that might have opposed the 
restoration to the Scots of the ordinary rule of 
Bishops by which the Catholics of other nations 
are governed, the said Pontiff concluded that the 
estab- lishment of the episcopal hierarchy in 
Scotland should not be further delayed. 
Meanwhile, the Vicars Apostolic themselves, and 

very many of the clergy and laity, — men 
conspicuous by noble birth and virtue, — besought 
him earnestly to satisfy their earnest wishes in this 
matter. This humble request was again laid before 
him when a chosen band from every rank in the 
said region, having at their head our venerable 
brother, John Strain, Bishop of Abila, inpartibus 
infidelium, and Vicar Apostolic of the eastern 
district, came to this city to congratulate him on the 
fiftieth anniversary of his episcopal conse- cration. 
It was then that the said Pius IX. referred the 
matter, as its importance demanded, to the 
discussion of our venerable brethren, the Cardinals 
of the Congregation de Propaganda Fide; and their 
opinion co nfi rmed him more and more in the 
resolution he had formed. But while he was 
rejoicing that he had come to the comple- tion of a 
work so long and ardently wished for, he was 
called away to receive the crown of justice. 

"What, therefore, our predecessor was hindered by 
death from bringing to a conclusion, God, plentiful 
in mercy, and glorious in all His works, has 

enabled us to effect, so that we might inaugurate 
our Pontificate with a happy omen. Wherefore, 
after having acquired a full knowledge of the entire 
matter, we have deemed that what had been 
decreed by the lately deceased Pius IX. should be 
promulgated. Therefore, raising up our eyes to the 
Father of Light, If om whom comes every good and 
perfect gift, we have invoked the aid of divine 
grace; praying also for the help of the blessed 
Virgin Mary, conceived without stain; of blessed 
Joseph, her spouse, and patron of the Universal 
Church; of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul; of 


Andrew, and the other saints whom the Scots 
venerate as patrons, — that by their suffrages 
before God they might bring the said mattei to a 
prosperous issue. 

"In view of these considerations, by an act of our 

own will, with certain knowledge, and in virtue of 
the apostolic authority which we possess over the 
whole Church, to the greater glory of Almighty 
God, and the exaltation of the Catholic faith, we 
ordain and decree that in the kingdom of Scotland, 
the hierarchy of ordinary bishops, who shall take 
their titles from the Sees which by this our 
constitu- tion we erect, shall be revived, and shall 
constitute an ecclesiastical province. Moreover, 
we ordain that, for the present, six Sees shall be 
erected, and are hereby erected: to wit, St. 
Andrew's, with the addition of the title of 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dunkeld, Withorn 
or Galloway, and Argyll and the Isles. 

"Recalling to mind the illustrious records of the 
Church of St. Andrew's, and taking into account the 
present chief city of the said kingdom, and 
weighing other considerations, we have resolved 
to call forth, as it were, from the grave, the said 
renowned See, and to raise or restore it, with the 
addition of the title of Edinburgh, to the rank of the 
metropolitan or archiepiscopal dignity which had 

formerly been granted by our predecessor Sixtus 
IV, of venerable memory; and we assign to it, by 
virtue of our apostolic authority, four of the above- 
named Sees: namely, Aberdeen, Dunkeld, Withorn 
or Galloway, Argyll and the Isles. In regard to the 
See of Glasgow, considering the antiquity, 
importance, and nobility of that city, and especially 
the highly flourishing state of religion therein, and 
the archi- episcopal preeminence conferred upon it 
by Innocent VIII., we have thought it proper to give 
to its Bishop the name and insignia of an 
Archbishop; in such manner, however, that, until it 
shall have been otherwise ordained by us or our 
successors, he shall not receive, beyond the 
prerogative of the name and honor, any right proper 
to a true Archbishop and metropolitan. We also 
ordain that the Arch- 


bishop of Glasgow, so long as he shall be without 

suffragans, shall be present with the other Bishops 
in the provincial synod of Scot- land. . . 

On March 5th, Leo XIII. appointed Cardinal 
Franchi secretary of state. The Cardinal, in 1871, 
had represented the Holy See at Con- stantinople, 
and with singular diplomatic success had enlisted 
the good will of the Sultan in behalf of the 
Christians of the Roman Empire, and in 1876 he 
visited Ireland, and was present at the open- ing of 
the Seminary of the Holy Cross, Clontarf, and had 
assisted at the anniversary of Daniel O'Connell. 
Leo XIII. instructed his sec- retary of state to enter 
immediately into negotiations on behalf of the 
Church with the Emperor of Germany and the 
President of Switzerland, and the Sultan of Turkey, 
as also the rulers of the Asiatic countries, where 
the Catholic missions were in jeopardy. The most 
oppressive laws had been enacted against the 
Catholic Church in those countries and, above all, 
in Germany, where the cry was "war in the interest 
of civilization." Leo XIII., with his pro- found 
knowledge of statesmanship, concluded that the 

change which had been recently made in the 
Pontificate offered an opportunity to bring about a 
solution of the vexed questions, and secure peace 
for the persecuted Catholics. These plans were in 
course of fulfill- ment when an unexpected event 
occurred to defer their progress. This was the 
unlooked-for demise of Cardinal Franchi, on the 
3 1st of July, 1878. 

The Pope deplored the death of Cardinal Franchi, 
who had embodied every qualification necessary 
for the successful administra- tion of the manifold 
duties of the position to which he had been 
assigned. The Holy Father now appointed Cardinal 
Lorenzo Nina to secretaryship of state, and placed 
before him the instructions given to his 
predecessor. In order that the Cardinal might more 
fully understand the line of policy to be pursued in 
the affairs between Church and State, the Holy 
Father deemed it proper, in a letter, to 


expain what had been done during the six months 
of his Pontificate, and in the letter he stated his 
plans for the amelioration of all Christian interests. 
This document outlines fully the future policy of 
Pope Leo XIII. It is as follows: 

"It was a great misfortune and a great grief for us/' 
he says, "to have so suddenly lost Cardinal 
Alexander FYanchi, our secretary of state. We 
called him to this high office because of the 
confidence inspired by his uncommon gifts of mind 
and heart, and the long services he had rendered to 
the Church. He so fully answered to 'all our 
expectations during the short time he labored by 
our side that "’.lis memory shall never by us be 
forgotten, and among those who tome after us, as 
among the living, his name shall remain ever dear 
and blessed. 

"As, however, it has pleased our Lord to subject us 
to this trial, we adore with submissive will His 

divine counsels. And turning our attention to the 
choice of a successor, we have cast our eyes on 
you, my Lord Cardinal, whose skill in conducting 
affairs was well known to us, as well as your 
firmness of purpose and the generous spirit of self- 
sacrifice towards the Church which animates you. 

"As you were entering on your charge we deemed 
it proper to address you the present letter, in order 
to make known our mind to you concerning several 
most important points on which your unceas- ing 
care must be in a very special manner bestowed. 

"In the very first days of our Pontificate, and from 
the height of this Apostolic Chair, we turned our 
eyes to society as it is at present, to ascertain its 
condition, to examine its needs, and to discover 
proper remedies. Since then, in the encyclical 
letters addressed to all our Brother-Bishops, we 
lamented the decadence not only of the 
supernatural truths made known to us by faith, but 
of the natural truths, both speculative and practical, 
the prevalence of the most fatal errors, and the 

very serious peril of society from the ever- 
increasing disorders which confront it on every 


"We said that the chief reason of this great moral 
ruin was the openly proclaimed separation and the 
attempted apostasy of the society of our day from 
Christ and His Church, which alone has the power 
to repair all the evils of society. In the noonday 
light of facts we then showed that the Church, 
founded by Christ to renovate the world, from her 
first appearance in it began to give it great comfort 
by her superhuman virtue; that in the darkest and 
most destructive periods the Church was the only 
beacon-light which made the road of life safe to 
the nations, the only refuge where they found peace 
and safety. 

"From this it was easy to conclude that if in past 

ages the Church was able to bestow upon the 
world such signal benefits, she can also do it most 
certainly at present; that the Church, as every 
Catholic believes, being ever animated by the 
Spirit of Christ — who promised her His unfailing 
assistance — was by Him established teacher of 
truth and guardian of a holy and faultless law; and 
that, being such, she possesses at this day all the 
force necessary to resist the intellectual and moral 
decay which sickens society, and to restore the 
latter to health. 

"And inasmuch as unprincipled foes, in order to 
bring her into disrepute and to draw on her the 
enmity of the world, continue to propagate against 
her the gravest calumnies, we endeavored from the 
beginning to dissipate these prejudices and to 
expose these false- hoods, resting assured that the 
nations, when they come to know the Church as she 
really is, and in her own beneficent nature, will 
every- where willingly return to her bosom. 

'Urged by this purpose, we resolved also to make 

our voice heard to those who rule the nations, 
inviting them earnestly not to reject, in these times 
of pressing need, the strong support which the 
Church offers them And under the impulse of our 
Apostolic charity we addressed ourselves even to 
those who are not bound to us by the tie of the 
Catholic religion, desiring, as we did, that their 
subjects also should experience the kindly 
influence of that divine institution. 


56 z 


"You are well aware, my Lord Cardinal, that in 
following out this impulse of our heart we 

addressed ourselves also to the mighty empe- ror 
of the illustrious German nation — a nation which 
demanded our special attention on account of the 
hard conditions there imposed on Catholics. Our 
words, inspired solely by the desire to see 
religious peace restored to Germany, were 
favorably received by the emperor and had the 
good effect to lead to friendly negotiations. In these 
our purpose was, not to rest satisfied with a simple 
suspension of hostilities, but, removing every 
obstacle in the way, to come to a true, solid, and 
tasting peace. 

’The importance of this aim was justly appreciated 
by those who hold in their hands the destinies of 
that empire, and this will lead them, as we 
sincerely trust, to join hands with us in attaining it. 
The Church assuredly would rejoice to see peace 
brought back to that great nation; but the empire 
itself would not rejoice less that, con- sciences 
being appeased, the sons of the Catholic Church 
would be found still — what they had at other 
times proved themselves to be — the most faithful 

and the most generous of subjects. 

"Nor could the countries of the East escape our 
fatherly vigilance; there the great events which are 
just now in course of accomplish- ment are, 
perhaps, preparing a better future for religious 
interests. Nothing shall be omitted by the Apostolic 
See to promote these; and we cherish the hope that 
the illustrious Churches of these regions shall at 
length come to live a fruitful life and to shed 
abroad their ancient splendor. 

"These brief remarks reveal sufficiently, my Lord 
Cardinal, our design of extending largely the 
beneficent action of the Church and the Papacy 
throughout modern society in all its degrees. It is, 
there- fore, necessary that you also should apply 
all your lights and all your activity to canning out 
this design which God has inspired us with. 

"Besides that, you will have to give your serious 
attention to another matter of the highest 
importance — that is, to the very diffi- 


cult condition created for the Head of the Church in 
Italy and in Rome where they have despoiled him 
of the temporal power which Providence so many 
centuries ago had bestowed on him to protect the 
freedom of his spiritual power. 

"We do not wish to stop to reflect here that the 
violation of the most sacred interests of the 
Apostolic See and of the Roman Pontiff is fatal 
also to the welfare and the tranquillity of the 
nations, who, seeing the most ancient and august 
rights violated in the person of Christ's Vicar, feel 
their deep notions of duty and justice seriously 
weakened, their respect for law weakened, and 
thus the way is opened to destroy the very 
possibility of living together in society. 

"Nor shall we delay you to consider that the 
Catholics of the different states can never feel at 

rest till their Supreme Pontiff, the supreme teacher 
of their faith, the moderator of their consciences, is 
in the full enjoyment of a true liberty and a real 

"We cannot, however, help observing that while 
we need for our spiritual power, both on account 
of its divine origin and superhuman destination, 
and for the needful exercise of its beneficent 
influence in favor of all human societies, the fullest 
and most perfect liberty, on the other hand the 
present conditions in which we are placed so 
hamper and limit it that we find it most d iff cult to 
govern the uni- versal Church. The thing is 
notorious and proved by daily occur- rences. The 
solemn complaints uttered by our predecessor, 

Pius IX., in the memorable Consistorial Allocution 
of March 12, 1877, may with equal reason be 
repeated by us, with the addition of many other 
grievances arising from the new obstacles opposed 
to the free exer- cise of our power. 

"We have also to deplore, as did our illustrious 

predecessor, the suppression of the religious 
orders, which deprives the Pontiff of a precious 
aid in the congregations which transact the most 
important affairs of the Church. We grieve that 
divine worship sees its minis- ters taken away by 
the law on military conscription, which compels 


all, without distinction, to serve in the army; that 
they withdraw from our control and that of the 
clergy the institutions of charity and beneficence 
founded in Rome by the Popes, or by Catholic 
nations who confided them to the watchful care of 
the Church. We grieve, with the intense, bitter grief 
which fills our heart as a father and a pastor, to 
find that we are compelled to see beneath our eyes 
in this Rome, the center of the Catholic religion, 
the progress made by heresy, heterodox temples 
and schools built freely and in a great number, and 
to have to observe the perversion which is the 

conse- quence, especially among young people, 
who are given an anti- Catholic education. But, as 
if all this were nothing, they are endeav- oring to 
nullify the very acts of our spiritual jurisdiction. 

"It is well known to you, my Lord Cardinal, how, 
after the occu- pation of Rome, wishing to calm to 
some extent the consciences of Catholics who felt 
very uneasy about the fate of their Chief Pastor, the 
government publicly and solemnly declared that 
they would leave the nomination of the Bishops of 
Italy entirely in the hands of the Pope. Then, under 
the pretext that the acts of their canonical insti- 
tution were not submitted to the government placet, 
not only were the new Bishops deprived of their 
revenues — thus throwing on the Holy See the 
heavy burden of supporting them — but, moreover, 
to the great spiritual injury of their flocks, the 
government would not even acknowledge the acts 
of episcopal jurisdiction performed by them, such 
as the nomination of parish priests or other 
beneficed persons. 

"And when, to obviate all these serious evils, the 
Holy See toler- ated that the newly-elected 
Bishops of Italy should present their Bulls of 
nomination and of institution carried out in due 
canonical form, the condition of the Church was in 
no whit improved thereby. Not- withstanding this 
act of presentation, for one futile reason or another 
many Bishops continued to be deprived of their 
revenues and to have their jurisdiction ignored. 
Those who can obtain their object see their 
petition sent from one office to another and 
subjected to endless 


delays. Men of the highest merit, distinguished by 
their learning and virtue, deemed by the Sovereign 
Pontiff worthy of filling the highest degrees in the 
ecclesiastical hierarchy, are forced to see 
themselves subjected to the most humiliating and 
prying disquisi- tions, as if they were vulgarians 

under the ban of suspicion. The venerable man 
designated by us to administer the Church of 
Perugia in our name, although placed already at the 
head of another Church, and legally acknowledged 
therein, after a long period of waiting, still vainly 
expects an answer. Thus it is that, with a paltry 
cunning, they take away from the Church with the 
left hand what mere policy feigned to give her with 
the right. 

"To render this state of things still more painful, 
they lately began to assert the rights of royal 
patronage in several dioceses of Italy, with such 
exaggerated pretensions, accompanied by such 
odious measures, that the Archbishop of Chieti 
was judicially informed that they denied his 
jurisdiction, declared his appointment null, and 
ignored even his episcopal character ! 

"It is not our purpose to insist on the nullity of such 
rights, which besides was confessed by not a few 
of our adversaries. It is sufficient to recall the fact 
that the Apostolic See, to which is reserved to 

provide for all Episcopal Sees, was only in the 
habit of granting the right of patronage to such 
sovereigns as had deserved well of the Church by 
supporting her interests, promoting her extension, 
increasing her patrimony; and that all who combat 
her by impugning her rights, appropriating her 
possessions, become by that alone, in accordance 
with the canons, incapable of exercising such 

’The facts touched upon so far evidently indicate 
the purpose of continuing in Italy a system of ever- 
increasing hostility towards the Church, and 
clearly show what sort of liberty is kept in store 
for her, and with what kind of respect they intend 
to surround the Head of the Catholic religion. 

"In this most deplorable condition of things we are 
not ignorant, 


my Lord Cardinal, of the sacred duties imposed 
upon us by our sacred ministry; and, with our eyes 
fixed on Heaven, with our soul strengthened by the 
assurance of the divine help, we shall study never 
to be unfaithful to them ..." 


The Holy Father took occasion among his very first 
acts to manifest heartfelt interest towards the 
laboring classes, and he extended to them the 
warmest sentiments and expressions of sympa- thy 
in their efforts to ameliorate their conditions and to 
obtain just compensation for their toil. He 
endorsed the efforts towards better- ing their moral 
and mental condition by banding together in 
associa- tions of working men and labor 
fraternities, after the fashion of the ancient guilds 
of labor in Italy, which had been such a help to the 
oppressed working classes. 

He replied to a letter of congratulation addressed 
to him from a society founded by Father Olivant, in 

Paris, whose object was to bring together young 
men, apprentices, mechanics and others who were 
learning trades, teach them in night-classes to read 
and write and encourage them in the practice of 
their religion. In this letter the Holy Father urged 
the members of the society to continue the good 
work already begun. 

The Italian government, soon after the 
"occupation," attacked the Catholic religion by 
suppressing all religious instruction in the primary 
and intermediate schools of Rome, against which 
Pope Pius IX. had protested as unjust to the 
children of Catholic parents, who looked for some 
religious instruction as well as secular knowledge. 
In vain the aged Pontiff protested. The government 
took no notice of the wishes of the Pontiff, but 
rather emphasized its contempt of his desires by 
not only excluding all mention of religion, but also 
of the name of God in the schools. Meanwhile, in 
the establishments founded in Rome by the sects 
for the purpose of proselytism, a 

H'i i KfiHr.stffif ffir’Ststtr.s of’ .WW/",St ’ Aft fit 
frtisActldfWttf, Chicago 


JAN. I »I 1 888.) 

Most Rev. Louis Begin, D.D. (Archbishop of 

Most. Rev. B. Orth (Archbishop of Vancouver, 

Most Rev. Hugh Gauthier, D.D. (Archbishop of 


Most. Rev. Louis Ph. Langevin, O.M.I. , D.D. 
(Archbishop of St. Boniface, Manitoba) 

TO POPE LEO Xm„ APRIL 29, 1903. 

The interview took place in the Pope's private 
library. King Edward entered the Pope's presence 


translation of King James' version of the Bible was 
introduced, and anti-Catholic literature freely 
circulated, while the ministers of public instruction 
never interfered. These conditions grieved Leo 
XIII. while Bishop of Perugia, and later when he 

was Cardinal-Chamber- lain of the Church. Now 
that he was invested with supreme power he 
hastened to give expression to his views on the 
state of educa- tional matters in Rome. On the 26th 
of this year he addressed a let- ter to Cardinal 
Monaco La Valetta, his Vicar, in which he 
declared, "that the government had not been 
ashamed to forbid, in the schools of the city where 
Sts. Peter and Paul had preached, the Word of God, 
and the teaching of that Word, but had also 
banished God’s name from the schools frequented 
by the followers of those Apostles." 

On the 28th of March the Pope held a consistory in 
the Ducal Hall of the Vatican, at which all the 
Cardinals in Rome were present. This was an 
occasion of unusual interest, and all listened to the 
first utterance of Leo XIII.: 


"Venerable Brothers: — When your suffrages 
called us last month to take on ourselves the 

government of the universal Church, and to fill on 
earth the place of the prince of pastors, Jesus 
Christ, we did indeed feel our soul moved by the 
deepest perplexity and perturba- tion. On the one 
hand we were filled with great fear by the sincere 
conviction of our own unworthiness, as well as by 
our utter inability to support so great a burden; and 
this sense of infirmity was all the more increased 
by the remembrance of how much the fame of our 
predecessor . . . shone the brighter and more 
glorious through the whole earth. That great ruler 
of the Catholic fold had always con- tended for 
truth and justice with such invincible courage, and 
had labored so long and with such exemplary 
fidelity in administering the affairs of the Christian 
world, that he not only shed a luster on this 
Apostolic See, but filled the whole Church with 
love and admiration 


for his person, thereby perhaps excelling all his 
predecessors in the nigh and constant testimonies 
of public respect and veneration paid to him, as he 
surpassed them all by the length of his Pontificate. 

"On the other hand, we were filled with deep 
anxiety by the very sad state, in our days, of civil 
society almost everywhere, as well as of the 
Catholic Church itself, and especially of this 
Apostolic See, which, violently stripped of its 
temporal sovereignty, is reduced to a condition in 
which it can in no wise enjoy the full, free, and 
unim- peded use of its power. 

"Such, Venerable Brothers, were the reasons which 
moved us to refuse the proffered honor of the 
Pontificate. But how could we resist the divine 
will, which was so manifest in the unanimity of 
your decision, and in that most loving solicitude 
felt by you for the sole interest of the Catholic 
Church, urging you to elect, as soon as pos- sible, 
a Sovereign Pontiff ? 

"We, therefore, deemed it our duty to take on 
ourselves the office of the Supreme Apostleship, 
and to yield to the will of God, placing our whole 
trust in Him, with the hope that He who had 
imposed on us the high dignity would also give to 
our lowliness the strength to sustain it. 

"As this is the first time it is allowed us to address 
your Eminences from this place, we desire first of 
all solemnly to assure you that in the fulfillment of 
the service of our Apostolatewe shall have nothing 
so much at heart as to bestow all our care, with the 
help of God's grace, in sacredly guarding the 
deposit of the Catholic faith, in watch- ing 
faithfully over the rights and interests of the Church 
and the Holy See, and in laboring for the salvation 
of all; ever ready, for all these purposes, to 
undergo any fatigue, to draw back from no dis- 
comfort. . . . 

"In the discharge of these duties of our ministry we 
trust that we shall never lack the benefit of your 
counsels and your wisdom — nay, we ardently 

beseech you never to allow them to fail us. And in 


saying this we wish you to understand that it is not 
a mere expres- sion of official courtesy, but a 
solemn declaration of our affectionate desire. For 
we are deeply impressed by what the Holy 
Scripture relates of Moses — that, namely, when 
recoiling from the weighty responsibility of 
governing a whole people, he, by God’s own com- 
mand, called to his aid seventy men from among 
the ancients of Israel, in order to have them bear 
the burden with him, and thus to make them, by 
their help and counsel, lighten his cares in 
governing the people of Israel. This is the example 
which we, who have been made the guide and ruler 
of the entire Christian people in spite of our 
unworthiness, set before our eyes; wherefore we 
cannot refrain from seeking and finding in you the 
seventy men of all Israel in the Church of God, a 

help in our labors, a comfort in our cares. 

"We know, moreover, as the Word of God 
declares, that there is safety where there are many 
counsels; we know, as the Council of Trent 
admonishes us, that the administration of the 
universal Church depends on the counsels given to 
the Roman Pontiff by the College of Cardinals; we 
learn, finally, from St. Bernard, that the Cardinals 
are called the Pontiffs colleagues and counsellors. 
And, therefore, it is that we, who for nearly 
twenty-five years have enjoyed the honors of your 
order, have brought with us to this sovereign seat 
not only a heart frill of affection and zeal for you, 
but the firm resolve to use chiefly those who were 
formerly our associates in rank, as our fellow- 
laborers and advisers in transacting ecclesiastical 

"And now a most happy and timely occurrence 
permits us to share with you the first sweet fruit of 
consolation which our Lord permits us to gather 
from the first great work accomplished for the 

glory of religion. Our saintly predecessor, Pius 
IX., in his great zeal for the Catholic cause, had 
undertaken what such of you as belong to the 
Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith had 
definitely decreed — to reestablish the Episcopal 
hierarchy in the illustrious kingdom of Scotland, 
and thereby add a new luster to that Church; this 
we have 


been able to bring, with the divine aid, to a happy 
termination by the apostolic letter, which we had 
published on the 4th of this month. 

"It was indeed to us a subject of holy joy that in so 
doing we were fulfilling the ardent wishes of our 
dearly beloved, the clergy and faithful people of 
Scotland, of whose great devotion to the Catholic 
Church and the Chair of Peter we have many 
striking proofs. We, therefore, hope sincerely that 

the work thus accomplished by the Apostolic See 
shall be crowned with happy results, and that, 
through the intercession of the patron saints of 
Scotland, throughout the length and breadth of the 
kingdom 'the mountains shall put on peace for the 
people, and the hills righteousness.' " 



QOON after his accession to the Pontificate Leo 
XIII. gave unmis« A - A takable evidence of his 
interest and activity in behalf of education. He 
knew full well that it was by this means he could 
stem the tide of irreligion and social disintegration 
which was at the time causing incalculable injury 
to the entire people of Italy. 

He addressed himself with enthusiasm to the task 
of restoring to ancient Rome and to other cities of 

Italy their former intellectual splendor, employing 
for that end the methods of Christian education in 
spite of the fact that the government authorities had 
everywhere supplanted the Christian system of 
elementary education by one of a godless and anti- 
Christian character. Leo XIII. happily possessed in 
a superlative degree the qualifications for the 
discharge of this task. His moral and mental 
equipment were unsurpassed, his indomitable will 
and courage were well calculated to enforce upon 
the minds of the people that his ideas were 
reasonably sure of fulfillment. His policy was that 
of right and justice, of conservative adherence to 
the laws of the state where they did not conflict 
with the rights of the Church, — a conciliatory 
policy in order to bring the nations of the world 
into peaceful accord and harmonious relations with 
the fundamental teachings of the Christian religion. 


Cardinal Monaco la Valletta was commissioned to 
establish a system of instruction in the schools of 

Rome, in which religious doctrine would be the 
special accompaniment of secular knowledge. This 
able and energetic member of the Sacred College 
set about the 



work assigned him with enthusiasm, and was in a 
fair way to realize his hopes when death claimed 
him. The Holy Father, deeply deplor- ing the 
untimely demise of his valued collaborator, 
appointed Cardinal Parocchi to proceed with the 
contemplated work. 

On March 25th the Pope addressed a letter to the 
Cardinal, in which he denounced the ignoble 
warfare being so studiously and per- sistently 
waged against the religious education of the 
Roman youth. In the document he advises a Council 

of Education for Rome, to be composed of eminent 
prelates and learned members of the laity, whose 
duty it would be to carefully guard all primary 
schools, and wherever necessary to establish new 
ones. He held that the intro- duction of anti- 
Christian methods into the secular education of the 
youth of Europe was largely responsible for the 
existing revolution- ary conditions. Three hundred 
years of persecution, of incessant demands for the 
elimination of God and religion from the education 
of the masses, had resulted in the deification of 
human reason, while the doctrines of naturalism, 
irrationalism and individualism had become the 
sole dictators and arbitrators of human thought and 
action, and had wrought incalculable damage to the 
entire social fabric. Leo XIII. inaugurated a 
remedy for this monstrous evil by the 
reintroduction of religious doctrines into 
elementary education. 


Scarcely had the Holy Father outlined his plans for 
putting into effect this work than the enemies of the 
Church determined upon holding a centenary 
celebration in honor of\bltaire, the arch-infidel 
philosopher, whose tenets had done more to 
subvert the prevalent Christian thought of Europe 
than all other factors combined. They decided to 
hold this carnival of licentiousness and blasphemy 
in the City of Rome under the very eye of the Pope. 

Every judicial and legislative celebrity of Europe 
was summoned to attend this convention. The 
apostles of revolution, the leading 


teachers in irreligious schools and the 
representatives of the anti- Catholic press came 
together, and after the most violent denuncia- tion 
of the Catholic Church, the Pope and his Cardinals, 
and the Catholic priesthood they closed the 

proceedings by declaring their fealty to the infidel- 
teacher whose anniversary they celebrated, and 
they resolved to continue the work of 
disseminating his doctrines. 


This supreme indignity to the Vicar of Christ, and 
the Church itself, was condemned by everyone 
who had the interests of the Church and the Holy 
Father at heart. To counteract, at least in part, the 
influence of these men, the faithful hastened to 
express to Leo XIII. their loyalty to the Church and 
his person by eloquent addresses and expressions 
of sympathy. 

On the Feast of the Ascension, May 30th, the Holy 
Father received an immense delegation of Roman 
citizens — noblemen, churchmen, artisans, 
members of labor guilds and charitable associa- 
tions, who presented to him an address in which 
they condemned the iniquitous transactions of those 
men, protesting their unswerving devotion to the 

Church and its Supreme Ruler on earth. The Pope 
was greatly moved at these expressions of loyalty, 
and thanked them, one and all, "urging them to hold 
steadfast to the old faith, to continue to suffer 
persecution for justice's sake and to keep their 
hearts pure and unde filed." 

On June 6th the veteran soldiers of the papal army, 
led by their commander-in-chief, marched in a 
body to the Vatican, and when received by the 
Holy Father, they extended to him their felicitations 
upon his Pontificate, and voiced their unswerving 
loyalty to him. Leo XIII. embraced the opportunity 
of declaring his sentiments regarding the unjust 
spoliation of Church property, the attempted 
dethronement of the Papacy, and expressed his 
hopes for a speedy restoration of the temporal 
dominions of the Church. 


At the close of his address to these warriors of the 
faith, he said: "To you, glorious defenders of right 
and justice, we shall say in con- elusion: 

Persevere, remain faithful to your duties. Let no act 
in your future life ever stain your honored career. If 
it please God to shorten the days of trial by 
granting us happier times, you shall be found at 
your post ready to protect the sacred interests of 
the Church. Should it turn out otherwise you will 
have the consolation of having shared with us our 
ill-fortune and of having cast your lot with us." 

The suppression of the Religious Orders and the 
conscription of students called to enter the 
ecclesiastical state resulted in a depletion of the 
clerical ranks, which threatened serious results to 
religion. It was with difficulty that the people of a 
large number of parishes were supplied with 
pastors or curates, and this great need was one of 
the sorest trials to the Pope. 


In May, 1885, he addressed a letter to Cardinal 
Parocchi, in con- nection with the establishment of 
special classes in Latin, Greek and Italian for the 
priesthood, which read as follows: "You 
understand perfectly what we have frequently said, 
and not without good reason, that serious and 
continual efforts should be made to have the clergy 
distinguish themselves in all branches of 
knowledge. The needs of the present age 
imperatively require it. Intellectual culture 
advances so rapidly, and the appetite for learning 
is so insatiable, that the clergy would find 
themselves at a disadvantage in the proper and 
fruitful discharge of their duties, if they did not 
merit for their order, the same reputation for 
intellectual culture for which other profes- sions 
are so ambitious. 

’This is why we have bestowed so much care and 
thought on the best methods of culture for our 
young seminarians. Beginning with the most 
serious matters of study we have endeavored to 
revive the doctrine and method of St. Thomas in 

philosophy and theology. 


"But since literature occupies so large a space in 
college studies and contributes so much to our 
stores of knowledge for the various purposes of 
social life and all its humanities and graces, we 
have resolved to lay down certain lines on which 
letters have to be culti- vated. 

". . . .It is on account of these practical advantages 
that the Catholic Church, which truly values all that 
is honorable, all that is beautiful, all that is 
praiseworthy, has always attached to the culture of 
letters a due importance, and has encouraged it in 
everyway. We see that the Fathers of the Church 
were adorned with all the graces of the literary 
culture of their respective times. And there are 
some of them whose native genius and acquired 
literary art place them almost on a level with the 

classic Greeks and Romans. 

"Let us also say that the Church can claim the 
enviable distinc- tion of having saved from 
destruction the greatest number of the masterpieces 
of the ancient Greek and Latin poets, orators and 
historians. Besides — a thing which is universally 
acknowledged — in the ages when the culture of 
letters was neglected or impossible, when literary 
fame was drowned in the clash and tumult of arms 
all over Europe, letters found a refuge in the 
community-homes of the monks or the secular 
priesthood. Nor should we forget that among the 
Popes who have gone before us there are many 
who acquired distinguished fame in letters." 

The Roman Seminary occupied a high rank among 
the Colleges in Rome, and its various departments 
afforded the most extended courses in every branch 
of knowledge. It comprised schools of Oriental 
philology, with a faculty unsurpassed in any 
university in the world. Greek, Arabic, Armenian, 
Syriac and Copt each had its class directed by the 

ablest professors, natives of the countries in which 
they were spoken. 

The College of the Propaganda, founded by Urban 
VIIL, the most cosmopolitan institution in the 
world, was th A object of 


especial interest to the Holy Father. This 
establishment, comprising students of many 
nationalities, is the central missionary school of 
the Church, and from its student ranks many have 
been called to the highest positions of trust in the 


The crowning work of Leo XIII. in educational 
effort was the establishment of the Academy of St. 

In the second year of his Pontificate the Holy 
Father proclaimed the Angelic Doctor the patron of 
the schools, and some months later published the 
following document: "It is a custom founded on 
nature and approved by the Catholic Church, to 
seek the patronage of men celebrated for the 
sanctity, and the example of those who have 
excelled in, or attained perfection of some kind, so 
as to imitate them. For this reason a number of 
religious orders and literary societies have 
expressed a desire to choose for their teacher and 
patron, St. Thomas Aquinas, who shines like the 
sun in wisdom and virtue. 

’Now, as the study of his doctrines has increased in 
our day, numerous requests have been received by 
the Apostolic See to have him proclaimed the 
patron of Colleges, Academies and Schools 
throughout the Catholic world. ... It was deemed 
advisable to defer the granting of this request in 
order that they might increase in number; but last 
year, after the publication of our Encyclical letter 
on the ’Restoration in Catholic Schools of 

Christian Philosophy according to the Spirit of the 
Angelic Doctor, St. Thomas Aquinas,' so many 
Bishops, Deans and savants from every part of the 
world expressed the desire to follow altogether in 
the footsteps of the great St. Thomas, declaring that 
they, like us, were convinced that the Thomistic 
doctrine possessed, in an eminent degree, the 
power and virtue for remedying the evils of our 
times, that we yield to their request without further 


"We then, who have so long desired to see the 
schools flourish under the protection of so great a 
master, deem that the hour has arrived for adding 
this new honor to the immortal glory of St. 

Thomas. Our reason for this declaration is that St. 
Thomas is the most perfect model Catholics can 
have in the various branches of science. In him are 
centered all the lights of heart and mind which 

command imitation, a learning most fecund, most 
pure and perfectly ordered, a respect for faith, and 
an admirable harmony with divinely revealed truth, 
integrity of life, and most exalted virtue. 

"His learning is so vast, that, like the sea, it 
contains all the wisdom that proceeds from the 
ancients. He not only fully under- stands everything 
that was said of truth, everything that was wisely 
discussed by Pagan philosophers, by the Fathers 
and Doctors of the Church, by the superior men 
who lived before his time, but he added to it, 
completed it, classified it with such perspicuity of 
mind, such perfection of method and such propriety 
of terms that he seems to have left his successors 
nothing save the faculty of imitating him while 
depriving them of the possibility of equalling him. . 
. . Those who devote themselves to sacred 
sciences, so violently attacked in our day, will find 
in the works of St. Thomas the means for fully 
demon- strating the foundations of the Christian 
faith, of enforcing super- natural truths, and 
victoriously defending our holy religion against the 

assaults of her enemies. ... We have been pleased 
to seek the advice of the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites upon the subject, and their unanimous 
opinion being fully in accord with our wishes, by 
virtue of our supreme authority, for the glory of 
God and the honor of the Angelic Doctor, for the 
increase of learning and the common advantage of 
human society, we declare St. Thomas the patron 
of Catholic Universities, Academies, Faculties and 
Schools, and we desire that he be by all regarded, 
venerated and honored as such. It is understood, 
however, that nothing is changed for the future in 


the honors and rank given to saints whom 
Academies or Faculties may have selected for 
special patrons." 


The 7th of March, 1880, the feast of St. Thomas 
and the fiftieth anniversary of the occasion of Leo 
XIII. having received the Doctor's Cap, was 
selected as the occasion for publicly announcing 
this declar- ation, and on that day the Holy Father 
received in audience three thousand persons. 

St. Thomas lived at a time when intellectual 
thought was strug- gling with a number of 
conflicting problems involving religious and 
philosophical doctrines, and the activity of the 
human mind was directed into channels foreign to 
its natural trend. Many excesses and evils resulted 
from this reckless drift, and the old established 
forms of thought and belief were being perverted 
to the uses of atheistic doctrines. The Aristotelian 
philosophy was being used against the Church, and 
as the idea that a perfect agreement existed 
between all orders of truth was being ignored, St. 
Thomas, a philosopher as well as a theologian, 
perceived the drift of the thought movement and 
arrested its progress by arranging a system based 
upon revealed truth, harmonious with scientific 

investigation and development, and combining 
natural with supernatural knowl- edge. Aristotle's 
philosophy was given precedence over that of 
Plato, and the Pagan spirit of the Greek 
philosopher was subjected to the Christian idea. 

St. Thomas interpreted the philosophy of Aristotle, 
adopting it to his system because essentially true, 
and it contained the nearest approach to truth in the 
natural order, which, when made consonant with 
supernatural, revealed truth, could not fail to serve 
the interests of religion. This mighty work of the 
Angelic Doctor was made possible by reason of 
his supreme humility and his great faith. With faith 
as a fundamental, reason could safely pilot her way 
and arrive at complete unalterable truth. The 


Theologia was the result of many years of intense 
application and deep contemplation. Every truth of 

Christianity is explained, classified, justified, and 
every possible objection to each assertion 
answered explicitly and satisfactorily. The entire 
system is the most comprehensive method ever 
evolved from a human mind for arriving at exact 
truth, and as the ages succeed one another St. 
Thomas derives more and more honor from the 
stupendous achievements of his sublime work. The 
intellectual greatness of his work is enhanced by 
its literary charm and poetic grace. Cardinal 
Newman says of St. Thomas: "Such poets as are 
born under her shadow (the Church) can even make 
schoolmen as she made St. Thomas' till logic 
becomes poetical." 

Cardinal Manning said: "Beyond all doubt this 
philosophy is the most solid and subtle system 
which the human intellect has ever elaborated by 
its own unaided force." 

As St. Thomas stands at the summit of all 
scholastic philosophy, there can be no higher 
praise accorded the great Doctor than the 

application of Cardinal Manning’s statement to the 
author of the Summa. 

The gratitude of the lovers of truth is due Leo XIII. 
for having subordinated the various systems of 
philosophy in the schools to the masterfully 
comprehensive Thomistic philosophy in 
connection with theology. 



’ 1 A HE industrial problem, or the question 
regulating the relations between employer and 
employee, the harmonious relationship between 
labor and capital, engaged the attention of Leo 
XIII. during his Pontificate. This vital question 
upon which the entire social structure may be said 
to depend, had come up in its various aspects at 

frequent intervals in almost every country of 
Europe and America, and had aroused bitter 
feelings and antagonisms resulting from the 
violation of the equality of rights or lack of just 

The Catholic Church, ever foremost in the van of 
progress, had expressed its views in regard to the 
duties and responsibilities resting upon employers 
towards their employees. The poor, the laboring 
classes, and the oppressed, have ever been a 
source of anxious concern to the Catholic Church. 
In mediaeval days she encouraged and fostered the 
foundations and organizations designed to promote 
the welfare of the toiler and the wealth-producer ol 
the earth. The Sovereign Pontiffs gave their 
approval and benediction to those societies of 
working men, and Leo XIII. early in his career as a 
Churchman gave expression to the most advanced 
views upon this serious phase of social conditions. 
When Bishop of Perugia he advocated the 
establishment in his diocese of societies which 
tended to elevate and benefit the material condition 

of artisans and laborers. He urged the banding 
together in organizations of both employers and 
employees for the purpose of arranging 
satisfactorily conditions beneficial to both, and the 
enactment of laws conducive to their mental, moral 
and physical development. 

Modern labor and trades unions had their 
prototype in the medi 



aeval labor and art guilds, whose chief objects 
were the intellectual development of the individual 
and the uplifting of the common people, and 
incidentally they became the training-schools of the 
arts and sciences. Young artificers found in these 
organizations the necessary stimulating 
environments and the suggestive influences which 

prompted them to attempt great and meritorious 


Leo XIII. entered upon his career as Sovereign 
Pontiff the avowed friend and benefactor of the 
working classes as evidenced by his reiterated 
utterances in behalf of them. He emphasized his 
endorsement of labor unions wherever these were 
founded on sound principles of justice and 
humanity. He recognized their right to exist, and 
their claims for legal recognition. He pointed out 
that associations of wage-earners, bent upon 
individual and cooperative improvement, must 
conduce to right living and correct thoughts. He 
called attention to the fact that the underlying 
object of the most ancient labor guilds, as well as 
the most modern trades unions, was the uplifting of 
humanity and the betterment of the human race. 
Consequently he deemed these organizations, 
institutions deserving of encouragement and papal 
approbation. He realized that these unions, many as 

they were, necessarily differed in character and 
varied in the different countries where they 
existed, but the idea was the same in all. 

It was no easy problem that, on his elevation to the 
pontifical throne, co nfr onted the Holy Father for 
solution. It was admitted that the expression of the 
Sovereign Pontiff on any question carried more 
weight with it than the opinion of any of those 
constituted high in authority, who, more or less, 
were at this time engaged in an effort to bring 
about amicable relations between capital and labor 
in their respective countries. The labor question 
had spread in proportion with the growth of 
nations in the Old and New Worlds. It had been. 


however dragged into the politics of empires, 
kingdoms and republics to suit the designs of crafty 
party leaders. There soon arose a deadly and 

apparently disastrous strife between capital and 
labor, the workman believing that the man who 
possessed the money was his implacable enemy, 
while the capitalist was equally tyrannical in his 
treatment of labor. These erroneous ideas and the 
accom- panying misleading statements wrought 
dire mischief among the people who depended 
upon their labor for their subsistence, and it was 
no easy matter to bring about a fair understanding 
between the two parties. The Sovereign Pontiff 
gave deep thought and much time to the study of 
arranging a course of instruction, which he sought 
to have the members of the Catholic hierarchy 
disseminate throughout their respective dioceses, 
whereby the people who toil would learn their true 
position and relation to their employers, and at the 
same time point out to them their exact value to 
their employers, and the manner in which to insist 
upon sufficient com- pensation for their toil to 
enable them to support themselves and their 
families in moderate comfort. He had, during his 
jubilee, given audience to a deputation of wage- 
earners from France, organized and introduced by 

the Count de Mun, on which occasion he voiced 
his approval of trades unions, while he urged that 
their acts be guided by mutual charity and carried 
out along lines of morality and religion. "The man 
who earns his daily bread by the sweat of his brow 
believes that he has a right to the productions of his 
toil, that he has property rights, individually his, 
and only his, as well as human rights, and he 
moreover thinks that these property rights are 
insep- arable from his human rights. Advanced 
political economists are not willing to concede the 
property rights of the laborer, and they pass over 
that phase of the problem, producing confusion in 
the minds of their hearers. This one-sided view 
misleads their followers and throws them off the 
right track. The system which permits the employer 
to defer buying labor until starvation compels the 


The above picture shows Pope Leo XIII. returning 
from the Sistine Chapel in his private apartments, 
accompanied by the Papal Court. The chair in 
which he is carried rests on the shoulders of 
twelve Vatican officials. 

On Sunday, the 3rd of March, 1878, His Holiness 
was crowned in the Sistine Chapel, this being the 
second instance since 1555 of the ceremony taking 
place out- side the loggia of the Church of St. 



/////■ ,r/,///,r,4 ./,■//<■ •///'. i.’f ’ ,/// ',< >/t V- ’•>// 


’ ._/ ’ " '/> -’ B / v III 

' /"' VtJrt/fr/Vrf A/ Jir'/ff . 

//c/a/s/f7c J17/r Ft/efr/r/r/flf yrf , / V/ cr/ //,//// 


■ .,-/// ,• </#;////, 


Jofoamlia daA V«\o wu» ini«ti* I .. Ji. v ■ > i 


The front of the chair is 36 inches broad and 30 
inches high; its sides are a little more than 1 5 
inches in breadth; its height, including the back, 54 
inches. It is of wood, with small columns and little 
arches; on the front part of the chair are chiselled 
eighteen subjects in ivory, executed with rare 
perfection, and mingled with little ornaments very 
delicately worked. All around are a number of 
figures in ivory. 

There are preserved in the Vatican archives 
authentic documents referring to the chair, dating 
from the fourth century down to our own time. 


to accept the price made by the employer is 
tyrannical, and this injustice is the most prominent 
agent in the precipitation of the fre- quent strikes in 
the industrial ranks of our most progressive 
popula- tions. 

"The primary conditions which forced the man to 
dig with his hands into the earth for the necessities 
of life, thus applying his labor for the needs of both 
the inner and outer man, have developed with 
inventions and modern appliances for satisfying 
human desires or appetites, creating what we call 
wealth. Wealth used by labor in the production of 
more wealth is capital. The two original factors in 
producing wealth were land and labor. Later 
capital entered as a potent factor into the wealth- 
producing element. This capital, or stored labor, 
when made available to both employer and 
employee, is a good and wholesome thing, but 

when used to rob the producer, the toiler, of the 
fruit of his labor, it is injustice." Against this the 
Holy Father declaimed in emphatic tones. 


The German emperor was at the time struggling 
with the vexed question within his domain, and the 
inroads made by ultra-socialistic doctrines had 
already threatened serious danger to the empi' e. 
With true kingly concern the emperor decided to 
take up the question himself and try to improve the 
condition of the working men, and thus forestall the 
evils impending. He sought counsel with the great 
powers of England, France, Belgium and 
Switzerland, with a view to learn their ideas 
regarding the holding of an international 
conference to discuss the relations between labor 
and capital, and to arrange for a future congress of 
representatives of every government to deal with 
the labor question. He addressed a letter to his 
Min- ister of Commerce, in which he said: "We 

must start on the prin- ciple that it is the duty of the 
government to regulate the condition and the hours 
of labor in such sort that the health of the workers, 


their moral interests, their material wants, their 
equality before the law shall be sacred." 

In this invitation to the great powers he included 
Leo XIII.’ and sent him a letter, dated the 6th of 
February, 1890: "The noble manifestations," he 
wrote, "by which your Holiness has always made 
your influence prevail in favor of the poor and the 
neglected of human society, lead me to hope that 
the international conference, which on my 
invitation will meet at Berlin on the 13 th of the 
month, may attract the attention of your Holiness, 
and that you will follow with sympathy the 
progress of the deliberations which have for their- 
object the improvement of the condition of the 

working populations. I believe it to be my duty to 
make known to your Holiness the program which is 
to serve as the basis for the labors of the confer- 
ence, the success of which will be singularly 
facilitated if your Holi- ness would lend to the 
humanitarian work which I have in mind your 
beneficent support." 

The Pope replied to this letter, assuring the 
emperor that the efforts of his Majesty were most 
commendable, and in accord with his own ideas 
and endeavors in the same direction. Every line of 
the Pontiff's letter breathed concern and interest in 
the proposed conference, and his personal hopes 
for the success of its delibera tions. After 
congratulating the emperor upon his active interest 
in the behalf of the working classes the Pope went 
on to say: "The con- formity of views and of 
legislation so far at least as the different conditions 
of places and countries will allow, must have an 
immense influence on the progress of the question 
towards an equitable solu- tion. We cannot, 
therefore, but encourage in the strongest way all 

the deliberations of the conference which may tend 
to improve the conditions of the working 
populations, such, for instance, as a distribu tion of 
labor, better proportioned to the strength, to the 
age, to the sex of each worker, the rest upon the 
Lord's Day, and in general all that may prevent the 
working man from being used merely as an 


ignoble instrument without regard for his dignity as 
a human being> for his morality and for his 
domestic hearth. . . . The Gospel," he goes on to 
say, "is the only code in which are found the 
principles of true justice, the maxim of that mutual 
charity which ought to unite" all men as the sons of 
one Father and the members of the same family. 
Religion will teach the employer to respect the 
human dignity in his workman and to treat him with 
justice and equity. On the other hand the same 
religion will inculcate on the conscience of the 

working man the sentiment of duty and of fidelity; 
it will render him moral, sober and honest. It is 
because society has lost sight of, neglected and 
mistaken the religious principles that it sees itself 
now shaken to its very foundation. To restore those 
principles and to give them back their strength of 
influence over the human race are the only means 
of reestablishing society on a sound basis, and of 
guaranteeing peace, order and prosperity. It is the 
mission of the Church to preach and so spread 
these principles and the doctrines throughout the 

Leo XIII., diplomat and statesman that he was, 
understood thai no direct benefit would come from 
the conference which aimed to employ only state 
legislation for the purpose of uniting capital and 
labor on harmonious lines. He saw, as no other 
appeared to see, that all effort at reform must have 
the remedy directed to remove the cause of the 
troubles. Therefore he advanced the truth that the 
satisfactory settlement of all industrial questions 
could be reached only by the "reconstruction" of 

men's hearts. 


No practical benefit to the cause of labor resulted 
from the Berlin Conference, as it was found 
impossible to prescribe any international code of 
laws which could cover the whole ground of 
dispute and satisfy all parties. A very free 
expression of ideas and a general con- currence of 
opinion on matters industrial ensued, but only 


principles of reform were suggested by the 
members. Statistical information and data were of 
some benefit, but the solution of the labor problem 
was just as far off after the conference, as before. 
Much more weighty in its import, more far- 
reaching in its influence was the Encyclical on the 

condition of the working classes, which the Pope 
issued on the 1 5th of the following May, 1 89 1 , to 
the Catholic world. The Encyclical has been, since 
the day of its pub- lication, the universally 
accepted text of the political economist who aims 
at the settlement of the industrial problem Its 
pages teem with truth, with sentiments of sublime 
justice due the wage earner. "It is no easy matter," 
the Holy Father wrote in part, "to define the 
relative rights of the rich and the poor, of capital 
and labor. . . . But all agree, and there can indeed 
be no question whatever about it, that some remedy 
must be found, and found quickly, for the misery 
and wretchedness pressing so heavily and so 
unjustly even at this moment upon the vast majority 
of the working classes. . . . The custom of working 
by contract and the concentration of so many 
branches of trade in the hands of a few individuals 
have brought about a condition of things by means 
of which a small number of very rich men have 
been able to lay upon the masses of the laboring 
poor a yoke little better than that of slavery itself." 

The learned Pontiff goes minutely into the details 
of the several remedies proposed for solving the 
question, prominent among which was the so- 
called remedy of "Socialism," the theory which 
claimed that individual possessions should pass 
into the common ownership of all, the state being 
the municipal administrator. Leo XIII. emphatically 
condemned this panacea, as the laborer would be 
by that scheme the worst sufferer. 

Believing in private property rights, he explained 
in the following passage that: "When a man 
engages in remunerative .labor the impelling 
reason and motive of his work is to obtain 
property, and thereafter to hold it as his own. . . . 

To affirm that God has given 


the earth for the use and enjoyment of the whole 
human race is not to deny that private property is 

lawful. The earth has been granted to mankind in 
general, not in the sense that all, without 
distinction, can deal with it as they like, but rather 
that no part of it has been assigned forever to 
anyone in particular, and that the limits of private 
possession have been left to be fixed by man's own 
industry and by the laws of individual races. . . . 
The soil which is tilled and cultivated with toil 
and skill, utterly changes its condition. It was wild 
before, now it is fruitful; what was barren, now 
brings forth in abundance. That which has been 
thus altered and improved of the land, becomes so 
truly part of itself as to be in great measure indis- 
tinguishable and inseparable from it. Is it just that 
the fruit of man’s own sweat and labor should be 
possessed and enjoyed by an} 'one else? As effects 
follow their causes, so is it just and right that the 
results of labor should belong to those who have 
bestowed the labor." Pope Leo XIII., as the 
exponent of the Catholic principles which regulate 
human relations and social order, insisted, in this 
Encyclical, upon applying to the evil the precepts 
of religion and charity. He ignored the idea that 

there can exist such a condition as complete 
equality between races and classes of mankind. 
Unequal conditions produce unequal results in the 
way of fortune and benefits. There is no possible 
way of relegating these to a level in the nature of 
things earthly. He further ignored the idea that class 
is hostile to class, claiming that one is dependent 
for existence upon the other. Capital could not do 
without labor, nor could labor do without capital, 
therefore, their paramount duty lies in their mutual 
regard and consideration for one another, and their 
harmonious endeavors to promote the welfare of 
one another. The justice and fair dealing enjoined 
by religion would, in the mind of the Holy Father, 
conduce to a settlement of the difficulties which try 
the souls of men during times of strife and strike. 

So he advised the employer to treat his help as 
human beings, not as chattels, and imposed upon 
the wage- 


earner the duty of safeguarding the interests of his 
employer, giving him due return for his wages. 

No employer should tax his help beyond their 
power of strength or detrimental to their physical 
or moral discomfort. The Pontiff says: "All 
masters of labor should be mindful of this, that to 
exer- cise pressure upon the indigent and destitute 
for the sake of gain and to gather one’s profit out of 
the need of another is condemned by all laws, 
human and divine." 

Leo XIII. did not hesitate to express in this 
Encyclical his own views as to the manner in 
which the state might deal with the question 
regarding labor and capital. He ventured to give 
some advice upon the subject, which would 
undoubtedly work to the advan- tage of the wage- 
earner, and tend to raise his character as a citizen. 
He said: "When workmen have recourse to a strike 
it is frequently because the hours of labor are too 
long, or the work too hard, or the wages 
insufficient. The grave inconvenience of this not 

uncommon occurrence should be obviated by 
public remedial measures, for such paralyzing of 
labor not only affects the masters and their work- 
people alike, but is extremely injurious to trade 
and to the general interests of the public. ... On 
such occasions (strikes), violence and disorder are 
generally not far distant, and thus it frequently 
happens that the public peace is seriously 


The subject of wages engaged his attention after he 
had sug- gested the enactment of laws designed to 
prevent or forestall riots and strikes, and provided 
for the proper observance of the Lord's Day by 
affording the workmen opportunity for rest and 
spiritual exercises each according to his belief. 

"Wages," he continued, "as we are told, are 
regulated by free consent, and, therefore, the 
employer when he pays what was agreed upon has 
done his part, and seemingly is not called upon to 

do any- 


thing beyond." These ideas did not satisfy Leo 
XIII. , nor did they cover the ground of dispute. 
"Let it be taken for granted," he said, "that 
workmen and employers should, as a rule, make 
free agree- ments, and in particular should agree as 
to the wages, nevertheless there underlies a dictate 
of nature more imperious and more ancient than 
any bargain between man and man, namely, that the 
remunera- tion must be sufficient to support the 
wage-earner in reasonable and frugal comfort. If, 
through necessity or fear of a worse evil, the 
workmen accept harder conditions because an 
employer or con- tractor will afford him no better, 
he is simply the victim of force and injustice." 

For the proper regulation of hours of labor and the 
necessary pre- cautions regarding the sanitary 

safeguarding of employees the Pope wrote: . It 

is advisable in order to supersede undue inter- 
ference on the part of the State — especially as 
circumstances, times and localities differ so 
widely — that recourse should be had to soci- 
eties, or boards such as we shall mention 
presently, or to some other mode of guarding the 
interests of wage-earners, the state being appealed 
to, should circumstances require, for its sanction 
and protec tion. Employers and workmen can, of 
themselves, effect much by means of such 
associations and organizations as afford timely aid 
to those who are in distress. It is gratifying to 
know," he went on to say, "that there are actually in 
existence not a few associations of this nature, 
consisting of working men alone, or of workmen 
and employees together. But it is greatly to be 
desired that they should become more numerous 
and more efficient. . . . Let the state watch over 
these societies of citizens, banded together for the 
exercise of their rights, but let it not thrust itself 
into their peculiar concerns and their 
organizations, for things that move and live by the 

spirit inspiring them may be killed by the rough 
grasp of a hand from without." 

The Encyclical met with universal approbation. 
The social 


question took on a new aspect in the light of justice 
and the consideration due the working member of 
human society from the master of labor. Every 
vehicle of public expression of opinion devoted 
page after page to the principles contained in it, 
and all were unanimous in declaring that document 
the ablest and most timely exponent of the question 
at issue. In England the clergymen of the 
Established Church took occasion to speak in 
terms of highest praise of it. The Bishop of 
Manchester stated at a public meeting that the Pope 
had "put his finger to the blister in our social 
system, and his word must be listened to, or 

otherwise the world would have to expiate its 
neglect by some terrible calamity." Throughout 
France the greatest enthusiasm prevailed, and many 
of the most advanced thinkers gave utterance to 
their opinions without restraint. Monsieur Anatole 
Leroy-Beaulieu, one of the old school leaders of 
political economy, had this to say in a published 
volume called "Papacy, Socialism and 
Democracy": "Apparently we are looking on at the 
return to the stage of one of the great actors in 
history. On that old theater from which some 
people believed it forever banished, the Papacy 
beholds a new personage of its own order indeed, 
but very different from those whom, during a 
thousand years, the world has seen. The Papacy 
shows that it has the spirit of its age, and without 
lingering over useless dissertations it goes straight 
to the democracy, and of what does it speak? Of 
that which comes closest to the hearts of the people 
— the social question." 

One of the greatest enemies of the Papacy was 
Emile Ollivier, who went out of his way to say: 

"His pages are a marvel of eleva- tion, of justice, 
of measure, of eloquent and strong language, of 
deli- cate, firm resolve to balance contradictory 
ideas and interests. In all the passages of the 
Encyclical there is found an incomparable cir- 
cumspection and an imperturbable equilibrium 
owing to which the fundamental question of the 
state's intervention has been resolved without 
injuring any other principle equally fundamental " 


The German press defended the Encyclical as one 
of the most lucid, philosophical and all-important 
messages to man which the age had produced. 
"Yes," said the \brzvarts, in reference to it, "he has 
without doubt solved the social question so far as 
it is given to any existing power to solve it." 


Meanwhile the Holy Father was busy with the 
practical side of the matter, being actively engaged 
in providing suitable and commo- dious 
accommodations for the poor of Italy. He had 
started in Rome new schools, orphan asylums and 
lodging-houses. Pius IX. had founded during his 
Pontificate a society called the "Primary, Artistic 
and Operative Association of Reciprocal Charity," 
a benefit society and mutual help organization, to 
which Leo XIII. saw fit to extend material aid. In 
1888 he conveyed to the society a piece of land 
valued at five hundred thousand francs, on which 
to erect a home, and otherwise endowed the 
institution. The association is composed of 
painters, sculptors, jewelers, printers and artisans 
of various trades to the number of about five 
thousand. These are divided into sections for the 
better carrying out of the plans of the founder. One 
of these sections, which applies itself to the care of 
workmen, especially those who find it most 
difficult to obtain good compensation for their toil, 
received from Leo XIII. every help and 
encouragement. Subscriptions from members and 

charitably inclined persons enable the section to 
provide for its sick members and min- ister free 
medicines to them. It also encourages saving of 
wages, having created banks for the purpose of 
inducing the members to habits of thrift. 

Future makers of history, whose business it will be 
to record the full or partial solution of the 
momentous labor question, will write their 
brightest page concerning the progress of that 
social problem, according to the learned and far- 
seeing Pontiff, Leo XIII., the credit 


of having accomplished for the cause more than the 
combined econ- omists and problem-solvers of all 
preceding ages. Since the publica- tion of the 
Encyclical the wage-worker has taken on a new 
and unprecedented dignity, and his place in the 
social structure has been deemed more important 

than at any previous period in the world’s history. 

One of the most serious questions which was 
presented to the Pontiff to adjudicate was one 
concerning the status of the organiza- tion known in 
the United States and Canada as the Knights of 
Labor. This organization was a working man's 
trades union, and had adopted in its initiation ritual 
some of the forms which characterize that of the 
Masonic Order, notably those of secrecy and 
mystery. Recogni- zing in these mysterious and 
secret forms, dangerous tendencies, the Bishops of 
Canada condemned the order as being inimical to 
the Catholic faith. The American Bishops had 
pointed out to the Grand Master of the Order, Mr. 
Powderly, the fact that a revision of the forms 
would be desirable, and that gentleman without 
hesitation agreed to alter such forms as were 
distasteful to the Catholic members of the Order. 
There were in the United States three- quarters of a 
million members, the majority of whom probably 
were Catholics, and who, with one accord, hailed 
the revised code with joy. In Canada the revision 

had not taken place at the time when the 
Archbishop appealed to the Pope to issue his fiat 
against the Order. 


Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, the 
head of the Ameri- can hierarchy, at the instigation 
of the Archbishops and Bishops of the United 
States, drew up a letter bearing upon the subject, 
and forwarded it to Rome. In this letter the 
Cardinal explained that a Council of Archbishops 
had examined the rules of the Knights of Labor and 
that but two out of twelve of the Archbishops were 
in favor of the condemnation of the Order. It was 
shown that no obli- 


gation of secrecy, no oath or pledge of blind 
obedience to the chiefs of the Order was outlined 

therein, and that no possible invitation to acts of 
hostility to civil or religious government was 
inculcated in the forms of initiation. Moreover, the 
Cardinal took occasion to go at some length into 
the matter which prompted the establishment of the 
Order and the objects for which so many thousands 
were banded together in the organization. He 
emphasized the fact that the work- men of America 
were at the mercy of the monopolists and masters 
of corporations who were enabled by virtue of 
their immense resources, financial and social, to 
direct legislation to their own advantage and to the 
detriment of the hard working wage-earner. Not 
only the workman himself but the helpless women 
and children dependent upon his labor for 
subsistence were the innocent victims of the greed 
and lust and the oppressive measures of the 
capitalists of the country. The Cardinal informed 
the Pope that in America the proper legal measures 
for obtaining redress were the petitions of numbers 
of citizens banded together in organizations and 
associations, whose community strength gave them 
an opportunity to be heard. Their joint appeal 

commanded public attention, and therefore their 
methods were to be commended as being in strict 
conformity with the laws of the land. Cardinal 
Gibbons pointed out to the Holy Father the serious 
injury which might be done many righteous indi- 
viduals were a papal decree entered against the 
Order in the United States. He at the same time 
mentioned the fact that the Canadian Bishops had 
condemned the Constitution of the Knights of Labor 
before the same had undergone the modifications 
necessary to make them unobjectionable to any and 
every Catholic. 

The Sovereign Pontiff received the letter of 
Cardinal Gibbons, and after due perusal, referred 
it to a committee of Cardinals. This body abstained 
from any condemnation of the organization or its 
objects, and the spirit of the committee was seen in 
the toleration which was accorded to the Knights 
of Labor. 



OLAVERY under any form has in all ages found the 
Church of v Christ arrayed against it, whether in 
Europe, Asia, America or Equatorial Africa. The 
Sovereign Pontiffs have always waged an 
incessant war against the iniquitous traffic and set 
the seal of con- demnation on the enslavement of 
human beings. Those unfortunate creatures whose 
souls bore the imprint of the Eternal God, in 
common with those of the white and yellow races, 
yet considered inferior beings, were declared to be 
equal with their masters, in the sight of their 
Maker, and, therefore, entitled to be free. When the 
great civil strife in the United States broke out Pius 
IX. publicly expressed his sympathy with the side 
of the Union, and proclaimed that the success of the 
North meant the extinction of the slave trade on the 
North American Continent. 



The center of the slave trade at the beginning of 
Pope Leo's reign had been transferred to the 
interior of the Dark Continent where men openly 
tra flicked in human beings. This infamous system 
was the consequence of an overflow of Europeans, 
who seized vast tracts of rich mining and 
agricultural lands in this hitherto neglected country. 
Many of the great nations succeeded in gaining a 
foothold in the partially explored continent, and 
adventurers flocked in droves to the newly 
discovered diamond fields, intent upon securing 
fortunes by any means, fair or foul. The first result 
of this rush for wealth was a decided increase in 
the slave trade. The natives of Central Africa were 
a most profitable source of income to unscrupulous 
traders from England, France, Germany, Italy, 
Portugal and Belgium. 



The international complications and jealousies of 
rival nations tended to promote and strengthen the 
slave trade business until the whole world was 
aroused at the fearful crimes committed in South 
and Central Africa. Moved by the unparalleled 
scenes of human cruelty and the frightful sufferings 
of the negro, Cardinal Lavigerie, Archbishop of 
Carthage and Primate of Africa, inaugurated a 
crusade against the evil. The Cardinal resolved to 
undertake a tour of preaching throughout the 
European countries for the purpose of obtaining a 
common declaration against the system in the 
various States, where he would portray the crimes 
attending the maintenance of the slave traffic. He 
first made a pilgrimage to Rome for the purpose of 
bringing before the Pope the nature of the abuses in 
vogue in these remote districts of his diocese. He 
brought with him twelve missionaries from 
Algeria, and twelve liberated slaves who had been 
ransomed by the missionaries. Cardinal Lavigerie 
pre- sented an address in their behalf, and of the 

people they represented, and he called the attention 
of the Sovereign Pontiff to the fact that this was the 
first time in history that negro representatives from 
the interior of Africa had approached a Vicar of 
Christ in the City of Rome. He also complimented 
the Holy Father for the commend- able work 
accomplished in behalf of the enthralled slaves of 
Brazil through the aid of the recent Encyclical 
issued on that question. 


The Holy Father listened to the Cardinal's 
description of the -slave trade with feelings of 
horror plainly manifested, and he at once gave full 
power to his Eminence to go to all the nations of 
Europe and publish the dastardly crimes of the 
slave traffic. 

His Holiness in reply to the address said: "Since 
Africa is the principal theater of this traffic, and 
the land appropriated by the slave trade, we 
recommend to all missionaries who preach the 

Holy Gospel there, to consecrate their strength and 
even their lives to that sublime 


work of redemption. We recommend them also to 
ransom as many slaves as it may be possible for 
them to do, or at least to obtain for the slaves all 
the solace of the most tender charity. But it is upon 
you, above all, my Lord-Cardinal, that we count 
for the success of the work and of the missions in 
Africa. We know your active and intelligent zeal; 
we know all that you have done up to this day and 
we have full confidence that you will not rest until 
you have brought your great enterprise to a happy 

In a letter to the Cardinal the Pope expressed 
himself as confident that a public declaration of a 
conference of nations would accomplish much in 
the way of abolishing the evil. From England 

especially he said that he expected great aid in 
suppressing slavery, and he encour- aged Cardinal 
Lavigerie further with these words: "We do not 
exhort you, for a virtue so active as yours needs no 
exhortation, but we rather congratulate you on the 
fact that you continue with such courage and such 
constancy to carry on your project under the 
auspices of God. Your episcopal charity could not 
find a better employment anywhere on earth." 


His Holiness made a donation of 300,000 francs to 
the cause, appropriated from the fund presented to 
him at the jubilee of a few years previous. 

Cardinal Lavigerie visited England, France, Italy, 
Holland and Belgium, and in the latter enlisted the 
patronage of Leopold II., King of Belgium, in 
suppressing all African slave traffic. The king 
issued and invitation to the powers of Europe to 
hold' a conference at Brussels for the avowed 
purpose of engaging the European sover- eigns in a 

crusade against slave traffic in Africa, and its 

Aroused by the statements of Cardinal Lavigerie a 
conference was soon held at Berlin, looking 
towards a settlement of the difficulties between the 
States interested in African affairs. America sent 


representatives, as did also England, France, 
Germany, Spain, Portu- gal, Italy, Holland, 

Belgium and Turkey. After mature deliberation the 
conference decided in January, 1885, to abolish the 
slave trade in Africa. 

A conference was also held at Brussels, but as 
with the Confer- ence of Berlin, no immediate 
good came from it, but the sentiment expressed 
there was extended in influence gradually 

throughout the kingdom of Belgium, and found an 
echo beyond its confines. Com- mercialism and 
national rivalry were the two main influences at 
work in the perpetuation of the system against 
which Cardinal Lavigerie and the Holy Father 
were waging war. These agencies were too 
powerful to be completely overthrown or set at 
naught by one blow. Time and growth of thought 
would ultimately reach the sore spot, and with this 
end in view the Pope and the Cardinal were 
content to wrestle in apostolic fashion towards 
counteracting the evil. 

The Cardinal did not live to witness the success of 
his labors, but he had the satisfaction of knowing 
before his death that the millions of bonded slaves 
in the Dark Continent were being more humanely 
guarded and dealt with than before he took up their 
cause and that the civilized nations were 
extirpating slavery from their African possessions. 



A 1 A HE fierce persecution waged by the German 
government against *• the Catholic Church 
commenced when Pius IX. convoked a General 
Council to be opened at St. Peter's in Rome in 
December, 1869. The Pope issued a Bull for this 
purpose in 1868 in which he stated that the 
question of the infallibility of the Pope would be 
defined as a dogma of the Church. To the great 
surprise of the Supreme Pontiff and the Catholic 
world, a cry of opposition was heard against this 
act, coming from Catholic Bavaria from two men 
who had shown signs of opposition to the Papacy 
in 1861, when the temporal power of the Pope was 
wrested from Pius IX., — Dr. Joseph von 
Dollinger, and Prince Ludwig Hohenlohe, prime 
minister of Bavaria. Prince Hohenlohe, as soon as 
he read the Bull of convocation, addressed a 
circular to his representatives at all foreign courts 
declaring "that the dogmatic thesis of the 

infallibility of the Pope was an offspring of the 
Jesuits in Italy and Germany. The pretension once 
become a dogma, would have a wider scope than 
the purely spiritual sphere and would become 
evidently a political question; for it would raise 
the power of the Sovereign Pontiff, even in 
temporal matters, above all the princes and 
peoples in Christendom." Dr. vonDollinger 
aroused the animosity of the most powerful 
journalists in Germany against the Jesuits who, he 
declared, assisted by the other monastic orders, 
were conspiring to overthrow all duly constituted 
authority by conferring on the Pope of Rome 
supreme and unlimited power in spiritual matters. 
The enemies of the Catholic Church rejoiced in 
seeing two such noted men in open rebellion 
against the Pope and hastened to lend all the aid in 
their power to accomplish the over- throw of the 


John Mary Mastai-Ferretti was born in Sinigaglia, 
in the duchy ofUrbino, Italy, May 13, 1792; 
elected Pope June 17, 1846; died February 7, 
1878; reigned in the See of Peter longer than any 
previous Pope — 32 years, 7 months. His remains 
are buried in the Church of St. Forenzo beyond the 
walls of Home. 

By courtesy of Hei bcrt Wells Fay. 



The above picture represents the great lights 
contemporary with Pope Feo XIII. 






Political events had changed the condition of the 
two great nations, Prussia and France. The first, 
victorious over the French armies, was made an 
empire, the second from an empire had become a 
republic. Flushed with success and honors 
conferred on him. Prince Bismarck, high 
chancellor of the empire, was ready to wage a 
bitter war against the foes of German unity, and 
"they were," he said, "the monastic orders of the 
Roman Church." 


In the sessions of the German Parliament held in 
Berlin after the creation of the empire, Bismarck 
made a violent speech against the Catholics, 
denouncing them as "anti-national in spirit, 
opposed to all progress, and declared enemies of 
civilization." He concluded by saying all must 
battle for the principles upholding the latter, and it 
would be known in a word as a "Kulturkampf ' 
(civilization-conflict). The Jesuits were banished 
by an imperial decree and the Council of 
Federated States declared in an ordinance dated 
May 30, 1873, tnat affiliated with the Jesuits were 
the Redemptorists, the Lazarists, the Congregation 
of the Holy Ghost, and the Society of the Sacred 
Heart. The right of supervision of all church 
matters was claimed, laws were published 
subjecting the education of aspirants to the 
priesthood to state control, no vacant parishes 
could be filled without the consent of the civil 
authorities, and should any bishop violate these 
laws, he would be punished by a fine of no less 
than three thousand marks and imprisoned for a 
stated period. Protests were made by the Catholic 

members of Parliament against such tyrannical 
action of the German government. They were the 
members of the center, Mallinckrodt, Windhorst, 
Reichsperger, Lieber, and others who became the 
champions of the Catholic cause in the civilization- 

Dr. Falk, the Minister of Public Worship, was the 
instigator of 


these laws; in fact he made them so far-reaching 
and despotic in their enforcement that there did not 
exist any vestige of religious freedom for the 
Catholics in Germany. The bishops were not dis- 
mayed at these acts of tyranny, nor would they 
submit to injustice without a hearing, and they 
redoubled their efforts in defense of their rights, 
preferring even imprisonment to a betrayal of the 
trusts confided to them. Archbishop Ledochowski, 

Archbishop Melchers of Cologne, Bishop 
Eberhard of Treves, Bishop Martin ofPaderborn, 
were among the illustrious confessors of the faith 
who were deprived of their liberty. 


The letter sent by Leo XIII. to the Emperor of 
Germany after his coronation arrived at a most 
opportune time: "To our great regret the happy 
relations which once existed between the Holy See 
and your Majesty have been ruptured. We address 
ourselves to your magnanimity in view of giving 
peace and quiet to the con- sciences of a great 
number of your subjects, and the Catholic subjects 
of your Majesty will not be wanting as their 
religion teaches in prov- ing their most 
conscientious devotion, respectful and loyal 
towards your Majesty." The Emperor in answer to 
the letter said: "The cordial expressions of your 
Sanctity cause me to hope that you will be 
disposed to put in operation your powerful 

influence which the Constitution of your Church 
gives you over your clergy, so that those who have 
refused to follow the example of the people 
confided to their care submit themselves to the 
laws of the country in which they live." The Holy 
Father in a letter dated April 17, 1878, in answer 
to the Emperor said: 

"The letter by which it has pleased your Imperial 
and Royal Majesty to reply to the announcement of 
our elevation to the Supreme Pontificate, calling 
upon us as it does to offer you the assurance of our 
gratitude for the gracious expressions employed 


towards us, and for the hopes which you have 
graciously pleased to express for the prosperous 
government of the Church, necessitates at the same 
time the calling your royal and benevolent attention 
to a subject which affects to the highest degree the 

happiness of the Catholics under your sway. 

"Recalling a happy past in which the good sense of 
the German people enabled them faithfully to 
preserve the peace in the state, and obedience 
towards its supreme authority, and deploring the 
attitude now observed by the Ministers of the 
Church, your Majesty requests the intervention of 
our authority to bring back the enjoy- ment of such 
precious possessions, thanks to the submission of 
all Catholics to the laws of the country in which 
they live. 

"We, in our turn, pray your Majesty graciously to 
consider that if a notable difference exist between 
the conduct of your Catholic subjects in the past 
and that which you call attention to to-day, it 
should be exclusively attributed to the change that 
has come about in civil legislation, which, altering 
in certain ways the Divine Con- stitution of the 
Church, and causing in others a disagreement 
between the legal requirements — civil and 
canonical — has been the origin of an inevitable 

agitation in the consciences of Catholics, who have 
thus found themselves, in spite of themselves, 
between the sad alternative of refusing obedience 
to the new laws, or of failing in the sacred duties 
imposed on them by the law of God — the Church. 

"Thus your Majesty will easily understand the 
tendency of the prayer we addressed to you in our 
first letter, that you would be graciously pleased to 
render to so great a number of your subjects, peace 
and tranquillity of conscience. 

"It had no other aim than to conjure you to remove 
the obstacle which prevented Catholics from 
reconciling the obedience due to the laws of the 
Church with submission to the requirements of the 
civil law, for it is an incontestable maxim of our 
holy religion that the most exact fulfillment of 
religious duties unites itself, when 


no obstacle opposes, with the obedience and 
respect due to the authorities and laws of the state. 

"May your Majesty, then, look propitiously upon 
this melancholy situation, and, without detracting 
from your sovereign authority, command that the 
ministers of God and the Catholic people be left in 
the observances of the laws and precepts of their 
Church. And since the new civil legislation has its 
origin in the suppression of the fundamental 
articles of the state, which sanctioned and 
guaranteed the complete independence of the 
Catholic religion in its vast domains, may your 
Majesty deign, in your magnanimity, to secure the 
revival of a state of things which has been as 
conducive to the tranquillity of conscience as was 
profitable to the interests of the state, and your 
Majesty may rest assured that we, on our side, 
shall not fail to see that the peace reestablished 
between the two supreme authorities is preserved 
with care and increased/' 


Persecution had become so severe that the Church 
of Germany in the dioceses along the Valley of the 
Rhine, from Constance to Rotterdam, had not a 
single bishop and when Leo XIII. was elected 
Pope, there were no ministering priests in 1185 
parishes. The enemies of the Church placed the 
blame upon the unyielding stand of the Vatican. The 
Old Catholics, headed by Dr. von Dollinger, 
fanned the flame of opposition against the Church, 
and the Church of England lent unconciliating help 
and sympathy for the purpose of wresting the 
Catholic Church in Germany from the Papacy. 

A writer in the London Times, December 11, 1873, 
wrote on this conflict the pathetic words: ’The 
coercion by force of a clergy conscientiously and 
irrevocably pledged to resistance is not justifiable 
and less likely to prove possible. It may be 
necessary for the German government to make 
experiment of reforming the Roman Catholics 
within their country; and if it succeeds it would be 


admirable achievement. But for our part we think it 
more likely that it will fail." 


In a letter addressed by the Pope, on December 24, 
1878, to the Archbishop of Cologne, are these 
eloquent words: 

"As it was . . . our purpose from the beginning of 
our Pontificate, so we endeavored to induce both 
sovereigns and nations to live in peace and 
friendship with the Church. As to you, venerable 
brother, you are aware that we at an early day bent 
our minds on obtaining for the noble German 
nation, after settling all their differences, the 
blessings and fruits of a lasting peace; nor is it less 
known to you that, in so far as we are concerned, 

no pains were spared to attain an end so glorious 
and so worthy of our care. Whether, however, what 
we have undertaken and are trying to bring about 
shall have a successful issue, He knoweth from 
whom cometh every blessing and who hath given 
us this ardent zeal and wish for peace. 

"But, no matter how things turn out, we must yield 
to the divine will, continuing as long as life lasts to 
cherish the same intense zeal and to persevere in 
the fulfillment of the duty put upon us. . . . 
Wherefore none of the obstacles opposed to us on 
every side shall divert us from the purpose of 
seeking the salvation of all, and therefore of your 
nation. For our hearts shall never be able to rest so 
long as, to the great loss of souls, we shall see the 
bishops of the Church condemned (as if guilty) or 
banished from their country, the priestly ministry 
surrounded by a network of difficulties, religious 
communities and pious congregations dispersed, 
and the training of youth, not even excepting young 
clerics, withdrawn from the authority and 
watchfulness of the bishops." 


The letter of the Holy Father was received at 
Berlin without any manifestations of triumph as it 
contained no terms of surrender. 


It was admitted that there should be peace, but 
Bismarck exclaimed, "I shall not go to Canossa." 
Two attempts on the life of the Emperor followed 
in quick succession in 1878. The first on the nth of 
May while his Majesty was taking a drive on the 
avenue, "unter den Linden." The fortunate escape 
of the Emperor from the assassin's bullet was 
hailed by the nation with great joy, and 
congratulation? were sent by all the powers 
represented at the court of Berlin. When the 
members of his cabinet waited on the Emperor to 
offer their felicitations on his escape from death, 
he closed his answer to the address of 

congratulation with the memorable words: "It is 
necessary to be on guard that people do not lose 
their faith." 


Soon after the occurrence, an article appeared in a 
Catholic journal in which it was stated that the 
Catholics, deprived of their priests and the 
practices of religion, were rapidly drifting into 
socialism, which was daily increasing in numbers 
and power. Bismarck now sought to stamp out 
socialism as he had tried to suppress the Catholic 
Church. He had a law presented to the Reichstag 
which, if passed, would place the socialists and 
their publications under the absolute control of the 
police. It was not received with favor, and the 
Catholic members joined with the national-liberals 
in defeating the project. The Catholics gave as the 
reason for voting against it that socialism could 
only be con- trolled by religious efforts and 
existing laws. 

On June 2, 1878, a second attempt was made on 
the Emperors life and this time he received a flesh 
wound in the hand from the assassin's bullet and 
the shock had been more serious to the aged 
Emperor. A certain Doctor Nobling, a rabid 
socialist leader, was the criminal, who, failing to 
accomplish his object, put an end to his life. Leo 
XIII. sent letters of congratulation to the Emperor 
after each attempt, accompanying the first was a 
copy of the syllabus in 


which Pius IX. condemned socialism and 
communism. The Prince Imperial Regent during the 
illness of his father answered the Holy Father's 
letter, thanking his Holiness for his many 
expressions of good will. He stated that the 
Emperor had not answered the letter dated April 
17th in the hope that confidential explanations in 
the meantime would have allowed both to prevent 

an issuance of contradictory principles which 
would have occurred if the cor- respondence had 
been continued in the sense expressed in the letter 
of his Holiness. As to the wish of the Holy Father 
to have the May laws modified in conformity with 
the teachings of the Catholic Church, "No King of 
Prussia," he wrote, "could accede to the request, as 
the independence of the monarchy would be 
weakened, if the free action of its legislation 
would be subordinated to a foreign power." The 
Prince in a word declared that there would be no 
concession of principle, but a mitigation in its 
application. It was soon noticed that the Catholic 
Clergy were permitted to enjoy certain privileges, 
such as the ministering of the sacraments. The 
Emperor soon expressed a desire to hold a 
confidential meeting with a representa- five of the 
Holy See. To satisfy his Majesty, Bismarck invited 
Monsignore Aloise Masella, Nuncio at Munich, to 
come to Berlin. This invitation was given out to be 
confidential. It was told to Mgr. Masella that the 
Chancellor was disposed to see him in conference. 
The purpose of Bismarck was that if the Nuncio 

accepted the invitation he would give the 
sensational news to the official press that "the 
Pope's Nuncio had come to Berlin to implore 
peace." Mgr. Masella suspected the motive of the 
German Chancellor and therefore would not accept 
the invitation. Then Bismarck decided to officially 
invite the Nuncio, who was then at Dresden, to a 
conference in Berlin. Monsignore Masella 
immediately sent his regrets, stating that he could 
not accept the invitation in view of the relations 
existing between the Holy See and Prussia, and 
returned to Munich. In presence of such firm 
attitude and the repeated urging of his 


master, the Chancellor of the German Empire had 
to submit to the humiliation of making his trip to 
Canossa. He proposed to the Nuncio to meet him at 
Kissengen, Bavaria, to which Monsignore Masella 

Certain negotiations were entered into and an 
agreement was made that a change in the text of the 
May laws should take place in a sense compatible 
with the principles of the Catholic Church, the 
recall of the exiled clergy and a notification of the 
government of the nomination of the clergy to the 
vacant parishes. On July 14, 1880, a modification 
of the May laws was accepted and the reorganiz- 
ing of diocesan administration was commenced. 
The Pope con- tinued by peaceful methods to bring 
about a better condition of the Church and in 1882 
he had the consolation of witnessing a favorable 
change in the German government’s policy towards 
the Catholics. 


On the 18th of July, 1883, the Prince Imperial 
visited the Eternal City. He had been commanded 
by his father, the Emperor, to visit the Pope at the 
Vatican. To carry out this order, as the Prince was 
a guest of the King of Italy, it was found that he 
could not start from the Quirinal in a royal 

carriage; he therefore went to the palace of the 
German Ambassador, which was situated on 
German territory, and from there he was taken to 
the Vatican in a private conveyance. The interview 
with the Pope lasted one hour, and at its close the 
Prince Imperial promised to present to his father 
the anxious request of the Sovereign Pontiff that 
religious peace would be reestablished in 


The expressions of the Holy Father for speedy 
peace were no longer doubted, and Minister Falk 
acknowledged their sincerity in 


the Reichstag. Wearied with the Kulturkampf, no 
one was found who would assume the 
responsibility of continuing it. A great change in 

the political and parliamentary situation rendered 
the position taken by the center party more tenable 
and facilitated papal diplomacy. Leo XIII. saw the 
fall of Falk, the minister of instruc- tion, a 
reconciliation between Prince Bismarck and Herr 
Windhorst, the chief of the. center, and in the year 
1886, May Qth, he had the satisfaction of hearing 
that a new religious law had been voted in the 
Parliament in Berlin canceling existing anti- 
Catholic legislation. 

In 1885 the Archbishops Melchers of Cologne, 
Ledochowski of Gnesen and Posen resigned their 
charges into the hands of the Holy See in the 
interest of peace, and their successors, acceptable 
to the German government, were Bishop Philip 
Krementz of Ermeland, who was nominated to the 
vacant See of Cologne, and the Prevost of 
Koenigsberg, to that of Gnesen and Posen. 


The termination of the conflict is best described in 

the Pope's own words. He said: 

"We have completed, by the blessing of God, a 
work of long standing and of great difficulty, to 
which we gave our whole mind, and disregarding 
every minor consideration, the salvation of souls 
was, as it ought to be, our supreme law. You know 
in what con- dition things were during many years. 
You joined us in deeply grieving over dioceses 
without bishops; over parishes without priests; 
over freedom of public worship infringed; over 
seminaries of the clergy interdicted; over the 
number of the clergy so reduced, that very many 
Catholics could neither attend at divine worship 
nor receive the sacraments. And we felt the more 
the greatness of these evils because alone we 
could not heal them, nor lighten them; and that 
insomuch as our power was in many respects 
interfered with, we therefore resolved to seek for 
remedies where they could be 


found, and that with more confidence because 
besides the bishops we were assured of loyal and 
powerful support from Catholic legislators, men of 
unbending energy in the best cause, from whose 
zeal and union the Church has received no small 
fruit, and expects no less in the future. Our 
intention and our hope were greatly increased 
because we had certain knowledge that the august 
Emperor of Germany and his ministers had 
equitable and peaceful views. In consequence, a 
removal of the greatest evils was carefully sought 
after. Point after point was agreed upon,. By the 
law just passed, as you are aware, former laws 
were in part abrogated, in part greatly mitigated; 
and at last an end has been made of that terrible 
conflict, which, while it ground down the Church, 
did no good to the state. So much we rejoice to 
have seen done, with great exertion on our part, 
with much aid from your counsels. If there remain 
some things which Catholics have reason to desire, 
it must be remembered that the successes attained 

are far more numerous and far more important. The 
chief of these is that the Roman Pontiff's authority 
in the government of the Catholic Church has 
ceased to be considered in Prussia a foreign 
authority, and provision is made for its free 
exercise in the future. Then, venerable brethren, 
their liberty is restored to the bishops in governing 
their dioceses. The seminaries of the clergy are 
given back. Most of the religious orders are 
recalled. For the rest we shall continue our efforts, 
and considering the Emperor's will and the 
intention of his ministers, we have reason to hope 
that the Catholics of that nation may take courage, 
for we do not distrust that a better time is coming. 
Nothing do we so much desire of the divine bounty 
as that life long enough and ability be given us to 
behold the Catholic religion enjoying a settled and 
secure state under the protection of the laws in all 
Germany, and advancing without offense by 
salutary increase." 

The action of Germany and Spain in the affair of 
the Caroline Islands in placing the solution of the 

question in the hands of Leo 


XIII. as arbiter, as to sovereignty rights of the two 
nations, and the successful achievement of what at 
one time seemed only could be settled after a 
recourse to arms, did much to reconcile and bring 
peace to the Catholic Church in Germany. 

The Holy Father in a letter to the Holy College 
gave a state- ment of his labors in this affair in the 
following Allocution delivered in the Consistory 
held at the Vatican January 15, 1886: 

"Venerable Brothers: The matter on which we have 
undertaken to address you is already well known 
to the public. As, however, it regards the common 
welfare of all nations and constitutes revival of 
honorable customary function of the Apostolic See, 
we have thought that the transaction deserved to be 

related to you by ourselves on this important 

"In the month of September we were requested, 
both by the Emperor of Germany and the King of 
Spain, to take upon ourselves to arbitrate between 
them in the dispute arisen concerning the Caroline 
Islands. We gladly accepted the office thus 
entrusted to us, in the hope of helping the cause of 
peace and humanity. We therefore examined and 
weighed in the balance of an impartial and 
equitable judgment the arguments of both parties, 
and then submitted certain propositions as a basis 
on which they should agree, and which we hoped 
would prove acceptable to them. 

"Spain alleged many reasons in support of her right 
to that distant portion of Micronesia. She was the 
first nation whose ships had reached those shores, 
and this fact was acknowledged by the most 
distinguished geographers. The very name of 
Caroline attested the Spanish title. Besides, the 
King of Spain had often sent hither apostolic men 

as missionaries, and of this the annals of the 
Roman Pontificate afford confirmatory proof; for 
there exists a letter of our predecessor Clement XI. 
to Philip V written in 1706, and praising the King 
for having equipped and furnished a vessel to 
transport missionaries to these islands. He 
moreover exhorts his Majesty to 


continue to propagate the Christian name and help 
procure the salvation of multitudes of men. 

"The same Pontiff also wrote to Louis XIV 
beseeching him to oppose no obstacles to the 
happy issue of an enterprise so happily begun by 
his royal grandson. Again, Philip V appointed in 
aid of these missions (to the Carolines) a sum of 
two thousand pounds. Furthermore none but the 
Spanish nation ever did anything to help to bring 
the light of the gospel to the islanders. Finally, 

none but these missionaries have ever given any 
information to the world on the manner of living 
and the custom of the natives of the Carolines. 

"From this series of facts, viewed especially in the 
light of the then existing international law, one 
clearly perceives that the right of Spain to the 
Caroline Islands stands forth well established. For 
if any right of dominion can be justly founded on 
the fact of enlighten- ing barbarous people, it must 
be granted that those who had endeavored to 
convert them from pagan superstition to the gospel 
truth contributed most to their civilization, since to 
our holy religion belong all the forces capable of 
humanizing men. On this principle was founded the 
right of possession in more than one instance, 
particularly in the case of islands in the ocean, 
many of which bear names given them by religion. 

"Seeing, therefore, that a long and well founded 
public opinion conceded to Spain the possession 
of the Caroline Islands it cannot be wondered at if, 
when this dispute arose, the Spanish people were 

so excited that there was great danger for the 
internal peace of the kingdom and for its friendly 
relations with other powers. 

"To these arguments Germany opposed others, also 
based on international law: that to hold a landed 
possession residence is necessary; that, taking into 
account the facts of modern history, international 
law sanctions the rightful ownership of unoccupied 
land by holding and using it; that so long as such 
lands are not so held by occupation and use they 
are to be accounted as belonging to 


no owner. Wherefore, considering the fact that the 
Carolines had not during a century and a half been 
occupied by Spain, the islands should have been 
adjudged the property of the first person taking 
possession of them In support of this it was 
alleged that some such dispute as the present 

having arisen in 1875, both Germany and Great 
Britain affirmed that they would never 
acknowledge the right of Spain to the ownership of 
the Carolines. 

"Seeing how divided between contrary opinions 
men’s minds were we endeavored to prevent 
further dissension; and taking into account the 
respective rights and interests of the two 
contending nations . we confidently laid before 
them a plan for bringing about a peaceful 
settlement. We were guided only by our sense of 
equity, and, as you are aware, both disputants 
willingly agreed to our plan. 

"So then a thing happened’of which the present 
direction of public opinion did not afford much 
hope. Providence willed that two great and 
illustrious nations should do homage to the highest 
authority in the Church by asking it to fulfill an 
office so much in harmony with its nature, to 
preserve by its action the threatened peace and 
harmony between them. This is the fruit of that 

salutary and beneficent influence which God has 
attached to the power of the Sovereign Pontiff 
Superior to the envious jealousy of its enemies, 
and more mighty than the prevailing iniquity of the 
age, it is subject neither to destruction nor to 

"From all this, too, it becomes manifest how 
grievous and evil are the wars waged against the 
Apostolic See and the lessening of its rightful 
liberty, for thereby it is not merely that justice and 
religion are made changeful conditions of public 
affairs, but the Roman Pontifi- cate would confer 
far greater benefits on the world if, with perfect 
freedom and unimpaired rights, it could bestow all 
its energies in promoting, without impediment, the 
salvation of the human race. 

"The discovery made by Spain, in the sixteenth 
century, of the Caroline and Palaos Islands and a 
series of acts done by the 


Spanish government in these same islands at 
different times and for the benefit of the native 
populations thereof, have, in the opinion of the 
Spanish government and people, created a title to 
sovereignty over the same, based on the maxims of 
international law which were in vogue and 
followed in that age when such conflicts arose. 
Indeed, when we take into consideration this series 
of acts, the truth of which is co nfi rmed by various 
documents in the archives of the Propaganda, it is 
impossible to deny the beneficent labors of Spain 
in favor of these islanders. And it is further to be 
remarked that no other government at any time 
extended to these islands a like beneficent action. 
This explains the unbroken tradition, which can- 
not be overlooked, and the strong feeling of 
conviction among the Spanish people respecting 
this sovereignty — a tradition and a con- viction 
which two months ago manifested themselves in 
such out- bursts of warmth and animosity that they 
seriously threatened to compromise momentarily 

the interior tranquillity of the kingdom and the 
relations existing between the two friendly 

"On their side, Germany, as well as England, 
declared expressly in 1875 to the Span : 3h 
government that they did not acknowledge the 
sovereignty of Spain over these islands. Far from 
such an acknowledgment, the imperial government 
is of the opinion that nothing but the effective 
occupation of territory can constitute sovereignty 
over it; and such occupation of the Carolines by 
Spain never has been effected. 

"It is in conformity with this principle that 
Germany acted in the Island of Yap, and on this 
point the Mediator is gratified in declaring that the 
imperial government acted with perfect honesty, 
which is also acknowledged by the Spanish 

"Wherefore, and in order to prevent this 
divergence of opinions from becoming an obstacle 

to an honorable settlement between the two 
governments, the Mediator, after duly considering 
the whole question, proposes that in the new 
convention to be agreed upon 


both parties accept the formulas of the protocol 
concerning Lie Soulou (Iolo) Archipelago, signed 
at Madrid the 7th of last March by the 
representatives of Great Britain, Germany, and 
Spain, and that the following points be adopted: 

"First point: The sovereignty of Spain over the 
Caroline and Palaos Islands is affirmed. Second 
point: The Spanish government, in order to render 
its said sovereignty effective, binds itself to 
establish, as soon as possible, in this archipelago a 
regular administra- tion, with a force sufficient to 
preserve order and protect acquired rights. Third 
point: Spain proffers to Germany full and entire 

freedom of commerce, navigation, and fishing in 
these islands, as well as the right to establish there 
a naval station and a coaling depot. Fourth point: 
To Germany is also secured the liberty of making 
plantations in these islands, and there founding 
agricultural establishments on the same footing as 
Spanish subjects." 


The Pope conferred upon the German Emperor and 
Bismarck decorations of the Ancient Order of 
Christ, which are given only to the most 
distinguished and exalted personages. The German 
Chancellor prized the decoration and at a 
parliamentary dinner he wore the Star of the Order. 
In his address on this occasion, he spoke in the 
most nattering terms of Leo XIII., saying among his 
encomiastic phrases, that Pope Leo was one of the 
most enlightened statesmen of the century, who had 
quickly understood the advantage of having a 
conservative and well balanced nation like 
Germany as the keystone of the arch that upheld 

European unity and prosperity. 




EO XIII. when Nuncio at Brussels, or Bishop of 
Perugia, never •* — ’ let an opportunity pass, of 
giving warm expressions of admira- tion for the 
great Republic of the United States of America. In 
1854 he said to some American students of the 
College of the Propaganda, who had attended a 
public reception after he had been promoted to the 
exalted dignity of a prince of the Church: "You are 
from a glo- rious nation, your people enjoy the 
blessings of a true freedom; your institutions 
founded upon right and justice will always 
prosper, and the Catholic Church cannot help but 

increase in numbers and greatness, while in your 
country the poor have the Gospel preached to them. 
May God preserve your nation from those evils 
which afflict so many in Europe and elsewhere. I 
foresee a steady advance and the day will come 
when the great American Republic will be the 
controlling power in the world of nations." 

On his accession to the office of Sovereign Pontiff, 
Leo XIII. initiated a progressive and enlightened 
policy towards the American people that gained 
the good will of all classes. In a letter to his 
Eminence, Cardinal Gibbons, Archbishop of 
Baltimore, twenty- four years later, he said: "If at 
the very beginning of our Supreme Pontificate, we 
were moved with great joy in looking at the 
situation of your country, now, having held this 
office for more than twenty- four years, we must 
admit that at no moment has that early joy been 
diminished, but that on the contrary, it has grown 
more and more from day to day, in proportion as 
the progress of the Catholic faith 

among your people became more marked. 

& 0 ± 



f A 



,*M A 





«J — 

. a <x> s 



W <o 
. o 

.22 ttf 

1 — 1 ( 1 ) 

A 43 

(/) C £ 


o u 








1 — > 






4 -» 






b o 






0 ) 















( 1 ) 

















05 O 




*33 -S 
43 OJ 
a a 

A >- 

% "~ 

> o 


a .5 

•”§ s 














< 1 > 




1 > 






McO 1-. 

v u 


o a o 





p.2£ o > S 
CO " *-■ 


o a a M 

1 "2 § 

o > . 

M x „ O MJ4 



"5 « 

a a o o 


a >.2 
ai . <a 

3 o 




<a v a 


. M 
•r"C — 

Hap _ </> Mt;u-i A — "-i j 03 cfl x > SJ II £} 

5- <u 


o • — g> eo rr ifi 

co co co co co so 


coc*- ao as 

— « Q Q.O-M 



o ii ii - a v~ . « « s» Ml*BJO<MQ > 






to a L 



8 -•-*•» 

£S M> o H 5 S 

t- A cc o» o — ’ e> co i- ifi co t- A oo ci 

M 1 rrrrir A iCiC»/5iClfii£3in ITS O 



J3 Mj 

in ~> en <j 
"2 CO O u 
ni 5 «a CO ’ - 

.-Cvic; a .cocoaou a j.ecOcO "cO 

a l- 

co O 

(LI <-> 
w <D 
COb — 

CO Cl 

a ° 


■ A cMco-fict- A oooso-HC A cc- A ’Cco 

CO«CCCCCOM A CO-*-*TJ"*rr-f-P 






a •- •" 2 ftsi « 

’•S-n-SOgy.Hoco Eil Q g2 
St. : o.Socc: amb - ca 
rtnCOS e8u SS<CU"C™’-3 A 2>te 




a_ b 3" 



8 « - 1 & 

a o._,-S m a _ A -8 A .Sia|.S 225 „8„ 

• t A -a <u-r u A H«tooi;W A o-so A a-§5go2'S : =coS 


( A a 



• A e»coT«<iocb«>ooc3>o— ’c^«’<c«i(5 



"This must be attributed in the first place to the 
will of God, but it is also due to your zeal and to 
your exertions. We must, in fact, congratulate your 
wisdom in that, knowing well the character of the 
nation, you have been able to promote prudently all 
kinds of Catholic institutions in accordance with 
the minds and the peculiarities of the people." 

A second letter explained the above words: k 'A 
long experience," he goes on to say, "obliges us to 
admit that, thanks to your efforts, we have found 
among your compatriots, docile minds and ardent 
souls, showing that they were ready to meet our 
desires. So, while almost all other nations, which 
for many successive centuries have professed the 
Catholic religion, have undergone painful 
evolutions and vicissitudes, the state of your 
churches on the contrary, possess- ing, so to speak, 
blooming youth, delights our minds and fills them 
with joy. It is true, the civil government grants us 
no legal favors, but the heads of the Republic 
undoubtedly deserve the praise that they refuse us 
no just liberty." 


Pius IX. had manifested the greatest interest in 
behalf of the young plant of the Western 
Hemisphere. He once said, "In no other part of the 
world am I as much Pope as in the United States." 
Leo XIII. , soon after his election, gave expression 
to the same sentiments. 

The Most Reverend John McCloskey, Archbishop 
of New York, had been created Cardinal in 1875, 
but he had not been able to go to Rome to receive 
the Cardinal’s hat, a ceremony reserved by the 
Popes for themselves. Immediately after the 
announcement of the death of Pius IX. the Cardinal 
set out for Rome to attend the Con- 


clave, but the election of Pope Leo had taken place 

two days previous to his arrival 


The Catholic Church had made remarkable 
progress during the Pontificate of Pius IX. of 
Blessed Memory. When Leo XIII. assumed the 
authority of Sovereign Pontiff, he had the great 
satisfaction of finding that the most nourishing 
portion of his vast spiritual field 


was in the United States of America. There was a 
community numbering over six millions of the 
faithful with a Cardinal, the Archbishop of New 
York, ten other archbishops, fifty-six bishops, five 
thousand and seventy-four priests, five thousand 
and forty-six churches, over two thousand parish 
schools, many colleges, academies and high 
schools and more than three hundred asylums and 
hospitals. The Pope expressed his admiration for 

the entire American Catholic body, which achieved 
so much in the face of oppressive, unconstitu- 
tional practices by the enemies of the Church. In an 
interview with Cardinal McCloskey soon after his 
coronation, he said: "An inherent vitality is plainly 
manifested in the Church in America. It is giving a 
wonderful proof of its divine mission when we see 
’men from every nation under heaven’ uniting 
together in one fold, recognizing the Sovereign 
Pontiff as their spiritual chief, yet blending into the 
great body of American citizens, accepting the 
constitution with the deepest sense of loyalty, 
making the great American Republic their country, 
its prosperity theirs, and ready to share its burdens 
as well as its triumphs." 

He put into execution his purpose of solidifying the 
many interests of the Church in the United States as 
soon as an opportunity afforded itself. In arriving 
at this step he found that the great means was to 
hold a Plenary Council of the Church in the States. 
He therefore summoned the Archbishops of the 
American Church to Rome in November, 1883. In 

an audience held at the Vatican 


soon after their arrival the Holy Father, while 
extending to the Archbishops his greetings, 
addressed them on the importance of their meeting. 
He said among other things that "the opportune 
time had arrived when the hierarchy of the 
American Church should come together in Council 
to discuss and perfect the Church's disciplinary 
laws that would obtain force in the United States." 

A scheme of the subjects to be treated by the 
Council was pre- pared by the Holy Father, and 
among the principal ones was that of higher 
education. When the Archbishops were in Rome 
receiv- ing instructions and discussing the scheme 
with the Pope, they heard him speak of his 
movement in favor of creating two great schools in 

behalf of the Oriental churches, one in Athens, the 
other in Constantinople. 

Before the departure of the Archbishops he 
presented them with a life-size portrait of himself, 
which was to be hung in the Council Hall, thus 
giving to them the significant understanding that he 
might be considered as presiding over the National 
Council. On Sunday, November gth, the Council 
was opened with eighty-three prelates in 
attendance. His Eminence, Cardinal McCloskey, 
was prevented by ill health from being present. 
Archbishop Gibbons of Baltimore was appointed 
by the Holy Father as Apostolic Delegate and 
President of the Council. When the prelates 
assembled for the first session, they were 
surprised and pleased to receive the following 
telegram; "The Holy Father sends his blessing to 
the Fathers of the Plenary Council which begins to- 
day. L. Cardinal Jacobini." The Council closed on 
the seventh of December, lasting one month. 

A joint pastoral letter was prepared by this 

Council of Baltimore and issued soon after its 
close. Among the many subjects discussed in it, 
and which lack of space prevents mentioning in 
these pages, is that of the patriotic spirit of the 
Church in the United States. 

"A Catholic," it says, "finds himself at home in the 
United States, for the influence of the Church has 
been constantly exercised in 


behalf of individual rights and popular liberties. 
And the light- minded American nowhere finds 
himself more at home than in the Catholic Church, 
for nowhere else can he breathe more freely that 
atmosphere of divine truth which alone can make 
him free. 

'We repudiate with equal earnestness the assertion 

that we need to lay aside any of our devotedness to 
our Church to be true Americans, and the 
insinuation that we need to abate any of our iove 
for our country's principles and institutions to be 
faithful Catholics. 

"To argue that the Catholic Church is hostile to our 
great Republic because she teaches that 'there is no 
power but from God’ (Rom. XILI); because, 
therefore, back of the events which led to the 
formation of the Republic, she sees the providence 
of God leading to that issue, and back of our 
country's laws the authority of God as their 
sanction — this is evidently so illogical and 
contradictory an accusation that we are astonished 
to hear it advanced by persons of ordinary 
intelligence. We believe that our country's heroes 
were the instruments of the God of nations in 
establishing their home of freedom. To both the 
Almighty and His instruments we look with 
grateful reverence. 

"No less illogical would be the notion that there is 

aught in the free spirit of our American institutions 
incompatible with perfect docility to the Church of 
Christ. The spirit of American freedom is not one 
of anarchy or of license. It essentially involves 
love of order, respect for rightful authority, and 
obedience to just laws. There is nothing in the 
character of the most liberty-loving American 
which could hinder his submission to the divine 
authority of our Lord, or the like authority 
delegated by Him to His Apostles or His Church." 


In this letter they render a beautiful tribute of love' 
to their reigning Sovereign, Leo XIII., as follows: 


'While enduring with the heroism of a martyr the 
trials which beset him, and trustfully awaiting the 

Almighty's day of deliverance, the energy and 
wisdom ot Leo Xi iT . are felt to the ends of the 
earth. He is carrying on with the governments of 
Europe the negotiations which promise soon to 
bring peace to the Church. In the East he is 
preparing the way for the return to Catholic unity ot 
the millions whom the Greek schism has so long 
deprived of com- munion with the See of Peter, 
and he is following the progress cf exploration in 
lands hitherto unknown or inaccessible with corre- 
sponding advances of Catholic missions. To the 
whole world his voice has gone forth again and 
again in counsels of eloquent wisdom, pointing out 
the path of truth in the important domains of 
philosophy and history; the best means of 
improving human life in all its phases, individual, 
domestic, and social; the ways in which the 
children of God should walk, that all flesh may see 
tht salvation of God. 

"But in all the wide circle of his great 
responsibility the progress of the Church in these 
United States forms in a special manner both a 

source of joy and an object of solicitude to the 
Holy Father. With loving care his predecessors 
watched and encouraged her first feeble 
beginnings. They cheered and fostered her 
development in the pure atmosphere of freedom 
when the name of Carroll shone with equal luster 
at the head of her new-born hierarchy and on the 
roll of our country's patriots. . . . 

"In all this astonishing development, from the rude 
beginnings of pioneer missionary toil, along the 
nearer and nearer approaches to the beauteous 
symmetry of the Church's perfect organization, the 
advance, so gradual and yet so rapid, has been 
safely guided in the lines of Catholic and apostolic 

In the Consistory held at the Vatican June 7, 1886, 
Leo XIII. raised the Most Reverend James 
Gibbons, Archbishop of Baltimore, to the dignity 
of a Cardinal. His Eminence, accompanied by 


Cardinal Taschereau, Archbishop of Quebec, 
Canada, sailed from New York for Rome, January 
29, 1887, in order to be present at the Consistory 
to be held in the Vatican, when they would receive 
the Cardinals' hats from the hands of the Pope. In 
an audience granted to Cardinal Gibbons by his 
Holiness after the arrival of their Eminences, the 
Holy Father received the Cardinal with the utmost 
cordiality. He referred to the previous visit of the 
Cardinal to Rome and the instructions then given to 
him as Archbishop in regard to the Plenary 
Council. The Pope thanked his Eminence for the 
faithful manner in which he executed the 
instructions then given. The condemnation of the 
Knights of Labor was under serious discussion in 
Rome at this time. The arguments in favor of 
condemnation were based upon the assumption that 
the society was revolutionary and secret, pledged 
to blind obedience and dangerous to social and 
commercial order. Before the Holy Office or the 

Council of the Inquisition would act in the matter, 
by suggestion of the Holy Father, Cardinal Gibbons 
was requested to make a report on the society of 
the Knights of Labor, as the society had its main 
foothold in the United States. 


The text of Cardinal Gibbons' full report on the 
Knights of Labor was published in the Moniteur de 
Rome. Referring to the objections urged against the 
organization, the Cardinal said: 

"It is objected that in this kind of organizations 
Catholics mix with Protestants to the peril of their 
faith. Amongst a mixed people like ours separation 
of religions in civil affairs is not possible. To 
suppose that the faith of Catholics suffers shows 
ignorance of the Catholic workmen of America, 
who regard the Church as their mother. They are 
intelligent, instructed, devoted, and ready to give 
their blood as they give their hard earned gains for 
her support and protection." 


To the question whether it would not be better to 
have the organizations conducted by priests under 
the direct influence of religion, the Cardinal 
frankly replied that he thought it neither possible 
nor necessary "In our country," he says, "we have 
abundant means of making Catholics good without 
going so far." 

It being objected that the liberty of the organization 
exposes Catholics to deadly influences and 
associates more dangerous than even Atheists, 
Communists, and Anarchists, the Cardinal said it 
was true, but that one proof of faith would not try 
American Catholics. To such influences they were 
exposed every day, and they knew them well and 
despised them. The leaders of the Knights of Labor 
related how these violent, aggressive elements 
strove to gain authority in their councils or 

insinuate poison into the principles of the 
association, and also told of the determination with 
which they were repelled. Danger would arise 
from a coldness between the Church and her 
children, which nothing would more surely 
occasion than imprudent condemnations Special 
stress being laid upon the violence, even to the 
shedding of blood r which had characterized 
several strikes inaugurated by working- men's 
associations, the Cardinal said: 

."I have three things to remark: First, strikes are 
not the inven- tion of the Knights of Labor, but a 
universal, perpetual means by which workingmen 
protest against what is unjust and demand their 
rights; second, in such a struggle of the multitudes 
of the poor against hard, obstinate monopoly wrath 
and violence are often as inevitable as they are 
regrettable; third, the laws and the principal 
authorities of the Knights, so far from encouraging 
violence or occasions for violence, exercise a 
powerful preventive influence, seeking to keep 
strikes within the limits of legitimate action. An 

attentive examination into the violent struggles 
between labor and capital has convinced me of the 
injustice of attributing violence to the Knights. 
Their principal authorities have proved the fact 


that it is as unreasonable to attribute violence to 
the Knights, as to attribute to the Church follies and 
crimes of her children against which she protests. 

"It is a popular power regulated by love of order, 
respect for religion, obedience to the laws; not a 
Democracy of license and violence, but a true 
Democracy which seeks general prosperity by the 
ways of sound principles and good social order. 
Religion is necessary to preserve so desirable a 
state of affairs. Among the Church’s glorious titles 
none at present gives her such influence as that of 
the 'Friend of the people' in our democratic nation. 

That is the title which gains for the Catholic 
Church not only the enthusiastic devotion of the 
millions of her children, but the respect and 
admiration of all of our citizens, whatever their 
religious beliefs." 

Cardinal Manning of England endorsed the policy 
advocated by Cardinal Gibbons towards the 
Knights of Labor. The report was accepted and 
approved by the Congregation of the Holy Office 
and full recognition was given to the Knights of 
Labor by the Holy See. 


In 1887 Leo XIII. addressed an important brief in 
favor of the temperance movement to the Right 
Reverend John Ireland, Bishop of St. Paul, who 
was afterwards elevated to the Archbishopric of 
St, Paul. 

’Venerable Brother: — Health and apostolic 
benediction. The admirable works of piety and 

charity by which our faithful children in the United 
States labor to promote not only their own 
temporal and eternal welfare but also that of their 
fellow-citizens, and which you have recently 
related to us, give to us exceeding great 
consolation. And above all we have rejoiced to 
learn with what energy and zeal, by means of 
various excellent associations, and especially 
through the Catholic Total Abstinence Union, you 


combat the destructive vice of intemperance. For it 
is w-ell known to us how ruinous, how deplorable 
is the injury both to faith and to morals that is to be 
feared from intemperance in drink. Nor can we 
sufficiently praise the prelates of the United States 
who recently in the Plenary Council of Baltimore, 
with weightiest words condemned this abuse, 
declaring it to be a perpetual incentive to sin and a 

fruitful root of all evils, plunging the families of all 
interoperates into the direst ruin, and drawing 
numberless souls down to everlasting perdition; 
declaring, moreover, that the faithful who yield to 
this vice of intemperance become thereby a 
scandal to non-Catholics, and a great hindrance to 
the propagation of the true religion. 

"Hence, we esteem worthy of all commendation 
the noble resolve of your pious associations, by 
which they pledge themselves to abstain totally 
from every kind of intoxicating drinks. Nor can it 
all be doubted that this determination is the proper 
and the truly efficacious remedy for this very great 
evil and that so much the more strongly will all be 
induced to put this bridle upon appetite by how 
much the greater are the dignity and influence of 
those who give the example. But greatest of all in 
this matter should be the zeal of priests, who, as 
they are called to instruct the people in the word of 
life, and to mould them to Christian morality, 
should also, and above all, walk before them in the 
practice of virtue. Let Pastors, therefore, do their 

best to drive the plague of intemperance from the 
fold of Christ by assiduous preaching and 
exhortation, and to shine before all as models of 
abstinence, that so the many calamities with which 
this vice threatens both Church and State may by 
their strenuous endeavors be averted. 

"And we most earnestly beseech Almighty God 
that, in this important matter, He may graciously 
favor your desires, direct your counsels, and assist 
your endeavors.; and as a pledge of the divine 
protection, and as a testimony of our paternal 
affection, we most 


lovingly bestow upon you, venerable brother, and 
upon all your associates in this holy league, the 
apostolic benediction. 

"Given at Rome, from St. Peter's, this 27th day of 
March, in the year 1887, the tenth year of our 
Pontificate. LEO XIII., Pope." 

Leo XIII. supported total abstinence during his 
long Pontificate, He gave unqualified 
encouragement to Cardinal Manning who labored 
most zealously for the suppression of the liquor 
traffic that was so demoralizing to the working 
classes in England. 


The solemn opening of the theological department 
of the University took place in November, 1889, 
coinciding with the cen- tenary celebration of the 
establishment of the Catholic hierarchy in 
America. The Pope's delegate, Mgr. Satolli, and 
President Harrison honored the occasion with their 

A great Catholic congress of the American laity 

was held in Bal- timore at this time and solemn 
declarations were made in favor of the liberty of 
the Holy See. Among the six resolutions proposed 
the following was adopted by a unanimous vote: 

"We cannot conclude without solemnly declaring 
our firm persuasion in the full liberty of the Holy 
See being absolutely indispensable to the peace of 
the Church and at the same time for the good of the 
human family. We therefore demand in the name of 
humanity and justice that this liberty be 
scrupulously respected by all secular governments. 
We protest against the right of any government to 
arrogate the power of interfering with the interests 
or impeding the action of our Holy Father the 

The progress of the Church in the United States had 
increased to such a degree that the Holy Father 
determined to interest himself in favor of the 
education of the Catholic American youth. He 
knew full well from experiences had in his diocese 
in Perugia 


that should the religious education of the youth be 
neglected, then socialism and such errors 
subverting the order of good society, could find an 
easy prey. The liberty of teaching was complete in 
the United States insomuch that, provided a school 
would take charge of the education of any number 
of youth, it was free to do so, even though it was 
not supported by the taxes of the state. 

In the third Council of Baltimore it was declared 
that teaching in the public schools of the country 
had no beneficial religious effect. On the contrary 
the Fathers said that the whole tendency was 
toward infidelity. Leo XIII., after he had received 
and approved the statutes of the Council, 
immediately ordered the establishment of 
parochial schools wherever it was possible. This 
movement in favor of the creation of parochial 

schools had its good effects, yet there were many 
Catholics who complained of the double tax 
imposed upon them and they continued to send 
their children to the public schools. 

It was about this time that Archbishop Ireland of 
St. Paul entered a social contract with the civil 
authorities in charge of the schools of Faribault 
and Stillwater. In virtue of this contract the schools 
ceased to be under the direction of the bishop, but 
passed under the charge of the school board. On 
the 14th of December, 1891, Archbishop Ireland 
declared that the civil authority "was sovereign in 
all that regarded the teaching required by this 
program during the time of its application." 
Therefore, the school during the time of the classes 
would be subject to the laws and regulations of the 
school board as well as the teachers and pupils. 

When this was made public a great agitation arose 
throughout the Church in the United States. Many 
declared that the Church's education and principles 
were being sacrificed and the decrees of the 

Council of Baltimore were trodden upon. 
Archbishop Ireland’s intention was altogether 
misunderstood and the future of the Catholic 
schools was greatly compromised. In entering into 


Faribault and Stillwater contracts, the Archbishop 
did this after he- had considered the resources of 
the settlements of Catholic people in his 
archdiocese, which did not permit them to support 
the schools as needed. He found that the Catholic 
schools at Faribault and Stillwater would have to 
be closed on account of the great sacrifices to be 
encountered in maintaining them. He saw, with 
regret, the harm that would arise if he could not 
make other plans. He thought it therefore better to 
reconcile all opposing interests and render the 
schools of these two places effective for both 

Catholics and Protestants. He arranged that the 
direction of the schools would be in the hands of 
the school board, that the religious teachers would 
guard against any religious teaching during class 
hours, not even reciting prayer, and after school 
they could give all their attention to religious 

It was decided that all religious emblems would be 
removed from the schools as religious emblems, 
but they could remain there as objects of art, that 
the Madonna by Raphael and Fra Angelico was 
acceptable to the school board as they would give 
a religious tinge to the general appearance. 

The question was referred to the decision of the 
Holy See and an answer received from the 
Propaganda on the 28th of April, 1892, as follows: 
"On the question: What decision should there be on 
the arrangement adopted by Archbishop Ireland 
concerning the two schools of Faribault and 
Stillwater, the members of the congrega- tion have 
decided to answer, that the decrees of the Council 

of Baltimore on provincial schools subsist in full 
force. The contract entered into by Archbishop 
Ireland, considering all circumstances, can be 

’The Holy Father has deigned in an audience of the 
21st of April, 1892, to approve the decision of 
their Eminences in that con- gregation. 

IGNACE, Archbishop of Damietta." 



Leo XIII. addressed a letter dated the 24th of May 
to the Bishops of the Province of New York 
wherein he praised these prelates for their zeal and 
manifested his joy at the progress the Church had 
made in the United States, but he showed much 
sorrow for the controversy that arose on account of 

the contract entered into by Archbishop Ireland and 
the civil authorities touching the two schools, 
among the large number of parochial schools in the 
archdiocese. He explained the sense of the Holy 
See in reference to the move- ment made by 
Archbishop Ireland and expressed a hope that the 
laity of the American people finally would come to 
a point of reco gn i z in g the justness of the Catholic 
tax being turned to the education of their children. 


When the Chicago Exposition was explained to the 
Holy Father, he at once grasped its importance and 
he said to the American envoy, Thomas B. Bryan: 
"There is nothing can surpass the splendor of this 
magnificent exposition which will be held in 
Chicago, which will unite all the products of 
nature and art created by the genius of man." He 
expressed the firm hope that this great enterprise to 
which all the nations would lend their concurrence, 
would have happy results and that it would 
promote the efforts of man to develop the gifts of 

nature and to encourage fine arts. 

Leo XIII. took a personal interest in the exposition 
by sending precious documents which were 
preserved in the Museum of the Propaganda 
College. One was the historical chart from which 
was traced by the hand of Alexander VI. the 
famous line of demarcation between the Spanish 
and Portuguese possessions in America. 


In 1S91 an association was organized among the 
Catholic laity of Europe whose object was the 
amelioration of the condition of the 


foreign element in the United States. In April, 
1891, a convention was held at Lucerne, 

Switzerland, which was attended by a large 
number of the Catholic aristocracy, among whom 
were Prince de Isenburg, Bernstein, Prince 
Swartzenburg, Count de Merode, the Marquis 
Volpe Landi and others. At its close a report was 
addressed to Cardinal Rampolla signed by M. 
Cahensly, secretary of the Society in Germany, in 
which a deplorable condition was given of the 
Catholic immigrants in the United States. It was 
stated that they were laboring under great 
difficulties owing to the insufficient protection 
from the time of their departure from their 
respective countries until their arrival in America, 
a lack of priests who could speak their languages, 
the public schools in the United States, the want of 
national mutual Catholic benevolent societies for 
the well being of the laboring classes, and the 
necessity of having representa- tives in the 
American episcopate from each nationality. 

"Without doubt," said the report, "these immigrants 
would in time speak the English language, but with 
a great risk of losing their faith. As these people 

have their national characteristics and customs, it 
is necessary that their priests should not only speak 
their languages, but be of their nationality, and that 
each nation be united into exclusively separate 

It was a significant fact that the whole movement 
had been con- ducted without the knowledge or 
advice of the American hierarchy. The campaign 
had been directed solely by the committee in 
Germany, which by its activity had secured the 
support and approbation of other European 
countries. As soon as Catholic sentiment had time 
to express itself, the Catholic and secular press 
testified the indignant opposition of American 
Catholics to the whole scheme. 

Though the suggestions in the report were 
commendable, they were not explicit enough to 
satisfy the American people, who took for granted 
that the movement was not alone for the purpose of 
looking after the interests of the immigrants, but to 
establish separate 


and distinct national communities to the detriment 
of the American commonwealth. 

’The Lucerne Conspiracy" became at once the 
sensational topic of American journalists and 
politicians. The American hierarchy was accused 
by non-Catholics of keeping Catholic communities 
"as distinctly foreign as possible." An ’"Anti- 
Catholic American Pro- tective League" was 
started and the whole country was agitated by the 
intended movement. The Chicago Catholic Home 
published an article on the matter June 6, 1891, as 

"Some of our esteemed contemporaries are 
unnecessarily excited over the Cahensly scheme of 
having foreign bishops appointed over the foreign 
immigrants of diverse races and tongues in the 

United States, Germans, Poles, Italians, French 
Canadians, etc. Able editors of the secular press 
should remember that M. Cahensly is not the head 
of the Catholic Church nor one of the Pope's 
advisers, nor a representative of American 
Catholics, but only the delegate of a German 
Emigration Society. 

"The chief object of the Society, namely, to 
provide for the spiritual wants of newly arriving 
immigrants in America, is most praiseworthy. The 
means they propose to adopt for this purpose 
would be the height of folly. No such impracticable 
scheme as that of separate Catholic bishops for the 
various races and nationalities in the United States, 
could for a moment be entertained by anyone who 
knows this country and understands the temper and 
spirit of the American people. Let the German 
Emigration Society lend their assistance to the 
bishops in the United States, to provide good 
priests for the German immigrants, if the bishops 
need their aid. The same may be said of other 
races of immigrants. Let their countrymen, lay and 

clerical, help the Church authorities in America to 
build churches for the poor immigrants and supply 
them with zealous and edifying priests. Beyond that 
the Cahensly scheme would be utterly 
impracticable. We want no divided 


jurisdiction in the Catholic Church of America. We 
want no foreign nationalities perpetuated on 
American soil. We want no dictation by any faction 
of foreigners to the Catholics of the United States. 
Those who do not come here to become 
Americans, are welcome to stay at home where 
they can be Germans, Poles, Italians, etc. Here 
there shall be, in the course of a reasonable time, 
only one tongue as there is only one flag. We are 
one Nation and it is just as well that the zealous, 
but unwise Cahenslys should realize that fact. Give 
the poor immigrants of foreign tongues the 

ministrations of priests who can understand them, 
but let there be no thought of divided jurisdiction. 
In every diocese in the Catholic Church there must 
be only one fold and one shepherd. Rome will 
listen courteously to M. Cahensly and his fellow 
petitioners from Lucerne; but there is not the 
slightest chance of success for their scheme. 
Additional means may be suggested or created to 
aid the immigrants of foreign tongues. But 
whatever is to be done will be done only by and 
through the regular hierarchy of the Catholic 
Church in the United States." 

Earnest protests were made to the Holy See by 
many American bishops against the "Cahensly 
scheme" and Cardinal Gibbons said in reference to 

"The bishops of the United States, while 
discharging their duty toward the great English 
body of the faithful, are not unmindful of the 
spiritual wants of those who speak a foreign 
tongue. This is evidenced by the fact that almost 

every Sunday witnesses the dedication of some 
church for the use of Poles or Lithuanians, 
Bohemians, or Germans, Canadians or Italians. I 
venture to say that the hierarchy of no country in 
the world is paying more attention to the spiritual 
wants of foreign-born Catholic people than are the 
prelates of the United States. They are earnestly 
endeavor- ing to have the Gospel preached to them 
in their native tongue during the transition period, 
which occurs before they are absorbed into 






the great English-speaking world around them. . . . 
With these facts before us, we cannot view without 
astonishment and indignation a number of self- 
constituted and officious gentlemen in Europe 
complaining of the alleged inattention which is 
paid to the spiritual wants of the foreign 
population, and the means of redress which they 
have thought proper to submit to the Holy See." 

Leo XIII. in a letter to his Eminence, Cardinal 
Gibbons, said "that the fears created in America by 
the memorial were groundless; that there had been 
no disposition to accede to any proposition that 

might disturb the harmony of the American Church, 
and that no innovation regarding the established 
method for the appointment of bishops would be 
tolerated." These words were like oil upon 
troubled waters and the Catholic people settled 
down to their peaceful activities. 


In 1899 tne Holy Father created an Apostolical 
Delegation for the Catholic Church in Canada and 
on August third appointed the Most Reverend 
Diomede Falconio, Archbishop of Larisse, 
Apostolic Delegate. This eminent prelate took up 
his residence in Ottawa, Canada, the seat of 
Government in the Dominion of Canada. 

In 1902 Archbishop Falconio was transferred to 
Washington, D. C, in the United States, to fill the 
Apostolic Delegation made vacant by the recall of 
Cardinal Martinelli to Rome. 

Leo XIII. was deeply solicitous over the existing 

condition of the Church in British America. "For a 
long time in the past," he wrote, "the attention of 
the Roman Pontiffs have been bestowed on that 
part of Canada known by the designations of 
French and Lower Canada, for the purpose of 
making the progress of the Catholic religion therein 
the means of advancing both the public and the 
private prosperity. Indeed, from the moment that 
the arrival of successive bodies of European 
immigrants brought larger elements 


of enlightenment into that country, Clement X. 
bethought him of establishing the Episcopal See of 
Quebec, which is looked upon as the parent of the 
various dioceses that owe their origin to French 
colonists in the countries of North America. On 
this See Pius VII., in 1819, bestowed 
archiepiscopal title and rank; and it was assigned 

its proper metropolitanjurisdiction, when, twenty- 
five years later, Gregory XVI. created the 
ecclesiastical province of Quebec. We also have 
made it our care to add something further; for in 
view of the increase of the Catholic population, we 
judged it to be for the interest of religion to divide 
that province into two, and in due course of time 
we bestowed on the See ofVille-Marie or 
Montreal archiepiscopal honors and rights, and, as 
was befitting, assigned to it its own suffragan sees. 


"Nor has the provident care of the Apostolic See 
been satisfied with doing all this for the faithful 
people of that country. When the course of time 
permitted it to do so, it took thought of providing 
for the right and thorough education of youth. 
Wherefore our illustrious predecessor, Pius IX., in 
answer to the prayer of the Bishops of the Quebec 
province, gladly took steps toward founding in the 
City of Quebec a Catholic University. And on this 
he bestowed, by his Apostolic Letters of May 15, 

1876, all the lawful rights of a university, giving it 
for Protector the Cardinal Prefect of the 
Propaganda for the time being, and for Chancellor 
the Arch- bishop of Quebec. In this same Bull he 
empowered this University — justly named Laval 
University in honor of the first most devoted 
Bishop of Quebec — to create Doctors and to 
grant the other academical degrees in the various 
faculties. The Bishops of the province were also 
exhorted and urged to affiliate their seminaries and 
colleges to the University; and to these same 
Bishops was entrusted the care of watching and 
seeing to it that nothing contrary 


to the faith or sound doctrine crept into the 
teaching, or anything against good morals into the 
discipline, of the University. 

"In that same year (1876), in order that the benefits 
of such a sound education should be extended to as 
many as possible, and for the purpose of honoring 
in a special manner the illustrious city of Montreal, 
the Propaganda was pleased, and its determination 
was approved by our predecessor, that university 
courses should be opened in that city and a 
Succursal of Laval University established there. 

"It was then decreed to teach there all the arts and 
sciences taught to the pupils of the great Quebec 
school, these (Montreal) schools, however, to be 
under the control of the University Council, which 
has the government and control of Laval 
University, and that it should be subject as well to 
the watchful care of the Bishops of Lower Canada, 
under the presidency of the Archbishop of Quebec. 
Lastly, we have appointed the Archbishop of 
Montreal to be Vice- Chancellor of the Succursal. 
From this arrangement no small increase of higher 
instruction has been derived in favor of the 
Canadian youth. The professorial chairs are filled 
by most dis- tinguished scholars, many of whom 

were trained in the Gregorian University in our 
Roman Seminary, and our Urban College, and 
thanks to their cooperation the sciences are 
successfully cultivated, especially those of 
Theology and Philosophy, in accordance with the 
doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas, which we have 
restored in all Catholic schools. As it happens, 
however, in all human institutions, the very 
diversity of interests has given rise to certain 
conflicts and dissentiments. These, unless put a 
speedy end to by the authority of the Holy See, 
might seriously endanger the permanence of these 
excellent institutions, and make people fear that all 
the good thence hoped for would be frustrated. For 
there arose forthwith in the minds of not a few a 
wish to have a number of independent academies 
(or schools of higher studies); while the attention 
of the 


pupils, diverted from the pursuit of the studies 
before them, was absorbed by partisan discussions 
and opinions. 

"In spite of the wordy agitation thus begotten, we 
are happy to find that the Laval University at 
Quebec is still flourishing and in the enjoyment of 
great prosperity; while at the same time the 
University schools in Montreal are so well 
organized that nothing is there wanting toward a 
complete course of instruction in theology, law, 
medicine, and the arts. 

"This state of things justifies us, therefore, in 
offering our warm congratulations to our venerable 
brothers, the Archbishops and Bishops of Lower 
Canada, and to the other Catholic clergymen and 
laymen who have contributed by their labors or 
their money to the creation and equipment of so 
useful a work, as well as to those who, in 
obedience to the bidding of this Holy See, have 
affiliated to the University the seminaries and 
colleges of both the one and the other province. 

For this helps toward establishing a common 
standard of teaching and educating youth, and thus 
knits together in bonds of closer and stronger unity 
the populations of Canada. 

"Inasmuch, however, as we can have nothing more 
at heart than to see this union of souls increase 
from day to day, and as we devoutly wish to secure 
the durability of this University, which is so 
powerful and effective in creating such union, we, 
above all things, most earnestly exhort the prelates 
of French Canada to show forth the pastoral zeal 
for which they are so much distinguished, in 
continuing to help by their watchful care the 
Archbishop of Quebec, seeing to it that nothing 
hurtful to the integrity of our holy Faith or to good 
morals shall gain an entrance into that honored 
abode of the sciences (Laval University). 

"Furthermore, whatever has been done, decided 
and decreed by this Holy See or its authority, 
regarding the Laval University, we hereby ratify 
and confirm, and we, in especial, declare that this 

University alone is acknowledged and held by us 
to be the Catholic 


University of Lower Canada, sufficiently fitted and 
equipped with the means necessary for the proper 
and perfect education of youth; nor shall we suffer 
any other Catholic university distinct from the 
same to exist in that country with powers to grant 
academical degrees. 

"As to the Succursal University of Montreal, we 
will that it be preserved as the second seat of the 
Laval University, and that it shall be considered as 
the Laval University itself, fulfilling its teaching 
office in Montreal. The Pro -Rector of this 
Succursal shall be selected by the Bishops of the 
Montreal Province, and presented by them to the 
University Council, which cannot reject him except 

for reasons to be approved of by the said Bishops. 

; 'The Council of Laval University shall exercise 
its jurisdiction both in its House in Quebec and in 
that of Montreal, in accordance with the powers 
granted to the Council by the royal charter. But, the 
better to provide for peace and concord between 
the Council and those who administer the Montreal 
Succursal, we decree the following dispositions, 
which we are quite sure that the -Council will 
faithfully observe in a spirit of devotion to the 
Holy See: 

"In the Montreal Succursal the Professors and 
Deans of Faculties shall be elected in accordance 
with the manner proceeding at present in use in 
each of the Faculties, and shall be accepted by the 
aforesaid Council, unless the Archbishop of 
Montreal should object to their being so accepted. 
But when they have been accepted, they can be 
removed by the Council, provided, however, that 
the said Archbishop shall approve the reasons for 
their removal. 

"In the Faculty of Arts, embracing Letters, the 
Natural Sciences, and the branches applied to 
instruction in the various industrial pursuits, let 
there be right and power to elect Professors either 
from the members of the clergy, regular and 
secular, or from among the laity, in conformity with 
existing usage or necessity. 

"In preparing the lists of matters called 
Programmes, laying down the subject matters and 
proceedings in the examinations held 


for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, we deem it best 
to keep the present method and custom, namely: 
that these Programmes should be used in Montreal, 
with the consent of the directors of the affiliated 
colleges. It is in conformity to this custom that 
these Programmes shall not be altered save with 

the consent of the representatives of these same 
colleges, or of those who are delegated by them. 
The preparation of the other Programmes, or 
Examination Papers, is left to the authority and 
care of the Doctors in each Faculty at Quebec and 
in Montreal respectively, in conformity with the 
rules laid down in the statutes, and these 
Programmes in like manner shall not be altered 
without the consent of the Doctors in the respective 
Faculties, or of those authorized to represent them. 

"Inasmuch, however, as there exists in Montreal 
the College of St. Mary's, directed by the members 
of the Society of Jesus, and which is distinguished 
by its careful teaching and the number of its pupils, 
we kindly grant, in order not to derogate entirely 
from the ancient privileges bestowed on the 
Society by the Apostolic See, that the Jesuits 
themselves do examine their own pupils, and 
bestow on such as they deem worthy of it a written 
certificate attesting the bearers to be deserving of 
the same honorific degrees conferred on young men 
of the same acquirements by Faval University in 

the affiliated colleges. The University Council, on 
the presentation of such certificates, shall deliver 
diplomas like those granted to its own graduates. 

"The Bishops of both the Quebec and the Montreal 
Province shall meet once a year to inform 
themselves of the teaching and discipline in the 
University; and they also shall decree by common 
accord whatever regulations the necessity of the 
times demands regarding all these matters. 

"Indeed, we trust to their prudence to pluck up at 
once by the roots all the germs of discord which 
may henceforth show them- selves, and that the 
University may ever win greater and greater fame. 


"Again, as from its very beginning this institution 
has been supported by the powerful authority and 

protection of the Queen of England, so in the future 
we hope that this support shall not fail it. We trust 
in like manner that it shall ever possess the favor 
and friendship of the illustrious men who govern 
the Canadian Federation, as well as the Province 
of Quebec. 

"Above all, we persuade ourself that the Catholics 
of Canada, renouncing all causes of dissension, 
shall unite their efforts and labor to render this 
great University a monument to last forever, 
increasing daily in prosperity and well-being. 

"As the Apostolic See has bestowed at all times 
the utmost zeal and diligence in protecting the 
integrity of faith and a moral educa- tion, even so 
has it been most watchful in procuring institutions 
for Catholic youth, where they might be taught the 
arts and sciences, where both intellect and heart 
should be so formed as to promote the private and 
public welfare of the social body; nor has the Holy 
See failed, whenever occasion required, to employ 
both its authority and its pecuniary means to 

enhance the dignity of such institutions, and to 
promote their stability and prosperity. 

"For these reasons it gave us much pleasure to 
learn that, so far back as the year 1848, there 
existed in the famous city of Ottawa in Canada, a 
college for the education of Catholic youth, 
founded by the late illustrious Joseph Eugene 
Guigues, a Priest of the Congregation of Oblates of 
Mary Immaculate, and the first Bishop of Ottawa; 
that this college had made steady progress; the 
college buildings had been much enlarged; a 
library with a museum and abundant scientific 
apparatus had been added; and that the institution 
was frequented by a large concourse of students 
attracted from far and near by its high reputation; 
and, in fine, that this college was raised by a Bill 
of the Canadian Legislature, in 1866, to the rank of 
a State University, with all the due rights and 
privileges granted by the civil authority to like 
universities, v 


"Such was the prosperous and promising condition 
of the College of Ottawa, when the Holy See was 
petitioned by the Superior General of the Oblates 
of Mary Immaculate, by the Professors of the 
various college Faculties, and by the Archbishop 
of Ottawa, who prayed that the same College of 
Ottawa, so deserving of com- mendation for 
manifold reasons, should be promoted by the 
authority of the Holy See, and in conformity with 
its way of proceeding, to the rank and lawful rights 
of a Catholic University. 

"We deemed that such a petition should be 
willingly granted. We knew what advantages 
would accrue to a great school of higher studies in 
the far-famed city of Ottawa, enjoying metropolitan 
rank, being the seat of government, situated in a 
central position with regard to the other cities of 
Canada, easy of access to all travelers, and 
deriving such great luster from the presence of the 

distinguished men who compose the Legislature 
and Councils of the Confederacy, and administer 
its government. 

"We know also with what zeal our beloved sons, 
the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, have devoted 
themselves to the education of youth, bestowing 
gladly both their labors and their pecuniary 
resources on such a noble work; how ardently the 
Superiors of this Congregation have ever fostered 
among their men the sentiment of obedience to the 
Holy See and to their respective bishops; how they 
employed the very best scholars of the 
Congregation to teach in the College of Ottawa, 
several of which Professors obtained the degree of 
Doctor in this city, in our Gregorian University of 
the Society of Jesus. Nor did these Superiors omit 
to see to it that Philosophy and Theology should be 
taught in accordance with the principles and 
methods of St. Thomas Aquinas. Hence it 
happened, as we are well aware, that from among 
the pupils of these Professors of Ottawa College 
many illustrious men have gone forth who have 

won for their masters both renown and respect. 

"After duly considering all these facts, and 
yielding to the prayers 


of our Venerable Brother, Joseph Thomas 
Duhamel, Archbishop of Ottawa, to those of the 
Superior General and Members of the 
Congregation of Oblates of Mary Immaculate, and 
of other dis- tinguished citizens of Ottawa, by this 
Brief, to the greater glory of God, and for the 
increase of the Catholic religion, as well as for the 
glory and welfare of the Dominion of Canada — 
the College of Ottawa, founded for the education of 
Catholic youth by the Con- gregation of Oblates of 
Mary Immaculate, the teaching and govern- ment of 
which are carried on by the Priests of that 
Congregation, subject to the authority of this Holy 

See and to that of the Arch- bishop of Ottawa, is by 
canonical institution raised by us to the rank of a 
Catholic University; and to this same University 
we grant the power to confer the Degree of Doctor 
and such other academical degrees in every 
department of science as the usual statutes and 
laws of universities authorize. 

"Inasmuch, however, as it greatly concerns the 
welfare and reputation of the University to have a 
body of good and suitable laws framed in 
accordance with r prudence, and for its wise 
govern- ment, we will and decree that the statutes 
and by-laws of the said University shall be as 
speedily as possible sent to this Holy See, in order 
that after mature examination they may receive 
additional force from our sanction. 

"It is, moreover, our will that our Venerable 
Brother, the Arch- bishop of Ottawa, and his 
successors, shall fill the office of Chancellor in 
said University; and that the same Archbishop and 
his successors, together with the other Bishops of 

the Provinces of Ottawa and Toronto, who shall 
affiliate their seminaries, colleges, and other like 
establishments to the said University, shall have 
the charge of superintending the teaching of right 
and sound doctrine therein. 

"We furthermore bestow on this University the 
power, similar to that granted to the University of 
Quebec, to accept into the ranks of its alumni the 
students trained in the seminaries, colleges, and 


other schools of the ecclesiastical Provinces of 
Ottawa and Toronto exclusively, and to confer on 
such alumni the same favors as those granted to the 
pupils of the Ottawa High School of Studies." 

Leo XIII. had the consolation of seeing his labors 
in behalf of his Canadian subjects crowned with 

success. The advance of the Church in the newly 
opened up territory of British America was 

Catholic centers sprang into existence, colonies of 
Catholic immigrants were founded and immense 
tracts of lands were occupied by thousands of 
Catholic settlers. Alberta, Saskatchewan, 
Assiniboia, Algonia had large Catholic 
settlements, and the Catholic population of 
Winnipeg had made great increase. 


FTOR a man whose death was expected almost 
daily for several ** years, Pope Leo has displayed 
astonishing vitality. His quiet existence, the purity 
of his life, no less than the strength of his faith, 
have tended to lengthen his years. 

"Long life," he said, recently, "is a characteristic of 
the Pecci fam- ily; they live long, but death comes 
to them suddenly." 

jubilees • 

Should the Pope live to the end of the year 1903 he 
will celebrate his diamond jubilee as a Bishop, his 
golden jubilee as a Cardinal, and his silver jubilee 
as a Pope. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary of the coronation of 
Leo XIII. was celebrated with all the grandeur and 
impressiveness associated with the high 
ceremonies of the Catholic Church, and amid a 
display of enthusiasm and emotion on the part of 
the vast assemblage gathered within the walls of 
St. Peter's, such as vied with the greatest of pre- 
vious demonstrations of reverence and affection 
for the aged Pontiff. 

The Holy Father on Friday, February 27, received 
the diplomats who congratulated him upon his 

jubilee. His medical adviser was opposed to the 
Pope's participation in the ceremony, in view of 
the fatigue of his coronation on March 3. But all 
efforts to husband the Pontiff's strength were 
rendered difficult by his determination to do 
everything possible and to see every one. 

Senor D'Antas, the Portuguese ambassador, as 
doyen of the corps, 

read an address to his Holiness in French, in 
which, referring to 

the Pontiff as a "luminous beacon," he expressed in 
his own name 



and that of his colleagues the warmest felicitations 
and the most loyal greetings on the occasion of the 

present happy event. 

The Pope replied extemporaneously in the same 
language, saying he was touched by the 
manifestations he was receiving from the whole 

The ceremony in St. Peter's Cathedral lasted two 
hours and a quarter, and although the Pope's 
advanced age was noticeable, all were surprised 
to see how well he seemed. His voice was strong, 
his gestures vigorous, and the frantic cheering 
which greeted his arrival and departure gave him 
visible pleasure and brought a faint tinge of color 
to his face. 

From sunrise all Rome was on the alert and 
showing most unusual animation and interest in the 

The scene on the piazza of St. Peter's was 
magnificent. There were assembled many hundreds 
of Italian troops in various uniforms, making a 

striking contrast with the mediaeval costumes of 
the Swiss Papal Guard on duty at the bronze doors 
of the Church. 

When the doors of St. Peter's were opened the 
tribunes were soon crowded to overflowing and 
all the best standing places were taken. 

A period of comparative calm succeeded this great 
rush, and the attention of the people was attracted 
to the gilded throne near the high altar and to the 
immense pillars of the basilica, hung with red 
silken draperies. Some of the tribunes on each side 
of the altar were filled with groups of royal 
personages. Among them were the Crown Princess 
Victoria of Sweden and Norway, the Prince and 
Princess Minko of Montenegro, brother and sister- 
in-law of the Queen of Italy; the Countess Mattilda 
of Trani, the Grand Duchess of Saxe- Weimar, 

Duke Robert of Parma, the Grand Duchess of 
Mecklen- burg, the Prince of Liechtenstein and 
Prince Maximilian of Saxony. In a special tribune 
was the Pope's family, the Diplomatic Corps, and 

the members of the Order of Malta. 

At ii o'clock precisely the great bell of St. Peter's 
rang out a sig- 


nal, which was followed by the pealing of the bells 
of about five hun- dred churches in Rome as they 
sounded the announcement that the Pontiff was on 
his way to the basilica. The life of the ancient city 
seemed to pause for a moment, hats were raised 
and the sign of the cross was made. Shortly 
afterward, inside of St. Peter's, silver trum- pets 
blared out their message and the Pontiff appeared. 
The people held their breath for a moment, and 
then all the pent-up enthusiasm burst forth in a 
tremendous roar of welcome. From his elevation 
on the new sedia gestatoria, carried by twelve 
men, flanked by the fa- mous flabelli and 
surmounted by a white and gold canopy, the Pope 

appeared to be more than a human being. He 
seemed to be a white spirit, this impression being 
added to by the Pontiffs white robes and white 
miter, delicate features, and his thin hand moving 
slowly in benediction. It almost seemed as if all 
human attributes had been expelled from that 
slender, venerable form. 

As the well-trained voices of the Sistine choir sang 
"Tu es Petrus," thousands of voices shouted "Long 
live Pope Leo!" Hand- kerchiefs fluttered in the 
air, the banners of the various societies rep- 
resented were waved, and many of those present, 
overcome with emotion, sobbed loudly, while 
others fainted from excess of feeling. 

In the meanwhile the procession moved slowly on 
through the vast throng. When the Pope arrived at 
the throne the ceremony proceeded more rapidly. 
Leaving the sedia gestatoria, the Pontiff knelt and 
prayed, and then arose without assistance, and the 
celebra- tion of the Mass began. At the moment of 
the elevation of the Host a profound silence fell on 

the assemblage, the guards presented arms, the 
people knelt, where it was possible for them to do 
so, and from the cupola came the clear, thin sounds 
of silver trumpets, giving the idea of heavenly 

At the conclusion of the solemn pontifical Mass the 
Holy Father administered the papal benediction. 

He then resumed his place on the sedia gestatoria 
and was carried throughout the whole length of 


the basilica, rising erect many times to bestow 
blessings, while many princes, Cardinals, 
diplomats, and Bishops bowed low and the crowd 
saluted him frantically in many languages. 

When the Pope returned to his apartments he 
wished to discuss the ceremony and give his 
impressions of it, but his physician insisted on 

complete quiet, on which the Pontiff exclaimed: 

"The demonstration to-day has been so affecting. It 
surpassed all my expectations. I am completely 
satisfied. There was not a note of discord. You see 
that, after all your warnings, the ceremony did me 
good. What touching loyalty!" 

At night all the sacred edifices in Rome, 
monasteries, convents, seminaries and private 
houses were illuminated, the Trastevere quar- ter 
and the Leonine City especially presenting a blaze 
of light, while the general effect was heightened by 
the burning of Bengal fires throughout the city. The 
Pope, who supported admirably the fatigue and 
excitement of the day's ceremony, after having 
retired, rose again from his couch and, going to the 
window of his bedroom, gazed for a while upon 
this scene of illumination. The view from the 
Vatican, embracing a stretch of seven miles 
brilliant with light, was a marvelous one, and the 
Pontiff exclaimed as he withdrew from the 
window: "This will, indeed, be a pleasant thing to 

dream of. 

The Pope's physician made an effort to induce the 
Holy Father to renounce his reception of the 
Cardinals, set down for Sunday morning, March 
3d. He remonstrated with him, saying, "Your Holi- 
ness, my duty is to point out that your health would 
greatly benefit by your resting to-day." 

The Pope replied: "My dear doctor, before your 
valuable serv- ices comes my duty, which I shall 
perform until the end." 

The audience was held in the Pope's private 
library, and Leo XIII. spoke continuously for half 
an hour with forty-two Cardinals present. Prior to 
the reception of the Cardinals the Pontiff received 
the envoy of Count Caserta, who presented to him 
the celebrated 


Farnese clock, which was regarded as the most 
valuable heirloom of the Naples branch of the 
Bourbon family. 

The clock was made in 1728 at Plaisance by a 
noted Italian mathematician, Bernard Facini. It was 
first presented to Elizabeth Farnese on her 
marriage to King Philip of Spain. The octagonal 
case is of ebony and crystal, incrusted with 
precious stones, and the works are ornamented 
with magnificent sapphires. It bears a pom- pous 
Latin inscription to the glory of Elizabeth Farnese 
and the name of its maker. To make it an 
appropriate gift to the Pope it was surmounted by 
two silver angels supporting Leo XIII. 's coat -of- 
arms. It records the duration of daylight and 
darkness, according to the season, the position of 
the sun in relation to the constellations, and is 
wound only once in fourteen years. 

With the view to not fatiguing him the Cardinals 
did not deliver an address, Cardinal Oreglia di 
Santo Stefano, as dean of the col- lege, only spoke 

a few words of congratulation upon the jubilee. 

The Holy Father answered with his wonted 
cheerfulness, and in conclusion he said: 

"We are happy to see such a numerous gathering. 
From your number one might suppose that you had 
assembled for a conclave." 

Wednesday, April 29, 1903, Edward the Seventh 
of England paid a formal visit to Leo XIII. in the 
Vatican. Despite a vigorous pro- test on the part of 
the English Protestant Alliance, the British mon- 
arch went in state to the Vatican and remained 
closeted alone with the Holy leather for the space 
of nearly half an hour, but no formal statement with 
regard to the matter has been made by his Majesty 
or the Holy Father. 

The fact, however, that an English king visited a 
Pope in Rome is regarded as significant. It shows 
that many ancient hatreds are dying, so far as the 
former antagonists of the Church are concerned. It 
is an historical event that "an English King had the 

courage to re- main closeted alone with the Great 
White Shepherd of Christendom." 


When the royal party reached the grand staircase 
leading to th-. papal apartment, King Edward was 
greeted by the Marquis Sac- chetti, acting for 
Prince Ruspoli,' Mgr. Merry del Val and Prince 
Antici-Mattei. At the upper landing there was 
grouped in imposing array a number of 
ecclesiastics, who formed a characteristic and 
magnificent assembly. Among them were Mgr. de 
Azevedo, major domo; Mgr. Pifleri; Mgr. 
Constantini, great almoner; Mgr. Grabinski, 
secretary of the congregation of ceremonials; 
Prince Rospigliosi, commander of the noble 
guards; Count Gen. Pecci, nephew of the Pope, 
commander of the Palatine guards; Marquis 
Serlupi, master of the horse; and Maj . Tagliaferri, 
commandant of gendarmes. Behind this group, 

attired in brilliant uniforms, were the knights of the 
cape and chamberlains, giving a touch of brilliant 
color to the scene. 

King Edward addressed a few words of thanks in 
return for the hearty greetings offered him The 
royal party then proceeded between ranks of the 
Swiss guards. At the Clementine hall the party was 
met by the master of the chamber, Mgr. Bisleti, 
who was attended by personages of the 
antechamber. Upon arriving before the private 
apartment of the Pope, the noble guard rendered 
military honors to the British sovereign. 

At the conclusion of this ceremony the door of the 
Pope's apart- ment was immediately opened, and 
the aged Pontiff was revealed standing at the 
threshold. His hand was extended, awaiting his 
guest. Even King Edward paused a moment upon 
seeing the Pon- tiff, his face was beaming with 
pleasure. The Holy Father moved without aid, and 
from his entire person there seemed to emanate 
sentiments of benevolence and love. The king and 

the Pope clasped hands and exchanged a few 
words in French. King Edward passed within the 
papal apartment, the door was closed, Leo XIII. 
and his guest, the king of England, were alone. 

King Edward remained with the Pontiff for twenty 
minutes. A 

POPE LEO XIII. Giving private audience. 





a. h 


u, o 
s u« 




bell was then run and the king's suite was admitted 
and presented to the Pope. At its conclusion King 
Edward took his leave, the Pope crossing the room 
at his side and saying his last words at the door. 

From the Vatican King Edward passed through the 

piazza of St. Peter's, where he was warmly greeted 
in English by a number of Scotch pilgrims now in 
Rome, who shouted, "Hurrah for the king." Had 
King Edward looked up at that moment he would 
have seen a figure in a window of the Vatican. It 
was Pope Leo. Contrasted with the British 
sovereign, who stood below in the sunlight, and the 
center of the animation of the immense piazza, the 
solitary white figure in the palace window seemed 
to further the idea of the Pope as a prisoner. 

After King Edward's departure, some details of the 
interview were related. The Pope greeted the king, 
saying in French: "I am happy to see your 
Majesty." King Edward replied: "I am happy to be 
here and to add my congratulations to those of 
others upon your having outlived the days of St. 

The rest of the conversation was, on the part of the 
British sover- eign, concerning the attitude taken 
by the Pope on the principal social questions of the 
day, and, on the part of the Pope, about the 

situation of the Church in the British Empire. The 
Pontiff informed King Edward that, in view of the 
meeting, he had personally exam- ined into all 
questions regarding Catholic interests now pending 
in various parts of the British Empire and had 
prepared a memorandum to which he hoped the 
king would pay his benevolent attention. 

The Pope, speaking to his familiars, seemed to be 
greatly pleased at the visit of King Edward. 

At the reception at the British embassy King 
Edward expressed his great satisfaction at having 
met the Pope personally and with reference to the 
Pontiffs appearance said: "It is wonderful; he 
looks more to be seventy-three than ninety-three 
years old." 

One of the Pope's chaplains called at the embassy 
later in the day 


bringing a portrait of the Pontiff for the king, upon 
which was a dedication in the Pope's hand and his 

"Rome, May 7. — The Pope received at noon to- 
day a deputation of clergymen sent by Cardinal 
Gibbons. They were the bearers of a 
complimentary autograph letter from President 
Roosevelt, a copy of the speeches of the American 
president, and an address of devotion signed by 
25,000 American Roman Catholics. 

"The Pope in reply to the presentation, made a 
feeling address of thanks, in which he predicted 
prosperity for the powerful republic, which, he 
said, was the stronghold of true liberty. He said he 
would send President Roosevelt an autograph 

Leo XIII. has great faith in Prof. Mazzoni, who has 
in his house a portrait of the Pope, with this 

inscription: " " Preeclaro viro, Gceiano Mazzoni, 
Medico Chitnrgo, arte exirnia, manu strenua, 
pr&clare de Nobis merito Leo XIII." The 
professor, it will be remembered, declared not 
long ago that the Pope'would easily reach his one 
hun- dredthyear and more. 

The International Biblical Commission was 
created by his Holiness, Pope Leo XIII. The 
commission, which was first appointed August, 
1901, consisted originally of twelve members, one 
from each of the principal Catholic countries. It 
was subsequently discovered that the work was so 
extensive that the commission originally named 
would be inadequate to perform the task imposed. 
The commission was reorganized, and two 
Cardinals were added to the original three, while 
the number of consultors have been’ increased to 
forty mem- bers, comprising the most prominent 
biblical scholars in the Church. 

The work of the commission is being pushed 
forward vigorously. For the present it is being 

conducted principally by correspondence; but 
when the proper time arrives there will take place 
in Rome a general session of all the members of 
the body. An exclusively biblical library, 
consisting of the best works in recent times, 
whether written by Catholics or non-Catholics, is 
to be formed for the use of 


the commission, and a portion of the Vatican 
library has been set apart by Leo XIII. for this 
special library, as well as for the other purposes of 
the commission. 


This was originally the property of the Neapolitan 
Bourbons. On the occasion of the Pope's pontifical 
jubilee, 1903, a committee at Naples, presided 
over by Archbishop Giustino Adami, presented his 

Holiness with the largest topaz in the world. The 
gem has a curious history. It was found in the nines 
of Geraes, in Brazil, and was originally the 
property of the Neapolitan Bourbons. When they 
were driven out of Naples the stone passed into the 
hands of the Cariello family, one of whom, Prof. 
Andrea Cariello, undertook to engrave on it a 
cameo of "Christ Breaking the Eucharistic Bread." 

He offered the topaz to the Count of Caserta, the 
actual head of the Neapolitan Bourbons, but the 
prince refused to accept it, and asked that it be 
presented to the Pope at the jubilee. The topaz is 
one of the largest engraved gems in the world and 
ranks after the great French cameo and the 
Viennese cameos. 

Emperor William of Germany visited Pope Leo at 
the Vatican on May 3, and the event was one of the 
most notable witnessed in Rome for many years, 
eclipsing the visit of King Edward VII. in every 
detail. Probably 200,000 persons witnessed the 

Giant German cuirassiers, mounted on white 
horses, preceded the emperor. Fifteen state 
carriages conveyed his Majesty, his sons, and his 
suite; the horses richly caparisoned, with outriders 
and postil- ions in imperial livery. Carriages, 
horses, and servants were all brought from Berlin, 
the emperor being determined that his visit to the 
Sovereign Pontiff of the Catholic Church should be 
marked by especial features of significance. 

The emperor and his party drove to the Odescalchi 
palace, the official residence of the Prussian 
minister to the Holy See, where his 


Majesty took luncheon with Cardinals Rampolla, 
Gotti, and Agliardi. The trumpets of the cuirassiers 
announced the coming of his Majesty. His escort 
were mounted on white horses, and wore horsehair 
tassels in their helmets. 

The Cardinals wore their full Cardinal tobes of 
scarlet and red hats. Each was followed by his 
own suite. At the legation they were met by the 
staff attendants. 

Among the ecclesiastics present were Mgr. Delia 
Chiesa, Mgr. Cagliano de Azevedo, the Pope's 
major domo, and Mgr. Bisleti, mas- ter of the 

The emperor was most cordial, and he recalled his 
different visits to the Vatican and spoke of his 
pleasant recollections of Leo XIII. 

The sun was shining brightly when Emperor 
William left the legation to drive to the Vatican. 
When his Majesty left the legation, the balcony of 
the Doria palace, he was in full uniform and 
accom- panied by Prince Frederick William and 
Prince Eitel. The long cortege was preceded by the 
German cuirassiers on their white horses. 

The spectacular part of the visit began at the piazza 

of St. Peter, which was densely crowded. As his 
Majesty passed, the students of the German 
Ecclesiastical College, called "little cardinals" 
because of their red gloves, raised a formidable 
"Hoch! hoch!" On the far side of the piazza there 
were assembled one thousand pilgrims from 
Cologne, carrying flags and bouquets of flowers. 
They received the emperor with tremendous 
cheering, presented the flowers to him, and made 
impressive demonstrations of loyalty. 

Picked Swiss guards assumed the duty of guarding 
the imperial carriage at the entrance to the Vatican. 
Passing the Borgia tower, his Majesty and- his 
suite entered the court of San Damaso. Here the 
emperor and his sons were received with military 
honors by the Palatine guards and a platoon of 
gendarmes, while the papal colors, yellow and 
white, floated in the light breeze. 


Mgr. Cagliano de Azevedo, the major domo, 
helped the emperor to ascend. He presented the 
German papal chamberlains, Count Pecci, nephew 
of the Pope; Prince Rospigliosi, commandant of the 
noble guard; and other high dignitaries of the 
pontifical court. When asked if he desired to use 
the elevator, the emperor replied that he preferred 
to mount the stairs. 

At the first landing his Majesty was met by the 
servants of the antechamber, flanked by members 
of the Swiss guards. Upon arriv- ing at the Sala 
Clementina his Majesty received homage from a 
group of seven German Bishops who are now in 

When Pope Leo was advised of the arrival of his 
guests, the door was thrown open and the Pontiff 
appeared. The emperor advanced alone, making a 
profound bow. The Pontiff inquired in French as to 
the emperor's health. The emperor then presented 
his two sons. His Majesty and the Pontiff now 
retired to the latter's private study. The audience 

lasted forty minutes. Emperor William presented to 
the Holy Father a large photograph of the Metz 
Cathedral. The Pope expressed his thanks for this 
gift and remarked that the Metz Cathedral greatly 
resembled that at Reims, causing the emperor 

During the interview his Majesty brought up the 
subject of biblical studies and historical works. 
The Pope remarked that he had opened the Vatican 
library to German scholars, because, he said, 
"Science is what unites Rome and Germany in 
brotherly relation- ship." 

The conversation then turned to the work of 
German mission- aries, who number about 1,200, 
in addition to 300 nuns. Emperor William said 
these missionaries would always find the 
protection of their country wherever they might 
wander, and the Pontiff declared that the work of 
missionaries increased the influence and prestige 
of Germany. Pope Leo spoke highly of Emperor 
William, and sev- eral times said that his 

conversation with the German emperor was 


deeply interesting. At the end of this time the 
princes were sum- moned to the Pontiff. 

Upon his three previous visits to the Vatican 
Emperor William returned direct to the Ouirinal. 
This was not liked at the Vatican, where it was 
thought he should first return to neutral ground. It 
was appreciated, however, by the Quirinal, as to 
do so is considered somewhat of a slight upon the 
Pope. King Edward followed this course. The 
Emperor William returned from the Vatican to the 
Prussian legation accredited to the Holy See, 
where he changed car- riages, his cuirassiers 
remaining at the legation. This course is sup- 
posed to imply that his Majesty wished to pay 
particular deference to the feelings of the Vatican. 

There was another new departure during this visit 
of the empe- ror. Previously Cardinal Rampolla 
had returned the imperial visit to the Vatican at the 
Prussian legation and had found only the Prus- sian 
minister. This time, however, the emperor waited 
at the lega- tion, received the Cardinal most 
cordially, and had a long conference with him 


THE zeal of our Holy Father Leo XIII. for the 
return of the Eastern Churches to unity is well- 
known, but few Catholics are aware of what lively 
interest he takes even with the minutest details of 
those missions. That of Armenia especially he has 
very much at heart, and he calls it his mission. The 
Jesuit Fathers being driven out of France, Leo XIII. 
detached some of them to Turkish Armenia, and 
called Fr. Monnot to the Vatican to put him in 
charge of the work. As the humble religious 
dreaded the burthen, the Pope srnil- ingly said, 

"Never mind, you are my soldiers; I can, therefore, 
do with you what I please." "But, Holy Father, 
where shall we find resources, now that we are 
robbed of everything?" "How much do you want?" 
said the Pontiff "Why," was the reply, "100,000 
francs at least would be necessary to make a good 
beginning." "Very well," said Leo XIII., "I shall 
write to the Propaganda to allow you 50,000, and 
the other half I’ll give you myself, out of my own 
purse." And he sent him with his blessing, and with 
express recommendation of letting him know 
everything about his mission in letters addressed to 
himself. A short time afterwards, Father Normand, 
Superior of the missions of Syria, went to Rome 
and the Pope kept him a full hour asking him 
everything about them — how many boys at 
school, how many orphans to feed and clothe, were 
there nuns for the little girls, what were their 
pressing wants, and so on. Then, reverting to the 
subject uppermost in his thoughts: "And my 
mission," he said, "does Father Monnot take care 
of it? Does he get good 



workmen for it? Is it well supported? I wish to 
know it all, for this is my mission." Would to God 
the wishes of our Holy Father may be realized, and 
Armenia, so long separated from us, may recover 
her former life and splendor by the vivifying 
warmth of Catholic unity. 

•7T 7T w 7T w 

The Pope had the body of his childhood nurse, 
Anna Morini, who was burned to death in her ioist 
year, buried with great sol- emnity, at his expense 
in the ancestral vault of his mother's family at Cori. 

The aged woman, still hale and hearty, was dozing 
before a large fire at her home, Jan. 27, 1902, 
when her clothing became ignited and she was so 
severely burned that she died soon afterward in 

great agony. When the Pope heard of it he wept. 

The Pontiff was very fond of his childhood nurse, 
and delighted to hear her talk about old times. At 
least once every year she would journey to Rome 
from her home in the mountain village of Cori, 
where the family of the Pope's mother came from, 
to visit him at the Vatican. The last of these visits 
took place in October, and was more than usually 
cordial, the old nurse throwing her arms around the 
Pope and embracing him, 

Leo XIII. took a pride in the centenarian, and was 
wont to say that every time he saw her and chatted 
about his distant childhood and youth he felt at 
least a r; ::.r"ar of a century younger. 

* * * j'Q 

In a gathering of leadir. citizens, December 16, 
1902, who had known the Pope, the young >t, who 
was over 70, told a story that his mother had told 

"My family used to be tenants of the Peccis," he 
said, "and one day my mother brought the tax, 
insisting of cream and cheese. Nino, as the Holy 
Father was ah 3 called when a child, was so 
anxious to have a taste of the cream that he fell in 
his mad haste. When my 


mother picked him up she addressed him with a 
phrase much heard 

in Carpineto: 

" ’Anything else wanted, brother?' 

" 'A mere brother in my own cloister!' cried Nino. 

" 'Cardinal,' said my mother, ironically. 

" 'I want to be Pope/ cried Nino, stamping his 

Only once was the Holy Father ever beaten. That 
was when he 

was 12 years old. He and his brother, who was a 
year older, were so 

much excited when their mother, the Countess 
Anna, was pursued to 

her very door by brigands, that they went forth to 
have a good view 

of the robbers. In those days the banditti were 

creatures, wearing velvet coats and trousers, with 
silver buttons, red 

shirts, and head handkerchiefs, and carrying many 
knives and pistols. 

Their father rescued the youngsters just in time, 

and then he 

thrashed them with much vigor. 

To this day there is nothing the Holy Father loves 
better than to recall his youth in Carpineto. 
Notwithstanding the years that have passed since 
he was in his native village, he keeps close track 
of everything that goes on there. Not long since the 
rector of St. John's church, in Carpineto, took to 
Rome members of eight or nine families, that the 
Holy Father might bless them in passing. They 
were boys and girls just confirmed. Leo stood still 
before the group, and calling up one after another, 
he said: "Are you not old Peppo's son or grandson? 
And you, are you not Sabina's daughter? And you 
must belong to the Nagnis." He went on, naming the 
family of each, recognizing the traits and 
characteristics, and he did not make 

a single mistake. 

When promulgating the decree as to the authenticity 
of the mira- cles wrought through the intercession 
of the Venerable F. Baldinucci, 


S.J., on the 25th of March, 1902, the Holy Father 
alluded to the "Cava tradizione domesticd’ 1 which 
bound him in a special manner to this great servant 
of God. The Reverend Anthony Baldinucci was 
born in Florence in 1665, and having entered the 
Society of Jesus, became a most zealous and 
saintly missionary. Whilst preaching a retreat in 
Carpineto, the birthplace of his Holiness, the 
Venerable P. Baldi- nucci received hospitality 
from the noble Pecci family, ancestors of Leo XI II. 
This was the incident to which the Pope referred in 
his address at a special audience of the Cardinals. 

Father Baldinucci died in 1717, and owing to his 
reputation of sanctity and the numerous miracles 
attributed to his intercession, the cause of his 
beatification was introduced during the reign of 

Pius IX. 

W. Bourke Cockran, who was granted an audience 
with the Pope during his recent visit to Rome, in 
describing the interview, says: "It was five years 
since I had seen his Holiness, and I rather dreaded 
this visit lest I might see some of the cruel inroads 
of age. To my astonishment 1 found the Pope to be 
stronger, mentally and physically, than when I first 
saw him. The accuracy of his memory, the sweet- 
ness of his voice, and the brightness of those 
wonderful eyes seem to have been accentuated 
rather than diminished by the intervening 

five years. 

The offering of the Ancient Order of Hibernians to 
Pope Leo XIII. for his Golden Jubilee consisted of 
a large framed silver placque with an etched 
inscription and symbols of ancient Irish history. 
Fol- lowing is the inscription beneath the papal 
cross and crown: 

"Our Holy Father, Pope Leo XIII., 1837-1887, fifty 
years a priest. Golden Jubilee Love Offering of 
your devoted children of the Ancient Order of 
Hibernians of America. The children of St. Patrick 
will always be found loyal and devoted to the See 
of Peter. This offer- 


ing but feebly expresses the love and veneration of 
the A.O.U.H., organized under the patronage of St. 
Patrick, for the present vener- able occupant of that 

illustrious Chair. May God prolong your days. 

"M. F. Whilhere, National Delegate; F. H. 

McNeils, National Secretary; Patrick R. Hynes, 
National Treasurer." 

Around the inscription and symbols are wreaths of 
shamrocks. At the top are the American flag with 
the legend "E Phiribus Unum" and the Irish flag 
with "Erin Go Braghy The placque is fringed with 
green plush, and is in an elaborately carved 
wooden frame about two and a half feet square. 
The carving on the top includes representations of 
a harp and ancient Irish weapons, and on the 
bottom figures of two wolfhounds. On one side of 
the frame are figures including the papal tiara, the 
keys of St. Peter and the other ecclesiastical 
emblems, and on the other side representations 
sug- gestive of Irish antiquity. 

At a meeting of the Pope with the Cardinals there 

was some talk about the ceremony which takes 
place at the Pope’s death. If the Cardinal 
Camerlengo cannot be present a Cardinal is 
appointed to knock with a hammer three times on 
the dead Pope's coffin and to utter the words, 
"Holy Father, art thou really dead?" It was sug- 
gested by a Cardinal present that this duty should 
be confided to Cardinal Oreglia. 

"No, no," said the Pope, laughing, "I fear Oreglia 
would knock too gently, fearing that if he knocked 
hard I would waken from the dead." 

Oreglia joined in the laugh that followed. Dec, 
1902 . 

In connection with the general rejoicings of the 
Christian world that Leo XIII. has entered the 
twenty-fifth year of his wonderful reign, 
paragraphs have been going the round of the press, 


expressly, and some by implication or assumption, 
circulating an 

historical error. It is asserted, or assumed, that the 
fact of Pius IX. 

having reigned more than twenty-five, in fact 
nearly thirty-two years, 

broke the traditional saying, supposed to be 
addressed to every Pope 

on his election: "TVbn videbis annos Petri' ("Thou 
shalt not see the 

years of Peter"). 

St. Peter was Head of the Church for thirty-seven 
years and two 

months and some days. True, his time in Rome was 
but twenty-five 

years. But his Chair had been seven years at 
Antioch, and it was 

five years after the death of Our Lord when St. 
Peter temporarily 

made Rome his See. St. Peter was crucified on 
June 29, in the year 

A.D. 66 of our chronology. But this chronology is 
wrong by four 

years. It should read 70, as can be easily shown if 
anyone question 

the statement. As Our Lord was thirty-three years 
and three or four 

months old when He died, a simple sum in 
subtraction will give St. 

Peter's reign as thirty-seven years. 

Archbishop Ireland received the following 
autographic com- munication from Pope Leo XIII., 
referring to the recent celebration of the fiftieth 
anniversary of the establishment of the diocese of 
St. Paul: 

"To Our Venerable Brother John, Archbishop of St. 
Paul: Ven- erable brother, health and the apostolic 
blessing. Fifty years having happily passed since 
to the city of St. Paul was given the honor of being 
made the See of a Bishop, it is but right that its 
Catholic people should rejoice and prepare to give 
thanks to God with the greatest possible solemnity. 
As memory goes back over those past fifty years, 
there arise before us the pioneer days of that 
nascent church, small and humble indeed, for the 
faithful men numbered but a few hundred, and to 
minister to them, there were but three priests. But 
now the See of St. Paul, raised to metropolitan 

honors, lias five suffragan dioceses, and all of 
them singularly flourishing, not 


only in numbers of clergy and faithful, but also in 
religious spirit and Catholic institutions. 

"With great pleasure, therefore, venerable brother, 
do we share in your joy and with you give thanks 
to God, beseeching Him who gave such abundant 
and happy growth to your beginnings to grant you 
greater and more joyful increase in the future. 
Moreover, being well aware that the present 
condition of your province, so full of consolation, 
is due in very great part to yourself and your 
service of thirty-nine years in the Church of St. 
Paul, we give special credit to your energy and 
what great things it shall accomplish in the future 
we confidently infer from the results of the past. 
Mean- while, as an earnest of our affection and as 

an augury of divine favors we impart most lovingly 
to yourself, the suffragans, the clergy, the faithful of 
the province of St. Paul, the apostolic blessing. 

"Given at Rome, at St. Peter, this 1 8th day of June, 
in the year of our Lord 1901, in the twenty- fourth 
year of our Pontificate. 



Mine eye prophetic scans the darkling Heaven 
With dawn's bright arrows riven: 

Forthwith the horrid crew of hellish error Flies to 
the Stygian pool in terror! 

God's enemies, compelled to view the vision. 
Confess with tears their long misprision. 

The centuried hates, the olden strifes are ended: 
Victorious Love hath all amended! 

Now exiled Virtue seeks again her dwelling, Of 
stainless faith and candor telling; 

Peace, olive- wreathed, bids art and science 
flourish. And Plenty's horn is here to nourish. 


In vain shall Hell its myriad errors muster- Here 
Wisdom shines with olden luster. 

O blessed Italy! O wondrous glory! O Faith 
enshrined in art and story! 


Forth from the hilly Galilean land, Unto the 
Jordan’s mystic strand, 

The Baptist came, led by the hand of God, To wash 
the nations in its flood. 

Hither the pressing multitudes have hied To be 
baptized and sanctified. 

And here they see Him press the sacred sod — 
Jesus, the mighty Son of God. 

Hiding, with downcast eye and modest grace, The 
lightning splendors of His face, 

The lustral Sign for guilty sinners meant, He 
humbly craves — the Innocent. 

But John perceives the Godhead: I should be 
Baptized by Thee, not Thou by me! 

Yet he obeys, yielding to God’s design. And bathes 
the awful brow divine. 

And lo! the Heavens are rent, and glory bright 
Floods the baptismal sward with light; 

And from the shining vault descends a Dove, And 
rests the sacred head above. 


’Twas God, ’twas very God descended then, Dove- 
like unto the eyes of men: 

And as It softly rested on His head, Came from the 
sky a voice that said: 

I am well pleased with My beloved Son: Him shall 
ye hear! — O Holy One, 

Jesus, Thou Son of God, the world hath heard And 
bowed submission to that Word; 

And to Thy name doth holiest homage pay, Who art 
the Truth, the Life, the Way. 


O House of Nazareth the blest, 

Fair hostess of the Lord, The Church was nurtured 
at thy breast 

And shared thy scanty hoard. 

In all the spreading lands of earth. The wandering 
sun may see 

No dearer spot, no ampler worth Than erst was 
found in thee! 

We know thy humble tenement 

Was Heaven's hermitage: Celestial heralds came 
and went 

In endless embassage. 

There, whatsoever Joseph asks, 

Christ hastens to fulfill; While Mary loves the 
household tasks 

That wait her joyous will. 


There, Joseph toileth at her side Her joys and 
griefs to share, 

With thousand ties knit to his bride, Of love and 
work and prayer. 

Yet how their bosoms constant burn, 

And deeper ardor prove In love of Christ, whose 
eyes return 

Tokens of mutual love ! 

Oh then, in all the homes of earth. 

Be Love the bond of life: May it enthrone at every 

The peace that husheth strife. 


(1867) Sun- wrought with magic of the skies, The 
image fair before me lies; ' And deep-vaulted brain 
and sparkling eyes And lip’s fine chiseling. O 
miracle of human thought, O art with newest 
marvels fraught- Apelles, Nature's rival, wrought 
No fairer imaging! 


(in temptation) 


When with the purpose foul, 

The malignant Devil Breathes upon thy soul 

Pestilential evil, 

Copyright, lyoj, tiy Harper & Bros. Reproduced by 

S3 3 

And thy spirit fair 

Clouds of horror darken, To thy tenderest prayer 
Bid the Virgin hearken. 

On thy blushing cheek 

Let the tear-drop glisten; Say, "O Mother meek, 

To thy client listen!" 

Let the suppliant sigh 

Swell to deeper wailing: "Mother sweet, I fly 
To thy love unfailing. 

"Heir ami of bliss 

And of glory deathless; Oh, remembering this, 
Let me not prove faithless. 

"Let me never yield 

To the shameless Devil; Mary, be my shield 
’Gainst the darts of evil!" 



A child — what happiness thy bosom fills Beneath 
thy father's roof, 'mid Lepine Hills! 

A boy — in Vetulonia next, the art Loyola left, 
instructs thy mind and heart. 

A youth — the Roman college bids thee come. And 
Muti's palace offers thee a home. 


Manera — he of wondrous gifts — and all The 
Fathers there ('tis pleasant to recall) 

Unlocked the fountains hidden in the sod And 
taught the paths to Wisdom and to God. 

A priest — the Holy Victim ofiferest thou; Then 
jurist laurels crown thy studious brow. 

Great Sala, though in Roman purple clad, For thee 
how many a kindly feeling had! 

Auspicious was his care; his counsel, wise; His 
prudent zeal, a lesson for thine eyes. 

Naples receives thee; Benevento sees Thy Hirpine 
rule observe all equities. 

Perugia next received thy gentle care, And 
welcomed thee to rule a region fair. 

But, greater gift, the Christ anoints thy head; To 
Belgium next the papal mandate led. 

There must thou all the rights of Peter plead, And 
guard the treasure of the Roman creed. 

Anon, from that drear clime a sweet command 
Bade thee return to dear Italia's land. 

Perugia, new-espoused to thee of God, Thou seest 
again, and Umbria's grateful sod. 

By sacred right, full thirty years and more The 
shepherd feeds his flock from ample store. 

Then Rome as Cardinal saluteth thee, 

And Belgic knighthood crowns thy ministry. 

Ah me! so loyal is thy people's love, 

Thou scarce canst hope a guerdon from above! 


But why recall the fleeting shows of earth? One, 
only wisdom, hath perennial worth: 

"Passeth the figure of this world away" — Follow 
the path that leads to endless day, 

Until eternal peace be thy reward 

Safe in the starlit mansions of the Lord! 

Oh may that pitying Lord the crown prepare, And 
the sweet Virgin list thy lowly prayer! 



Jesus, the Light of realms above, 

Sole Hope to mortals given, Whose childhood 
crowned domestic love 

With glories caught from Heaven. 

Ave Maria, full of grace, 

Above archangels blest To hold thy Son in sweet 

And feed Him from thy breast. 

Joseph, of patriarchs alone, 

The Virgin’s chosen guide. Whose heart the joy 
supreme hath known 

When Jesus "Father" cried. 

Springing from Jesse's noble root 

To share a work divine, Prosper your client's 
lowly suit 

Uttered before your shrine. 



Now seeks the sun his western bed, And fades the 
splendorous day. 

Behold, we bow a reverent head And heartfelt 

homage pay. 

What grace and power of love made sweet 

The House of Nazareth! Such may our hearts and 
homes repeat 

In birth, and life, and death! 

(1895) I. 

With one accord, O Mother fair, Thy children offer 
as a prayer The scented bloom of roses rare. 

The prayer is heard and answered; we Receive 
from thy dear hand the free Mercies thy Lord 
commits to thee! 


We kneel before thy shrines to prove A Mother's 
care; from heaven above Accept the pledges of our 

No gems we bring to thee, nor gold; 

Our little baskets only hold 

The wreathed flowers of field and wold: 

The lowly violet's penury. The snowy lily's 
chastity, The purple rose's agony! 



And while our loving hands would frame A worthy 
chaplet, we proclaim Again and yet again thy 

Be thou our favoring Patron here; Be thou our 
Guide in deserts drear; Be thou our Help when 
death is near! 


How well thy client Gusman wrought Thy will in 
every deed and thought — The weaving of thy 
Rosary taught! 

On earth a grateful task and sweet! But oh, more 
grateful, should our feet But gain at last the 
Heavenly seat! 

Then sweeter far 'twill be to raise To thee a 
wreathed song of praise, O Virgin blest, through 
endless days. 


Take to your hearts the roses rare Your Mother 
givethto your care, And joyous weave the chaplet 

Lo! we obey the high command; What then shall be 
the guerdon grand? Oh, trust the issue to her hand! 

Yes, trust in her who shall unfold 

In Heaven her great reward, — behold, 

For wreathing roses, crowns of gold! 


(i897) The westering sun draws near his cloudy 
bed, Leo, and gradual darkness veils thy head. 

The sluggish life-blood in thy withered veins More 
slowly runs its course — what then remains? 

Lo! Death is brandishing his fatal dart, 

And the grave yearns to shroud thy mortal part: 

But from its prison freed, the soul expands Exulting 
pinions to the enfranchised lands. 

My weary race is run — I touch the goal; Hear, 
Lord, the feeble pantings of my soul; 

If it be worthy, Lord, Thy pitying breast, Welcome 
it unto everlasting rest! 

May I behold thee, Queen of earth and sky, Whose 
love enchained the demon lurking nigh 

The path to Heaven; and freely shall I own ’Twas 
thy sweet care that gained my blissful crown! 



That meat and drink might health and strength 

And happy life, Ofellus, follower 

And careful student of Hippocrates, 

Was wont to frame such thoughtful rules as these 

(Pointing the moral with men’s gluttonies): 

Seek neatness first, although thy hoard be spare, .. 
Be every dish and napkin bright and fair; 


And be thy vintage purest of the pure, 

To warm the heartland prove a pleasant lure 

That shall both friends and wholesome mirth 

Be frugal here, however; nor decline 

To put a frequent water to your wine; 

O crystal drops that Heaven from ocean lifts 

To shower on earth, the best of Nature's gifts! 

Select for home-made bread the choicest wheat, 

And have in plenty all the goodly meat 

Of fowl, and lamb, and ox (but first be sure 

They're tender!) nor with plenteous garniture 

Of spice and pickle play the epicure! 

Next, have the beakers foaming to the brim 

With milk no thrifty maid hath dared to skim: 

No draught than this more wholesome shall 

The thirst of childhood or declining age. 

Let golden honey be thy daintier fare; 

Of Hybla's nectar take a scantier share. 

Be thy fresh eggs the talk of all the town — 

Hard-boiled or soft, or fried to savory brown. 

Or poached, or dropped, or sipped raw from the 

Or done in ways too numerous to tell. 

And herbs and salads to the feast — whatso 

May in suburban gardens freely grow; 

Bring forth the clustered fruitage of the vine, 

Plucked where the clambering tendrils intertwine. 

Have plums and pears — the bursting panniers 

With red-cheeked apples laughing gaily down. 
And, last, delicious fragrance of the East! 

With cups of steaming Mocha close the feast; 
But taste the amber with a lingering lip — 

No hasty draught! — 'twas made for gods to sip 

Now, if you diet thus, why, I’ll engage 
You've found the secret of a green old age. 

But Gluttony, Ofellus argues well, 

Can quickly lay her snare and cast her spell, 
And lead to shipwreck like the siren shell. 

This only is her dream: The festive board 
Must groan with all that wealth and art afford. 
She spreads her costly napkins, meant for show, 
’Twixt plates and glasses in a gleaming row. 
Silver and gold the hooded lights illume, 

While the air reeks with Araby's perfume. 

Her table set, with hospitable air 

She draws the thoughtless to her hidden snare; 

On ivory couches bids their limbs recline, 

And taps forthwith her cask of choicest wine 
Sleeping old summers in the Falernian vine; 
Cordials she offers next, and fine liquors 

By patent arts distilled (for all are hers). 

The guests drink eagerly with envious haste, 

And gorge themselves with cake and juicy paste. 

Then grosser dishes, a Lucanian boar 

With oil, and spice and pepper covered o'er; 

Liver of duck, and leg of fading hare, 

Plover and squab, and all such gourmet- fare. 

And what's not flesh is fish: turbots and clams, 
Oysters, and what-not, caught in streams and dams. 
A huge murena fills the shining dish, 

And swims amidst a shoal of smaller fish. 

The guests look on with hungry eyes; in fine, 

With stomachs gorged, and veins afire with wine. 
They rise to dance, where they have come to dine: 
They rise to dance — each crazy bacchanal, 

Bandying threats and blows, around the hall 
Stumbles, till drunken stupors silence all. 

But Gluttony looks on the rout, and smiles 
To see the outcome of her patient wiles; 

How Circe's guests have sunk to shameful sleep, 
As sailors perish in the yawning deep; 

And how anon the tortured liver wakes 

To sudden protest; how the stomach aches, 

While steaming sweat bedews the trembling limbs, 
And a thick mist the bloodshot vision dims. 

With the wrecked body brought to such a pass, 
Shall Gluttony essay beyond? Alas! 

Her arts would seek to bury in the sod 
Even the soul — spark of the breath of God! 



A noble nurse of all the arts, 

The Age departs: 

Let who will sing the truths it taught, 

The marvels wrought. 

Me rather shall its sinful years But move to tears, 
As in a backward glance I see Its infamy. 

Shall blood of men be my lament, Or scepters rent, 
Or Vatican’s dear citadel Besieged of hell? 

The glory, Rome, that crowned thy brow, 

Where is it now? 

Of old, all nations loved in thee 
Thy Pontiffs See. 

O godless laws, count up your gains: What truth 
remains? A shrineless Justice, lo! it stands On 

shifting sands. 

Hark ye the new hierophant Of Science, chant His 
song to Nature's soulless clod As to a god! 

And yet man's birthright from on high He will deny, 

And search to find a single root For man and brute. 

O to what hideous depths is hurled The proud, 
proud world! Kneel, then, O mortal man, to God, 
And kiss His rod. 

Him only, Truth, and Life, and Way, Learn to obey, 

W r ho only, through the fleeting years, Can dry thy 

The pilgrim hosts to Peter's shrine His Hand divine 

But now hath led — a portent viewed Of Faith 

Jesus, who on Thy throne sublime, Shalt judge all 



Make the rebellious will obey Thy sovereign 

Scatter the seeds of gentle peace Till war shall 
cease; And to their native hell exile Tumult and 

One dream let hearts of kings pursue — Thy Will 
to do; 

One Shepherd let the earth behold. One Faith, one 

Long ninety years my course is run — Thy Will be 

My prayers the crowning grace to gain. Be not in 


With solemn rite and sacred mirth Greet ye the 
ever-blessed morn. 

When to the long-expectant earth A Child was 

But ah! not now, with splendor swift, The darkling 
heaven shall glow again; 

Nor Angel-heralds bring the gift Of peace to men! 
Alone the hosts of hellish wrath 
Reaping its children, earth may hear; 

Alone the garnered aftermath Of groan and tear. 


God’s law the growing age hath broke, On parents’ 
tender love hath trod; 

The world can bear no more the yoke Of man or 

Foul Discord rends the State in twain; 

Old Friendship scowls in hostile bands; Red 
Slaughter wields her sword amain 

With dripping hands. 

Rights venerable from of old 

Dragged in the dust; Truth overthrown; 

Honor forgot — blind lust of gold Reigneth alone. 

Come, come. Thou heaven-descended Child! 

Old earth is hastening to its fall; Save it, and still 
the tumult wild, 

Saviour of all! 

Listen auspicious to my prayer, Scatter the air 
wastes with dew, 

Until they bloom with fruitage fair And harvests 

Through Thee may olden godliness Brightly illume 
the darkened mind, 

And tongues instruct to curse, but bless The Truth 

Through Thee may Faith new laurels win. New 
battles wage, new victory speak; 

Through Thee, the scattered hosts of sin, Hell- 
covert seek! 

Dissolved be Error's misty dream. And ancient 
hatreds melt in mirth, 


And friendly quiet reign supreme Through all the 

O long-desired of every land. 

Come, Peace, and nevermore depart; Come, Love, 
and join us hand to hand, 

And heart to heart! 



God bids us love His ever-loving Son, 

Hasten, O children, to the Saviour's side; 

There only may your hearts and minds abide. 
Through all the years to come, be this your one 
Perpetual work, in tenderest youth begun — 

To nourish love for Jesus Crucified! 

Father and mother shall your footsteps guide, And 
teach how sweetly God's sweet will is done. Ah, 
what more blessed refuge in the strife 

May wearied spirits find, than Jesus' Heart? That 
Fountain springing up to endless Life, 

And scattering dewy balsam on each smart; That 
pledge of peace, where stormy war is rife, 

Making the very earth Heaven's counterpart! 


Words or Praise from Rulers of Nations, from 
Cardinals, Archbishops, Clergymen of Many 
Creeds, and Expressions of Good Will from All 
Parts of the World. 

king edward’s tribute 

TV" ING EDWARD was among the first to express 
his sorrow at *• the death of Pope Leo. In a 

telegram to Cardinal Oreglia, he said: "I received 
the news of the death of the Pope with profound 
grief and transmit to your Eminence assurances of 
my sincere sym- pathy. I will always preserve a 
grateful recollection of my recent visit to his 


"Molde, Norway, July 20, 1903. — I am painfully 
affected by the sad news I have just received. 1 
send to the illustrious College of Cardinals the 
expression of my sincere sympathy at the grievous 
loss the Roman Catholic Church has sustained 
through the demise of the Pope. I shall always 
retain a faithful memory of the exalted and 
venerable man, who was a personal friend of mine, 
and whose extraordinary gifts of heart and mind 
compelled my admiration anew only a few weeks 

ago on the occasion of my last visit to Rome. 


President Roosevelt was deeply touched by the 
death of Pope Leo. At his home on Sagamore hill, 
on being informed of the demise of the venerable 
head of the Catholic Church, he expressed 

his profound regret at the death of the venerable 
Pontiff, whose long 



career no less than his exalted character 
commanded the respect of all Christendom. The 
president said that in uttering these senti- ments he 

was giving expression to the feeling of all the 
people of the United States wholly without regard 
to their religious faiths. 


Cardinal Gibbons, in talking with an interviewer 
regarding the life of Leo XIII., said: 

"The policy laid down by Leo XIII. regarding 
labor and democ- racy will and must continue. 
Whatever change may occur will be in the line of 
developing these principles so clearly put before 
the world by Leo XIII. 

"Leo once and forever committed the Church to the 
support of social democracy in the Christian sense. 
The Church never goes back. No matter who ma)' 
be the next Pope, no matter what change may be 
introduced in minor points of policy, Christian 
democracy is perfectly safe. 

You cannot put back the hands of the clock. The 

great point for the Church will be to Christianize 
the movements of democracy. America may justly 
claim a large part of the credit for the inaugura- 
tion of the principles embodied in Leo's great 
Encyclical on the con- dition of the toilers. 


In a Pastoral letter on the death of Pope Leo, 
Archbishop Bruchesi said of the persecutors of the 

"They belonged to France, the nation which of all 
others had been the constant object of the Pope's 
solicitude and tenderness. He condemned and 
deplored their nefarious deeds, but he ever loved 
the nation itself. He preferred to drink the bitter 
chalice than do anything that would lead to a 
deplorable rupture between the Church and her 
eldest daughter. 


His Grace further said: "that the Pope loved 
knowledge, but he loved piety more, and he died 
as a true priest should do." 


The following resolution was passed by the 
Chicago city council. In brief it said: "We desire to 
express our respect for his great learning, high 
character, deep piety, and broad love for humanity. 
We rejoice that during his long and useful life his 
influence was exerted in behalf of the world's 
peace, the stability of society, and the welfare of 
the nations. We direct that a copy of the memorial 
be sent to the Catholic Archbishop of Chicago." 


"House of Commons, Westminster, July 21. — At 
to-day's meeting of the Irish parliamentary party, 
on the motion of John Redmond, president, 

supported by John Dillon, as representatives of a 
people who by so many centuries of suffering has 
attested its fidelity to the Holy See, we hasten to 
associate ourselves with the people of Ireland in 
their sorrow for the event which has agitated the 
Catholic Church, throwing the entire civilized 
people in mourning. If anything can alleviate the 
pain which every Catholic roof supports in the loss 
of our glorious Pontiff, it is the consoling 
remembrance of the noble, saintly life of the Holy 
Father, his serenity in the midst of continual 
anxiety, his indomitable devotion to duty, and his 
marvelous life, which has rendered the influence of 
religion stronger throughout the world, thus 
elevating human life. 

"(Signed) JOHN REDMOND." 

archbishop Ireland’s beautiful tribute 

"In Leo a truly great and good man passes from 
earth. The extraordinary, the unparalleled, interest 
with which the world kept vigil around the Vatican, 

where the old hero battled with grim death, is the 
magnificent tribute to Pope Leo XIII., which 
nothing could 

prelate chosen as the successor of the Best 
Beloved Pope Leo XIII. 




0 ) 




0 ) 





► -* 















t /: 























0 ) 




ever have evoked, save unusual grandeur of sou! 
and unusual deeds, the offspring of that grandeur. In 
the death of Leo humanity real- izes that an orb of 
light, such as is seldom seen to dominate the high 
skies of its moral and intellectual firmament, has 
fallen, making a mighty void, which soon again 
may not be filled. 

"A great man requires, besides his nativ greatr s, 
greatness in setting, greatness in opportunities. All 
this was given in super- abundance to Leo. There 
is no other post -■- honor and duty so elevated, so 

sublime as the Roman Pontificate, the treasury of 
inspirations, the world's chair of moral authority, 
ruling directly 250,000,000 of every tribe and 
every nation, ruling by silent prestige of its name 
and power, by the vast spiritual force of its life and 
teachings, entire humanity. Into the Pontificate he 
entered, and in it he reigned, as only two of his 
predecessors reigned, a quarter of a century — 
leaving posterity to say, as he closed the last 
;»ages of his record, that in him the Catholic 
Church had one of the uiost wonder- ful 
sovereigns, and humanity one of the noblest 
thinkers and highest exemplars of fidelity to God- 
given duty." 


Archbishop Quigley, in reviewing the life of Leo 
XJII., said: "By appeals to the Catholic citizens of 
oil nations through encyclical letters, in which all 
the grea f Christian ; ■■■:'■ — ;iples bearing upon 
society, government and education, and th< : — 
relation to the Church, have been expounded with a 

calm dignity, !e irness and elo- quence peculiarly 
his own, Leo XIII. has sua ded in checking the 
advance of socialistic forces hostile to Go’ 1 ir 
the Church. He has recognized the intelligence and 
power of th< p< ople in the affairs of modern 
governments, and his appeal has been to them. In a 
word he has thrown the defense of God and His 
Chun h ..pon the enlight- ened democracy so 
strongly represented in the Catholic Church 
throughout the nations of the world." 


Bishop Muldoon, in reviewing the life work of Leo 
XIII., said: "It is comparatively easy for the 
musician or artist to produce a valu- able piece of 
art work; but to create a school, to form public 
opinion or to command permanent general 
recognition has been the lot of few. What the great 

artists have from time to time done in the world of 
art in creating their own schools which have been 
the mile- stones of progress and indices for the 
future, Leo XIII. has accom- plished in the world 
of faith and science. He not only has produced 
valuable Encyclicals but all his labors have 
created an entirely new atmosphere about the 
Papacy. During his Pontificate Leo XIII. has 
accomplished work which will live behind him 
The greatness of the man can only be appreciated 
by the keen appreciation given his character by the 
public. The Church gave him a mighty pulpit in the 
chair of Peter and the intense public appreciation 
crowned him as the most profound preacher of the 


Dr. Zahm, president of the University of Notre 
Dame, said: 

"When Emilio Castelar, a brilliant Spanish 
statesman, shortly before his death was asked to 

give his impression of Leo XIII. he replied: 

" ’I have seen all the great men of the time, but Leo 
XIII. is the greatest of them all. Our century has 
seen only two great men, Napoleon Bonaparte at 
the beginning and Leo XIII. at the close.’ 

"Castelar was right. The august Pontiff whose 
extraordinary career is rapidly drawing to an end, 
is indeed a remarkable man whether we consider 
him as a churchman, as a diplomat, as a citizen or a 
promoter of the arts and science or as a friend and 
protector of the poor and down-trodden. 

"In monarchical Europe he has not hesitated to 
encourage Chris- tian democracy even when the 
country was against him. He has shown himself the 
friend of the laboring man. 

"No Pope has been a greater patron of science, art, 

literature, his- torical research, than has Leo XIII. 

"The remodeling, equipping and endowing of the 
Vatican obser- vatory, the founding of the 
Philosophical School of Louvain and of the 
Universities of Fribourg and Washington, the 
establishing of the Biblical Commission and the 
encouraging of archeological and Oriental studies, 
the throwing open of the doors of the Vatican 
library to the scholars of the world, are instances 
of what he has done for the advancement of 
knowledge and the cause of truth. 

"He has blazed out the way for his successor, 
whoever he may be,, and we may rest assured that 
the next Pope will feel it a duty to walk in the 
footsteps and be guided by the lofty ideals of Leo 

"The Church, notwithstanding what may be said to 
the contrary,, welcomes progress and everything 
that makes for progress; encour- ages science and 
everything that fosters science. It has nothing ta 

fear from science, as Leo XIII. often demonstrated, 
but everything to gain." 


Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian 
Science, said as fol- lows concerning the death of 
the Pope: 

The sad, sudden announcement of the decease of 
Pope Leo XIIL touches the hearts and will move 
the pens of millions. The intellec- tual, moral and 
religious energy of this Pontiff have moved the 
Church of Rome for one- quarter of a century. The 
august ruler of 250,000,000 human beings has now 
passed through the shadow of death into the great 
forever. The court of the Vatican mourns him; his 
relatives shed ’the unavailing tear’; he is the loved 
and lost of many millions. I sympathize with those 
who mourn, but rejoice in knowing our dear God 
comforts such with the blessed assurance that life 
is not lost, its i nf luence remains in the minds of 
men and Divine love holds its substance safe in the 

certainty of immortality. ’In Him was life, and the 
life was the light of men.’ " 



The Rev. G. W. Grinton of the Forty-fourth Street 
Methodist- Episcopal Church, ofNew York, said: 

"It is generally the rule to criticize a man 
unmercifully while he lives, to expose all his 
weaknesses and follies. If he be a public servant, 
to caricature him and hold him up to a'world-wide 
ridicule, and then when dead to gather up his good 
deeds into a wreath and place them on his casket. 

"The rule has been reversed in the application to 
the Pontiff, about whose health and well-being 
millions of persons have been deeply solicitous, 
and whose good acts have been recorded in all 


"His love of justice, simple dignity, kindly 
sympathy, have endeared the Pontiff to the Catholic 
world, which delights to pay tribute to the 
statesmanship, tact and splendid genius of their 
beloved Pope, who has done much for the progress 
of civilization. From crowned head to peasant, 
from president to laboring man, prayers and good 
wishes have been expressed for this remarkable 

"Leo has known no nationality, but has been 
interested in all. Deprived of temporal power, he 
has possessed a greater power, a dynamic that has 
controlled the hearts of men and shaped in many 
instances the policies of monarchies and republics. 
He has restored the golden age of the Papacy in its 
best sense. As philanthropist, poet, educator and 
reformer the name of Leo XIII. will be placed 
among the very great, if not the greatest, Popes in 


A eulogy to the Pope was delivered in the 
Hemenway Methodist- Episcopal Church, 
Evanston, 111., by the Rev. O. F. Mattison. He 

’The death of the Pope has drawn together all 
Christendom. He led a blameless life — a life such 
as few of us lead, and a life which we 


must all look up to. His character was one of the 
noblest and grandest of all time. His personal 
worth was such that it is admired by both Catholic 
and Protestant alike." 


M. Pobyedonosteff, the procurator of the Holy 
Synod of the Rus- sian Church, said: "Pope Leo 

XIII. had many admirers in Russia. He was the 
most eminent person in the political world to-day, 
not only on account of his position, but equally 
because of his character. The emperor greatly 
desired to meet Leo last spring, but his visit to 
Rome was deferred. Leo numbered among his 
lifelong admirers the Grand Duke Sergius 
Alexandrovich, the emperor's uncle, who first 
called upon the Pope when a small boy with his 
tutor. He sent to the Pope a token of his esteem 
upon the occasion of the latter's jubilee." 


Dr. Thompson of Grace Methodist-Episcopal 
Church, Evanston, said: 

"Pope Leo was a grand old man, and I am glad to 
pay tribute to such a noble character. He had a 
beneficent influence upon the world and mankind. 
No one can say aught against him. He has always 
lived a grand and noble life. In Germany he had his 
Church almost as strong as the established Church, 

and if he could have lived a few years more he 
would have changed conditions in France very 

"Here in America Pope Leo was loved, and the 
thinking Ameri- can Protestants hold him in the 
highest esteem and reverence. He was universally 
loved by American Catholicism. 

"And now that he is gone the world bows in 
reverence. His calmness in death was a wonderful 
thing. His faith was steady, his spirit calm, his soul 
filled with love for Christ, he waited for the sum- 


mons. He was a good man, and his work has been 
for the uplifting of humanity." 


Rev. Pearse Finch of the Forestville 

Congregational Church, New York, said when 
Pope Leo was dying: 

"The Protestant world has felt it to be a part of the 
triumph of our common Christian faith, that the 
good man who is serenely dying there in Rome is 
dying without any shadow of fear about him. 

"Men have died without fear before this. Under the 
abnormal incentive of times of war, in the passion 
and ecstasy of conflict, in companionship with 
spirits trained and seasoned and keyed to a 
hardihood of courage not natural to the heart, men 
can ride 'into the jaws of death; into the mouth of 

"But to walk serenely day after day with the 
shadow and the mys- tery waiting for you to enter 
is more than courage. That is deliver- ance 'from 
the fear of death' for those who were all their life 
subject to bondage." 


In St. Luke's Protestant- Episcopal Church, 
Brooklyn, Rev. Dr. Swentzel said: 

"Pope Leo XIII. is the most distinguished man in 
the world to-day because of his unblemished life. 
He is esteemed throughout Christendom. As a man 
he entirely deserves the reverent homage of the 
Christian world. 

"The general interest taken in Leo XIII. is, I think, a 
happy omen for the future, as showing how the 
people came together. The old furious cries, 'No 
Popery' and 'Protestant heretics', will find no echo 


The Rev. Dr. Newman Smyth, pastor of the Center 
Congrega- tional Church, New Haven, and member 
of the Yale corporation. 


just before the sermon of the day, "prayed for Pope 
Leo." He asked "that he might be spared from all 
suffering, and if it was the Divine will that he 
should not recover that his confession might be 
accepted at the throne of grace." Dr. Smyth asked 
tnat, "the life of this great Christian might be a 
benediction on the great and influential Church of 
which he is the head." 


Rev. Charles Bayard Mitchell, pastor of the First 
Methodist Church of Cleveland, Ohio, in a sermon 
devoted almost entirely to the dying Pontiff said: 

"It is an heroic picture; that of the old sol- dier, 
ready to die, but anxious to live a little longer 
where he can serve the Church he loves. If any man 
living to-day has no need for fearing death, it is 
Pope Leo. What a long and unselfish life he has 
lived! Prom his childhood he has been pure and 
good. In him are found the rarest qualities of head 
and heart. He is a statesman, and well capable of 
exercising temporal power if God wanted him to 

lose it. He is a rare scholar and poet and even now 
in his closing days is pouring out his great heart in 
sacred poetry. He is equally noted for his great 
human sympathies. He loves his fellow men and I 
break this alabaster box of Protestant ointment and 
pour it on his aged head, against the day of his 
burial. My Protestant eyes are not so blinded by 
rancor that I cannot see that he is both great and 


Rev. C. W. Blodgett, pastor of St. Paul's Methodist 
Church, Cin- cinnati, speaking of Leo XIII. said: 

"His death will be regretted by the Protestant 
world. No one has ever doubted his consecration 
to his Church, and there should be none but would 
gladly lay upon his casket a flower of sacred 
remem- brance to a Christian man. 

'Pope Leo, by his statesmanship, diplomacy and 

kind heart, has 


brought Catholics and Protestants nearer together. 
History will prove him to be one of, if not the best, 
incumbent of this highest position in the gift of the 
great Roman Catholic Church. His exam- pie of 
tolerance, his purity of life, his gentle and Catholic 
spirit, have endeared him to thousands not of his 

"Pope Leo will need no great monument to 
perpetuate his mem- ory. His life and lov A are 
inscribed in God's great family of man- kind." 

Charles Alfred Hewsom of Yale College said: 

"The exceeding ability of the late Pope Leo XIII. 
lay in the pos- session of several great qualities of 
mind. He had a patience which nothing could tire. 
He could wait months or years, as need be, until 
his time came. He had no delusions. Joachim Pecci 
saw things as they were, not as he would have 
liked to have them. He had no animosities. He 
believed an enemy only an enemy until he could 
make him a friend, and he was always ready to 
welcome a friend. He recognized talent at once and 
never sooner than in those opposed to him. A good 
idea was a good idea to him, no matter who pro- 
posed it, and he never committed the mistake of 
undervaluing the forces against him. He had that 
genius which can tell what is possi- ble and what 
impossible. Never in his life did Joachim Pecci 
attempt that which he could net carry out. As easily 
as he could weigh others, so easily could he weigh 
himself. He knew his limitations. To him the 
intellects and passions of men were as 
understandable as are figures on the slate, and by 
him, passionless, there were no mis- takes made in 
the additions. 

"He was a great man among the great men of his 
clay. He played a part amid some of the most 
tremendous dramas of history, and he played it 
successfully, With no force of arms he made men 


who ordered armies to obey him; out of enemies he 
created friends; a Church which he found the prey 
of all, he left strong in the circle of her defenders. 
Leo XIII. will go down in history as one of the. 
greatest among the long line of great men who have 
filled the papal chair. 


The London newspapers in their leading articles 
unstintingly eulogized Pope Leo. 

The Daily News said: "He has done something to 
bring back the Papacy to the position which it held 
during the best days in the Mid- die Ages — the 

position of arbiter and peacemaker of Europe. He 
has diverted his energies to the exercise and larger 
spiritual powers from the futile parochial struggle 
of hostility to the Italian mon- archy." 

The Daily Telegraph said: "His saintly character 
and blameless life appealed even to those who 
most strongly repudiate his spiritual claims. He 
had conferred a luster on his office akin to that 
which the office conferred on him." 


"The history of this Pontifical term will record 
many notable instances of the late Pope's sagacity, 
his benignant spirit, his scholar- ship and his grasp 
of affairs. Many single momentous acts of his 
career stand out to make it memorable. Some of his 
Encyclicals, notably that dealing with the relations 
of capital and labor, will be long remembered as 
evidences of his keen insight and the interest which 
he took in the problems of his time. His labors in 
promoting the world’s peace and his skillful 

intervention to avert war in several serious crises 
are of themselves proofs of the beneficence of his 
influ- ence. Far more than to any single acts, 
however, the strength of the influence which he 
wielded must be attributed to certain inherent 
qualities of character and intellect. Not only in 
ecclesiastical affairs 


but in the temporal affairs of the world the effect of 
his precept and example has been far-reaching. 
Nominally without temporal power, he has yet had 
an influence on his time more potent than that of 
most monarchs and statesmen contemporary with 

"It is inevitable that the world should regard the 
passing of this strong and serene spirit with sorrow 
and regret." 


"In no city of the land, in no community of the 
entire world, is the death of Pope Leo more 
sincerely mourned than in Joliet. To our city have 
come people from almost every land of Europe. 

We have here the Italians, the Austrians, the Slavs, 
the Polish people, the Ger- man, the French, the 
Swiss, the Irish, as well as the northern nations of 

"His wise course in all critical matters pertaining 
to the Church has won for him the admiration of the 
entire world and given the Church over which he 
ruled a higher and broader standing with all the 
nations of the globe." 


The death of the Pope removed from the world one 
of the best and ablest pontiffs the Roman Catholic 
Church has had. He was one of its greatest 

statesmen, though by no means its greatest politi- 
cian. He was a most successful diplomat, but won 
his victories in the field of diplomacy by his 
gentleness of speech and tact rather than by 
shrewdness and craft. He was a man of evident 
piety, whose Christian character would have made 
him an attractive figure of any Church in any age. 


"In the person of Leo XIII. the Catholic Church 
loses her vener- .ated and trusted chief, and the 
world, one more of its great men." 



"Pope Leo XIII. was elected to the Papacy in 
February, 1878. During the twenty-five years of his 
office he has proved himself a great statesman. He 
has recognized that humanistic and popular 

movement which during the nineteenth century has 
revolutionized Europe, and which may be 
designated by the general term democ- racy, and he 
has so directed the life of the Roman Catholic 
Church as to furnish to this movement, full of peril 
as well as of promise to humanity, the restraining 
and regulative influence, not only of the spirit of 
religion, but also of the traditions and institutions 
of the most powerful of the Christian churches. His 
name as a leader of democracy, though rather as a 
restraining than an inspiring leader, deserves to 
take place with those of Cavour in Italy, Gambetta 
in France, and Gladstone in England." 


Speaking of the time Leo XIII. was made Pope, it 
says: "He was then sixty-eight years old — too late 
for a marks o bred and trained, to make a change in 
his views and opinions; but the world soon knew 
that the Church had a leader. He believed that he 
was engaged in a holy war; he blew the trumpet of 
defiance against the enemies of the Church, and 

ranged the great hierarchy with united front. With 
great ardor he set himself to maintain and 
strengthen ecclesiastical discipline and to put new 
courage into his followers. He made the Church 
feel that he took a personal interest in the welfare 
of all its parts, and also that he meant to be obeyed. 
It was a fine sight to see this old man draw himself 
to his full height and smite the point of his spear 
full in the shield of his most danger- ous foes." 



/ A \N TUESDAY morning, August 4, 1903, a 
message was sent A - A from the conclave of 
Cardinals assembled at Rome, saying that a 
successor to the late Leo XIII. had been elected. 
Cardinal Joseph Sarto, Patriarch of Venice, was 
the honored one. It was soon announced that the 
new Pontiff had chosen the title of Pius X. A great 

cry of joy and relief burst forth from every heart 
throughout Christendom. 

The Cardinals met in conclave on Friday, July 3 1 , 
nine days after the death of Leo XIII. They 
remained in session four days and balloted seven 

When the final count showed that the necessary 
two-thirds of the total number of votes cast had 
been obtained, Cardinal Sarto was asked: "Do you 
accept the election?" He gave a reply in the 
affirmative. When asked what name he chose he 
replied: "Pius." 

All the throne canopies were then lowered, with 
the exception of that of the successful candidate. 

Then Prince Chigi, the master of the conclave, 
drew up the official act of the election and 
acceptance of the newly elected Pope, who retired 
into a small room near the altar, where he vested in 
the white robes of his office. 


The new Pope was attired all in white with the 
exception of red shoes, which was quite regular, 
but he did not stop to remove the red Cardinal's 
stockings for the white Papal ones. The secretary 
of the conclave, Mgr. Merry del Val, kneeling, 

him the Papal white cap, amidst breathless silence. 
He did 



not follow the precedent created by Pope Leo, who 
declined to give his red cap to the master of 
ceremonies as a sign that he would soon be created 
a Cardinal, but with a slight smile Pius X. took the 
white cap, placed it calmly on his own head and 
dropped the red one lightly on the head of Mgr. 

Merry del Val, amidst a murmur of approval. This 
is taken as a certain indication that the happy 
recipient is soon to be raised to the Cardinalate. 


As the new Pontiff stepped from behind the altar, 
he seemed to be the embodiment of his holy office. 
His face was pale and clearly softened by emotion. 
He paused a moment, as he came before the 
expectant Cardinals, then seated himself on the 
throne, to receive the "first obedience." Then the 
Te Deumwas intoned. 


At the close of this hymn of praise Pius X. rose, 
and in a voice at first tremulous but gradually 
becoming full and firm, administered the Papal 
blessing to all of the members of the Sacred 

Cardinal Macchi, secretary of apostolic briefs, at 

noon announced to the crowd assembled before St. 
Peter's that Cardinal Sarto, Patri- arch of Venice, 
had been elected Pope, and that he had taken the 
name Pius X. 

At 12: 10 o’clock Pope Pius X. appeared inside the 
balcony of the basilica and blessed the people, 
amid the acclamations of the enor- mous crowd 


Joseph Sarto was born in Riese, a village situated 
a few miles from Treviso, the Diocesan See. As 
Carpineto, before the election of Joachim Pecci to 
the Pontificate, was unknown to the world, so also 
is this little village of Riese. It lies sequestered in 
the middle of a great fertile plain through which the 
river Sile Hows into the Adriatic 


Sea. The river has long- been navigable and 
furnished means of communication with the outer 
world. Pliny speaks of Treviso as the city of 
towers, and mentions among the villages that of 
Riese. Calo- gera published in the last century a 
dissertation on the ancient inscriptions found in 
Treviso, with observations on inscriptions dis- 
covered in 1730 in the village of Riese. The 
inhabitants in and around Riese are given to 
agricultural pursuits and the manufacturing of silk. 
This latter is the principal industry. 

It is told, among the inhabitants, to this day, that 
when Posdocim, a disciple of St. Peter, visited 
Treviso, he preached the gospel to the inhabitants 
around that city, hence his memory is held in great 
bene- diction by all the people. History records 
that when Attila destroyed the city of Treviso, he 
laid waste the surrounding villages, among which 
was Riese. 


Pius X. was born on the 2d day of June, 1835. His 
family were among the most respected in Riese. 
The early days of the present Pon- tiff were spent 
in careful training. When ready to enter the career 
he had chosen — the priesthood — he was sent to 
the Salesian Institute in the vicinity of Padua. Here 
he was an earnest pupil, retiring in his attitude, but 
winning honors for his studiousness and achieve- 

It was this trait which brought out the remark of 
one of the Car- dinals who watched his career, 
"Sarto has never been young." 

He became, after finishing his theological course 
and being admitted to holy orders, a parish priest. 
His parish lay in the poorer district of Pombolo in 
the outskirts of Venice, and his work, apart from 
the study which won for him his later successes, 
lay entirely in the ministration to the wants of his 
humble parishioners. 

He lived a life of austerity always, but his kindness 

to the poor and suffering gave him among them the 
title of beloved pastor. 


From parish priest he was made Bishop of Mantua 
and from Bishop he rose to the Cardinalate, the 
title being- conferred upon him with that of 
Patriarch of Venice by the Consistory of June 12, 


In ecclesiastical circles he gained a great 
reputation as a preacher, convincing and swaying 
rather by absolute strength of temperament than by 
any oratorical powers. 

He is known as an author and a patron of the arts. It 
was this latter characteristic that led indirectly to 
Pope Leo XIII. declar- ing to Perosi, the composer, 
that it was to Sarto he committed the affairs of the 

church, saying: "Hold him very dear, Perosi, as in 
the future he will be able to do much for you — we 
firmly believe he will be our successor." 

In the Vatican, when the talk centered upon the 
successor of Leo, Cardinal Sarto was mentioned, 
but in his quiet way he treated the matter very 
indifferently. In fact he declared when leaving 
Venice that he had purchased a return ticket. 

He is kind hearted toward strangers, and in spite of 
his sixty- eight years is still a robust man. 

Born at Riese, Italy, June 2, 1835. 

Educated at Treviso Seminary and Padua 

Consecrated a Priest in 1858. 

First Work for Church as Coadjutor to Parish 
Priest at Tombolo. 

Appointed Parish Priest at Salzano in 1867. 

Elected Chancellor to the Bishopric of Treviso in 

Made Judge of the Ecclesiastical Tribunal and 
Vicar General. 

Appointed Bishop of Mantua in 1884. 

Made a Cardinal and Appointed Patriarch of 
Venice in 1893. 

Elected Pope August 4. 1903. 

* There arc 535 pages in this volume. The sixty- 
four full-page halftone illustrations and colored 
plates should be added to folio (462), giving a 
total of 535 pages. 




/ A \N THE decline of the year in which, by the 
singular gift and A - A goodness of God, We have in 
health and security kept the fiftieth anniversary of 
Our priesthood, Our mind naturally reverts to the 
months just passed, and finds great happiness in the 
remembrance. And there is good cause. An event 
which concerned Ourself person- ally, and which 
was in itself neither great nor remarkable as an 
exception, stimulated, nevertheless, in the minds of 
men an unparal- leled enthusiasm, and was 
celebrated with so numerous and so bril- liant 
signs of joy and congratulation as to leave nothing 
possible to desire. The which was to Us supremely 
grateful and delightful. And most of all have We 
appreciated this demonstration for its sig- 
nificance as regards the Faith, thus constantly and 
candidly con- fessed. The concord of acclamation, 
whereby every part of the earth has hailed Us, 
declared in clear and unmistakable tones, that from 
all regions hearts and minds are turned toward the 
Vicar of Jesus Christ; that, amid all the evils 

wherewith We are oppressed, men raise faithful 
eyes to the Apostolic See as to a fount of salvation, 
perennial and undefiled; and that wheresoever the 
Catholic name is spoken, there, too, is with one 
mind revered and fervently beloved, as she must 
ever be, the Roman Church, Mother and Mistress 
of the Churches. 

Therefore, during the months gone by, more than 
once have We lifted up Our eyes to Heaven, 
thanking Our God, Immortal and Most Good, for 
that He has benignlv granted Us Ions: life and this 


fort in Our sorrows. Nor did We neglect to express 
on every oppor- tunity, the gratitude of Our heart 
toward all to whom it was due. And now the close 
of the year, and of the Jubilee, bids Us renew Our 
memories of all that has been granted to Us; and it 

is Our joy that the whole Church unites with Us in 
our repetition of Our thanksgiv- ing to God. Our 
heart, therefore, prompts Us publicly to testily to 
you — as We do by these present letters — that as 
We draw no small consolation in Our labors and 
Our cares from the many proofs of obedience, of 
courtesy, and of love received from you, so the 
remem- brance of them and the gratitude for them 
will have in Our memory a perdurable place. 

But a graver and more sacred duty yet remains. In 
this impulse of all hearts, exulting in paying with 
exceptional fervor their homage of reverence and 
honor to the Roman Pontiff, We acknowledge the 
power of Him Who alone may draw from little 
things great prin- ciples, and Who so often thus 
deals with Us. It would seem indeed that Our All- 
providing God has intended, in a time of so much 
erring thought, to give new life to faith, and to open 
to Us an opportunity of recalling Christian mankind 
to the love of the better life. There- fore let Us 
stretch forth Our hand to the work, so that the 
results may answer the good beginning; let Us use 

all our powers that the designs of God may be 
understood and fulfilled in the actual practice of 
daily life. Then indeed the homage offered to the 
Apostolic See will be complete and altogether 
perfect; having put on the beauty of the Christian 
virtues it will have value to guide men to salvation 
— the end which is alone desirable, alone eternal. 

From the high plare of Our Apostolic Ministry, 
whereto the good- ness of God has appointed Us, 
We have oftentimes, as was our duty, undertaken 
the championship of truth; We have studied to set 
forth those principal and chief doctrines which 
seemed to Us the most timely and most needful for 
the general good; so that, the truth being made 
known, every man, watchful and well equipped, 


fly from the deadly breath of error. And now, as a 

most loving Father to his children. We will address 
all Christians, and with a familiar exhortation will 
urge m all men to enter upon the Christian life. For, 
in order to deserve the name of a Christian, there is 
need- ful, besides the profession of the Faith, a 
practice of the Christian vir- tues, upon which 
depends not only the eternal salvation of the soul, 
but also true social peace and the tranquillity of the 
civil community. If inquiry is made into the course 
of life pursued in our day, none can refuse to see 
how much public and private manners have 
diverged from the way of the precepts of the 
Gospel. Too well suited to our times is that 
sentence of the Apostle St. John: "For all that is in 
the world is the concupiscence of the flesh, and the 
concupiscence of the eyes, and the pride of life." 
The greater number among mankind, forgetting the 
beginning whence they came and the end to which 
they are called, fix all their thought and all their 
care on the then and passing things of earth: 
violating Nature and confusing order, bind 
themselves by their own will the slaves of those 
things over which man, ruled by his reason, should 

be master. And inevitably to the love of comforts 
and of pleasures is added cupidity for that which 
may procure them Hence the unbridled avidity for 
money that blinds those it possesses, and runs on 
its way, inflamed and with fly- ing rein, without 
pausing to distinguish justice from injustice, and 
too often insulting cruelly the misery of others. And 
thus many who overflow with gold profess in mere 
words their brotherhood with the crowd, which in 
their inmost hearts they contemn. In the same way 
the soul, grown proud, rebels against the yoke of 
any law, despises all authority, calls its egotism by 
the name of liberty, and "thinketh himself born free 
like a wild ass's colt." Then follow the incentives 
to vice, and the fatal invitations to sin. We mean 
licentious and impious dramatic represenattions, 
books and newspapers written for the purpose of 
whitewashing vice and weakening virtue, even the 
arts themselves, once invented for the consolation 
of life and the just 


recreation of the mind, but forced to serve as 
stimulants to the pas- sions of humanity. Nor can 
we look further forward into the future without 
trembling; for we perceive new germs of evil 
sown and accumulating within the breasts of the 
generation to come. See, for instance, the course of 
the public schools: there is no place in them for 
ecclesiastical authority; and precisely at the time 
when it is of the utmost urgence to form the still 
tender little soul, with infinite care, in the practice 
of Christian duties, then, in the majority of cases, 
religious instruction is obliged to hold its peace. 
Then the growing youth goes forth to meet the 
graver perils of a vitiated doctrine, so devised as 
rather to infatuate by sophisms than to educate by 
the true conception of truth. Thus, many instructors 
in science, having suppressed holy faith, love to 
philosophize with the sole guidance of their own 
reason; the fundamental support and the shining 
light of religion being gone, it too often happens 
that they lose their hold of truth and stray into 

untruth. Such an untruth is the opinion that 
everything existing in the world is corporeal; that 
men and animals have a common origin and nature; 
nor are there wanting many who hold it as a 
doubtful question whether there exists, or not, one 
Arti- fleer of the world and Governor of things — 
God; or who err fool- ishly, as did heretics of old, 
in their speculations as to His Nature. Hence, 
inevitably comes a corruption of the concept and 
form of virtue, of right, and of duty. And so, while 
such persons noisily and conspicuously proclaim 
the supremacy of reason, and magnify beyond all 
measure the acumen of human genius, they suffer, 
by their igno- ranee of most important truths, the 
penalty of their own pride. With this perversion of 
thought there penetrates, as we may phrase it, into 
the very veins and marrow of the bones the 
corruption of morals ; and in such minds this evil is 
difficult to cure; since on the one hand false 
principles adulterate the sense of right, and on the 
other there is lacking the light of Christian faith, the 
beginning and origin of all righteousness. 


With our own eyes we may see daily with what 
evils human society is infected. The poison of false 
teaching has rapidly gained upon public and 
private life. Rationalism, Materialism, and 
Atheism have brought forth Socialism, 

Communism, Nihilism, various and fatal plagues, 
which were logically bound to result from such 
principles. And, in fact, if man permits himself to 
reject the Catholic religion, of which the Divine 
origin is, by so many proofs, clear and patent why 
should he not emancipate himself from other forms 
of religion which fail in these notes of credibility? 
If the soul is not in its nature dis- tinct from the 
body, and, in consequence, if on the death of the 
body no hope remains of a blessed eternity, why 
should we subject it to toil and weariness, or put 
our talents under the thraldom of reason? The chief 
good of man will be placed in the enjoyment of the 
posses- sions and pleasures of this life. And since 

there lives no man who does not by instinct, and by 
the impulse of nature, tend to his own happiness, 
each man will despoil his neighbor according to 
his power, and will achieve happiness at the 
expense of others. Nor does there exist upon earth 
an authority possessed of such hold upon man that 
it will then curb the impetus of passion. For, once 
the high and eternal law of God is set at naught, it 
must needs be that the strength of human law is 
broken and every authority is enfeebled. It cannot 
be but that civil society must thenceforth be 
confused, its several units being spurred by their 
own lusts to a perpetual war, some intent upon the 
acquisition of possessions, others upon the defence 
of their own. Such indubitably is the tendency of 
our age. And yet there is matter for consolation 
among these evils, matter for confidence and for a 
happy hope in the future. For God created all 

But as this world cannot endure except by the will 
and providence of Him who created it, so also 
cannot men be healed except by the virtue of Him 

who redeemed them for Himself. For if Jesus 
Christ by the price of His blood bought back once 
for all the human race, none the less the working of 
His great and beneficent action is peren- 


nial and enduring: neither is there salvation in any 
other. Therefore all those who labor to extinguish 
by their own law the growing flame of popular 
passion, labor indeed for righteousness, but should 
be per- suaded that small or none will be the Suit 
of their efforts if they put aside the power of the 
Gospel and the co-operation of the Church. The 
healing of evil depends upon this — that with 
changed minds society and individuals shall return 
to Christ and to the right way of the Christian life. 

Now, the substance of the Christian life is 
separation from the following of the corrupt 
morality of the world, and a virile opposition 

thereto. This is preached to us by the sayings and 
the acts, the laws and institutions, the life and death 
of Jesus, the Author and Finisher of our Faith. 
Although the corruption of our own nature and of 
example may tend to draw us away from our true 
goal, we must yet run toward the end which awaits 
us, equipped with the courage and the weapons 
which were borne by Him Who, rejoicing, carried 
the Cross. May men come to understand this, and 
may they perceive especially that it accords 
extremely ill with the Christian profession to 
follow, as is now too often done, every kind of 
pleasure, to avoid that labor which is the 
companion of virtue, and to refuse ourselves 
nothing that sweetly and delicately soothes the 
senses. And they that are Christ's have crucified 
their flesh wih the vices and con- cupiscences 
thereof. Whence it is to be inferred that those are 
not of Christ who do not exercise themselves in 
suffering and in despising soft and delicate living. 
Man, thanks to the infinite goodness of God, lives 
again in the hope of the immortal blessings which 
he had foregone by his fall; but he cannot attain 

them except by treading in the traces of Christ, 
meditating on His example, and conforming heart 
and actions to His own. So that it is not a counsel, 
but a duty; and not intended only for those who 
undertake the most per- feet life, but for all men to 
carry in their bodies the mortification of Jesus. 
How otherwise will that law of Nature herself 


unbroken which commands man to live virtuously? 
If, thanks to Holy Baptism, the sin contracted at our 
birth is cancelled, the guilty germs of the sin are 
not thereby rescinded. That part of man which is 
without reason — the sensitive appetite — 
although it cannot ruin him who by the grace of 
Christ combats it manfully, still opposes the 
dominion of reason, disturbs the peace and 
stability of the soul, and forces the will away from 
virtue with so tyrannical a violence that, without a 

daily strife, we may neither fly from vice nor fulfill 
our duties. The Holy Council of Trent has defined 
that "concupiscence remains in the baptized, being 
left there for the purposes of welfare, but is not 
able to hurt him who, far from consenting thereto, 
strongly resists it by the grace of Christ; for he who 
duly fights will be crowned." In this struggle there 
is a degree of power to which noth- ing can attain 
but an excelling virtue, and such is the virtue of 
those who, in their warfare against what opposes 
their reason, have so con- quered that they seem to 
lead on earth a life resembling that of Heaven; and 
if few reach that height of perfection, there yet are 
none who, even according to the precepts of 
antique philosophy, are not bound to keep a rein 
over their own passions, especially over those 
which the daily use of earthly things most 
powerfully stimu- lates; for foolish would the man 
be who should think that vigilance may be weakest 
where danger is greatest, or the medicine least 
where the disease is most grave. As to the labor 
and weariness endured in such a strife, it is well 
rewarded by many gains added to those which are 

celestial and immortal; and the first of these is that 
the appetites of man being brought once more into 
order, a very great part of the primal dignity of 
nature is restored. And inasmuch as man was 
created under this law and in this order — that the 
soul should dominate the body, and that appetite 
should be governed by reason and counsel — it 
follows that to be no slave to tyrannous pas- sions 
is the most sublime liberty, and the most to be 

Moreover, without this disposition of the soul there 
is no good to 


be hoped for man as a member of civil society. 
Will not he be devoted to the good of others who 
accustoms himself to weigh well all he has to do 
and to fly from love of self? No man who is not 
able to overcome himself and to despise all human 

things for the love of virtue can ever be 
magnanimous, or beneficent, or selfless, or mer- 

We are bound to insistently declare that not without 
labor and pain is salvation, in the counsels of the 
Almighty, to be achieved by man. If God has 
granted to our race a deliverance from evil and a 
pardon for sin, He gave us these on the condition 
that His only- begotten Son would bear the penalty 
due to justice. And Jesus Christ, while He might in 
other ways have satisfied the Divine demand, 
elected to pay the price in suffering and sorrow, by 
blood and the sacrifice of life. And upon His 
disciples He laid this law, sealing it with His 
blood — that their life should be a perpetual war 
with the corruptions of their day. And what is it 
which made the Apostles invincible in teaching 
truth to the world? What is it which gave strength 
to innumerable Martyrs in their supreme testimony 
to the Christian faith, but the fearless following of 
that law? No other road have those trodden who 
chose the Christian virtue and salva- tion; and no 

other way can be ours if we desire safety for 
ourselves and for mankind. In the midst of a 
general and shamless license, each is bound 
manfully to guard himself against the attractions of 
pleasure; in face of the ostentation of ease and 
wealth, the soul must be defended against the 
enchantment of luxury and riches; so that, despising 
things accounted precious here, but in their nature 
unsatis- lying and of no continuance, it may not 
lose the infinite treasure of Heaven. Of late years it 
has come to be a most deplorable fact, that evil 
principles and example have done so much to 
emasculate the Christian life, that men are grown 
ashamed of their religious profes- sion, giving in 
this a sign of deep-seated corruption, or of "strange 
pusillanimity and cowardice; in either case a 
horrible evil, an evil 


than which no greater can befall mankind. For what 

is the refuge, what is the hope, what is the glory 
left to man, if he cease to find his honor in the 
Name of Jesus Christ, and if he evade the duty of 
expressing Christian principle by Christian 
practice? It is a common complaint that our age is 
not fruitful of manly men; but let Christian manners 
be revived in all their vigor, and the human heart 
will gather constancy and strength again. 

But for so many and so great duties, human virtue 
alone cannot suffice; and as we ask of God our 
daily bread for the life of our body, so must we 
entreat from Him His own strength for our soul, so 
that we may be co nf irmed in the exercise of 
righteousness. The common doom and condition of 
our life — perpetual warfare — is forever united 
to the necessity of prayer. As says Augustine, so 
truly and so sweetly, the prayer of piety overpasses 
the limits of the world and calls down mercy from 
the height of Heaven. Against the disorderly 
impulses of our own passions, against the snares of 
the malignant ones who surround us with 
persuasions to sin, a Divine voice bids us claim 

the help of God. Pray lest ye enter into temptation. 
And how much more urgent becomes this necessity, 
if we would effectually labor for the good of 
others. Christ Our Lord, the only Son of God, the 
fountain of all grace and of all goodness, while He 
gave us the command, showed us also the example. 
He spent the whole night in prayer, and as the hour 
of His sacrifice drew near He prayed yet the more 
earnestly. How much less should we have to fear 
from our own weakness and from the relaxation of 
our own will, if carelessness and distaste did not 
so often lead us to neglect this Divine command- 
ment. For God is merciful, He desires the good of 
man, and He has expressly promised to give 
abundantly to those who abundantly entreat Him. 

He does more: He bids us, nay, He prays us to 
entreat Him. "I say to you, ask, and it shall be 
given unto you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and 
it shall be opened unto you." And in order to 


embolden us to ask with a familiar confidence, He 
softens the marks of His Divine Majesty, and 
shows us His face as that of a Father most tender, 
who has nothing nearer to his heart than His love 
for His children. "If ye, then, being evil, know how 
to give good gifts to your children, how much more 
will your Father Who is in Heaven give good 
things to them that ask Him?" If we will ponder 
these words we shall not wonder that St. John 
Chrysostom ascribes to human prayer a force 
comparable to the very power of God. As God by 
His Word created the universe so man by his 
prayers obtains the whole of his desire. A good 
prayer — what, is more irresistible? It has over 
God Himself we know not what influence, whereto 
He is pleased to yield and to defer. For when we 
pray we detach our hearts from mortal things, and 
the single thought of God to which we cling helps 
us to understand our own weakness; then we cast 
our- selves upon the heart and into the arms of our 
Father; we call upon the omnipotence of our 

Maker. It is our joy to keep thus in the presence of 
the Author of all good, eager to have His eyes 
searching into the miseries of our souls, into our 
discouragement, the helpless- ness of our whole 
being, and our devotion. With a heart full of hope 
we entreat the aid and the succor of Him Who only 
can heal our sickness, Who only can console our 

In such a temper, and having a sense of its own 
abjection, a soul is wonderfully able to persuade 
God to mercy; for "He resisteth the proud, but to 
the humble He giveth grace." May it be 
consecrated then for all men — this practice of 
prayer. Let all, mind and heart and tongue, pray 
together; but let our life accord with our prayer, 
and let that life, by its obedience to heavenly law, 
be a perpetual aspiration to our God. 

As with all other forms of righteousness, that of 
which we have spoken depends for its practice 
upon faith. For it is God Who instructs mankind as 
to the true treasure and most to be desired; and it is 

by God Himself that we are taught His own infinite 
loving kind- 


ness, and the merits of Jesus our Redeemer. But 
there is nothing comparable to the pious habit of 
prayer for increasing our faith. And this virtue of 
faith, grown so weak in many hearts, extinguished 
in so many, is conspicuously and obviously the 
chief necessity of our age. To faith we must look 
not only for the reformation of private morals but 
also for the answer of those vociferous questions 
and conflicts of thought, to which is due the loss of 
public security and peace. If the fever of an 
uncontrolled liberty excites the multitude; if on all 
sides are audible the terrible threats of the 
proletariat; if the inhuman covetousness of the 
fortunate owns no limit and no law; if many other 
like evils afflict the world, it -may be held for 
certain (and elsewhere we have proved it to 

demonstration) that nothing can bring healing more 
surely than can our Christian faith. 

And this theme persuades Us now to turn Our 
thought and Our word toward you, O ye whom by 
His Divine power God has chosen for Himself, to 
work with Him in the ministry of His mysteries. If 
we seek for means of assuring the salvation of 
individuals and of society, doubtless we shall find 
in the priesthood those who have in either case the 
gravest influence. "Let all such remember, then, 
that if Christ has called them the light of the world, 
it is that as a torch lighting the universe, so should 
shine the soul of the priest" (St. John Chrysostom). 
It is no ordinary light, but the light of Divine 
doctrine that is required from the clergy; it is they 
who should fill the earth with wisdom, should 
destroy error, and should lead the multi- tude upon 
the difficult path of life. But Divine doctrine must 
have for its companion a perfect innocence of life, 
inasmuch as the refor- mation of men is achieved 
less by fair words than by good example. "Let your 
light so shine before men, that they may see your 

good works." Divine sentence, importing that the 
priest must so excel in the completeness of 
righteousness that he may be a mirror to all who 
look upon him. As the Council of Trent has it: 
"There is nothing more effectual in forming others 
to piety and to the service of God 


than the life and example of those who, having 
consecrated them- selves to the Divine ministry, 
are uplifted by their separation from the world to a 
loftier and a conspicuous place. Toward them the 
rest of mankind turn their eyes as to a glass, 
showing them the things that are worthy of 
imitation." If, then, all men are in need of a 
ceaseless vigilance, if they would not stumble into 
the snares of sin, and if they would not follow 
perishable things with an inordinate desire, how 
much should the clergy surpass others in the 
firmness of their religious character! It is not 

enough that they should not be the slaves of 
passion; the sanctity of their state requires from 
them a habit of energy in self-command, and the 
concentration of intellect and will, and of all the 
faculties of man, upon the service of Christ. "You 
are ready to forsake all; forget not to forsake also 
yourselves among the things that are to be forsaken; 
or rather let this be the chief thing and the most 
needful — the forsaking of yourselves" (St. 
Bernard). Once for all set free from passion, their 
hearts will unclose to that fervor of zeal and of 
generosity for the salvation of their neighbor, 
without which their own would not be secure. "The 
only profit they shall draw from their disciples, the 
only glory, the only joy, is the achievement of the 
righteousness of the people. This is the end they 
shall follow after by every means, even at the cost 
of the crushing of body and mind, in labor and 
sorrow, in hunger and thirst, in cold and 
nakedness" (St. Bernard). This perennial effort for 
others will ever be wonderfully co nf irmed and 
encouraged by the frequent meditation on the 
happiness of Heaven. And, dwelling upon this, 

they will perceive more clearly the greatness, and 
the excellence, and the holiness of their office; they 
will understand all the haplessness of those who, 
though redeemed by Jesus Christ, yet are following 
the way that tends to eternal ruin; and in the thought 
of everlasting life they will find an increase of 
ardor in devoting themselves to love God, and to 
inspire that love in the souls of men. Here is the 
surest way to obtain the general salvation. But, in 


lowing it, we must beware of being overcome by 
the greatness of the labor, or disheartened by the 
long duration of the evils which we are called to 
heal. God, in His perfect and immovable justice, 
holds rewards for good deeds and chastisements 
for sins. But people and nations, which cannot, as 
such, survive this mortal existence, receive here on 
earth the recompense of their actions; in spite of 

which it is not rare to find a sinful State 
prosperous and successful — and this by a just 
providence of God; for inasmuch as no nation on 
earth is devoid of goodness, He recompenses such 
righteousness as there is in it; so, in the opinion of 
St. Augustine, did God deal with Rome. None the 
less is it a truth that the commonwealth flourishes 
and is blessed through the public respect for virtue, 
and especially for the first of virtues — justice. 
"Justice exalteth a nation, but sin maketh nations 
miserable." This is not the place for dwelling upon 
the exceptional cases of triumphant injustice, nor 
for inquiring whether there are States in which 
public affairs prosper to the heart's desire, but 
which hide within them the germs of evil. 

As for ourself, our own consolation is in the word 
of the Apostle: "All things are yours, and ye are 
Christ's, and Christ is God’s." The meaning 
whereof is, that by a secret disposition of Divine 
providence the course of mortal things is guided 
and governed in such wise among men that all is 
subject and ministers to the glory of God, and 

serves to help those who truly and in their hearts 
follow Christ upon their way to the harbor of 
salvation. To such the A Church is nurse and mother, 
guide and keeper. As by close and perdurable love 
she is joined to Christ her spouse, so does she take 
her part in His con- flicts and has her share in His 
victories. We are not, therefore, and we cannot be, 
anxious for the cause of the Church. But we 
tremble for the salvation of those who proudly put 
the Church aside and fol- low many and various 
paths toward eternal loss. That which fills us with 
bitterness is the doom of those whom we are 
obliged to see turning away from God and lulling 
themselves, in the very height of 


public danger, into a peace of false security. 
"There is nothing comparable to the Church. . . . 
How many have gone out against her and are now 
no more! The Church reaches to Heaven. Such is 

her greatness that she overcomes her foes, and 
rises from their snares secure. She fights and is 
never conquered. She goes forth to battle and is 
never overcome." And not only is she invincible; 
but she keeps that virtue which reforms nature and 
is the principle of salvation, and which she 
perpetually receives from God, whole and safe 
from all effects of the change of ages. And if this 
virtue did once regenerate the world grown old in 
vice and lost in superstition, will it not recall it 
from its wanderings out of the right way? Let 
suspicion and hatred hold their peace, let the 
present difficulties be removed, and let the Church 
be once more mistress of her rights and of her 
function in treasuring and spreading the blessings 
of redemp- tion: and then will be seen the 
demonstration of the enlightening energy of the 
Gospel, of the strength and power of Christ the 

In this year, now close upon its setting, it has been 
given to Us to see, as We said at the outset, signs 
not a few that faith was returning to life in the 

hearts of men. May from this spark a great flame 
leap to life! May the roots of vice be destroyed, 
and the way be prepared for the renewal of good 
morals and good works. We, who are called to the 
command of the mystical barque of the Church in 
times so tempestuous, shall fix Our mind and heart 
upon the Divine Pilot, who sits unseen at the helm 

Thou beholdest, O Lord, how on every side the 
winds and waves uplift themselves. O Thou Who 
only hast the power, command the wind and 
waves! Give to Thy human family their true peace 
again, the peace which the world cannot give, the 
peace of order. May mankind, by Thy grace and 
upon Thy impulse, return to their duty, restoring 
within their heart piety toward God, justice and 
charity toward one another, and temperance for 
their own sake, and the full 


dominion of reason over desire. Thy kingdom 
come. And may those who, far from Thee, are 
wearily seeking truth and righteous- ness, see at 
last how they must needs find them in subjection to 
Thee, and in the following of Thee. In Thy laws is 
justice and a sweet- ness most fatherly, and Thou 
Thyself givest us, of Thy own will and by Thy own 
grace, the strength to observe them. A battle is the 
life of man on earth; but "Thou beholdest the battle; 
Thou aidest man to overcome; when he fails Thou 
sustainest him; when he has the victory Thou 
crownest him" (St. Augustine). 

With Our soul uplifted by this thought to a glad and 
certain hope, We give affectionately in the Lord to 
you, Venerable Brethren, to the clergy, and to all 
Catholic people, the Apostolic Benediction, as an 
earnest of the blessing of Heaven, and a sign of 
Our own love. 

Given in Rome, by St. Peter's, on the Day of the 
Holy Nativity, 1888, the eleventh year of Our 




A T EVERY occasion that occurs for re-awakening 
among Chris- A *- tian people the love of the great 
Mother of God and for furthering her worship, we 
rejoice beyond expression, as for an event most 
excellent and most fruitful for good, and in like 
measure accordant with the strongest and sweetest 
affections of our own soul. First drawn in, we may 
say, with our own mother’s milk, the holy devotion 
to Mary has increased within us, and has been 
co nf irmed continuously with the growth of years, 
even as it was ever given to us to know more fully 
how worthy of love and of honour is she whom 
God from the beginning loved and cherished so 
greatly as to raise her above all other creatures, 
and, having adorned her with signal graces, to 

make her His Mother. And ever new, ever joyous 
stimulations to our devotion did we gain from the 
multitudinous and splendid proofs of generous 
loving kindness with which she has favoured us, 
and which we cannot remember without keen 
thankfulness; since among the many, the various, 
and the difficult conditions of our life, we have 
always had recourse to her, have always kept our 
eyes affec- tionately fastened upon her, and, 
pouring into her heart all our hopes and our 
misgivings, our bitterness and our sweetness, have 
made it our constant study to pray to her that she 
might vouchsafe to help us at all times, as a pitiful 
mother, and might gain for us the precious grace of 
returning her a perfectly filial love. Being then 
called, by the inscrutable decrees of Providence, 
to this See of the blessed Apostle Peter — which 
is indeed to be called to represent upon earth the 
very Person of Jesus Christ in His Church — we 
were greatly moved by the enormous weight of the 
burden, and by our profound 


distrust of ourself ; and with all the intenser love 
did we seek for aid in the maternal protection of 
the Most Blessed Virgin. And this our co nf idence 
— our soul is rejoiced to testify — as at every 
previous time, so in a special manner in the 
exercise of the supreme Apostolate, never failed to 
obtain its hope and its fulfillment, or at least the 
reward of sweetest consolation. Hence this same 
confidence of ours arises more securely and more 
ardently than ever, and promises itself blessings 
and graces from our Mediatrix — graces that will 
make for the happiness and health of the whole 
Christian family and for the greater glory of Holy 
Church. Thus it is meet and right, Venerable 
Brethren, that renewing by your means our wonted 
exhortations, we should appeal to all our children 
at once and together, that the com- ing October, 
sacred to our august Lady and Queen of the Holy 
Rosary, may by all men be celebrated with 

redoubled fervour, in pro- portion as our needs 
grow daily greater and more insistent. 

All too well known are the number and the 
character of the evil measures, taken by the wicked 
in our day, to weaken or to remove the faith of 
Christian hearts, and, with faith, their obedience to 
the Divine precepts wherefrom their faith takes life 
and action; inso- much that it may be said that the 
breath of ignorance, of error, and of corruption 
passes fatally, bringing barrenness and desolation, 
over the whole field of Christendom. And still 
more painful is the thought that this most 
deplorable audacity, far from meeting check and 
chastisement from those who have a sacred duty to 
fulfill, encounters rather indifference and 
neutrality, or even encouragement in its work of 
perversion. Most just, therefore, are our 
complaints in regard to the public schools, from 
which God is with deliberation banished when He 
is not in fact blasphemed; and with regard to the 
present increasing licence of publishing and 
clamouring anything and everything to the shame of 

Christ and of His Church. Nor must we less 
deplore the cooling and weakening of love that 
have followed among so many in the practice of 
Christian duty — a decline which, if 


it is not open apostasy, is none the less a tendency 
toward apostasy among many whose lives are not 
ruled by faith. Considering this perversion and ruin 
of vital religious interests, no man who weighs 
well the matter will wonder to see the nations 
groaning under the chastising hand of God, and 
trembling for fear of sorer calamities to come. 

To reconcile, then, the offended majesty of God, 
and to bring some healing to these lamentable 
evils, there is nothing more efifec- tual or more 
fruitful than fervent and persevering prayer 
conjoined with practice of the Christian virtues; 
and for both ends we hold most fitting the Rosary 

of Mary. Its value is attested by its well- known 
origin, which is so fair a page in history, and has 
by ourself been so often noted. Precisely when the 
sect of the Albigenses, pre- tending zeal for faith 
and morals, were bringing both to ruin, and were 
molesting the Faithful in many nations, the Church 
armed her- self, to meet their brutal warfare, with 
no weapon but the Holy Rosary, the institution and 
the preaching whereof were suggested to the 
Patriarch, St. Dominic, by the Blessed Virgin 
herself. By means of this did the Church gain her 
glorious victory, and as in that tern- pest so in all 
storms that followed, she safeguarded with 
splendid success the welfare of the world. In the 
present course of things, also — a course that all 
good men deplore as grievous to religion and 
injurious to society — it is most meet and right that 
we should all with one mind and one heart entreat 
the Holy Mother of God, through the prayers of the 
Rosary, that she would grant to us all to enjoy its 
proper fruits. Indeed, to turn to Mary is to turn to 
the Mother of Mercy, who is so disposed toward 
us that at every need of ours — especially at every 

need of the soul — she hastens, she prevents our 
prayers, she imparts to us the treasures of that 
grace wherewith from the beginning God had filled 
her so that she might become His worthy Mother. 
And this most special prerogative, among many 
lofty pre- rogatives, places the Most Holy Virgin 
so much above Angels and men. 


and so near to Jesus Christ. "It is a great thing," 
says St. Thomas, "that any Saint should possess so 
much grace as to suffice for the salvation of many; 
but did he possess so much as to suffice for the 
salvation of all men, that were the greatest glory; 
and so it was with Christ and with the Blessed 
Virgin." When, therefore, we greet Mary with the 
praise of the Angel, and, by repeating that same 
word of praise, weave for her our crowns of 
devotion, words may not express how welcome to 
her is our homage. Moreover, in that greeting we 

record her sublime exaltation and the beginning of 
our salvation in the Incarnation of the Word, and 
we bear witness how divinely and how 
indissolubly she is united with the joys and the sor- 
rows, with the humiliations and the triumphs of her 
Son Jesus, and with His government and His 
sanctification of our souls. It pleased His immense 
goodness to make Himself like unto us, to call 
Himself and offer Himself as a son of man, and 
thus, our brother, so that more brightly might shine 
His mercy. "Wherefore it behooved Him in all 
things to be made like unto His brethren, that He 
might become a merciful and faithful high priest 
before God, that He might be a propitiation for the 
sins of the people." Nor otherwise did Mary, 
elected to be the Mother of the Lord, Who is our 
Brother, obtain, above all other mothers, the 
mission of imparting and awarding His mercy. 
Hence it follows that as we are debtors to Christ in 
that He in a certain measure communicated to us 
His right to name and to have God as His Father, in 
like manner are we His debtors in that He most 
lovingly shared with us His right to name and to 

have Mary as His Mother. And since by nature the 
name of mother is most sweet to us, and we have in 
the mother the type of tenderness and of loving 
solicitude, no tongue may express — albeit devout 
souls have proved — what a fire of gracious and 
active charity burns in the heart of her who, not by 
nature but by grace is our mother. Far better than 
does any other mother, she knows and measures the 
things belonging to us; and is aware of all that 
befalls our life, of all the 


public and the private perils of our state; weighs 
the burdens, the evils, the pains; watches the hard 
and continuous warfare that we wage with the 
bitter enemies of our souls. Amid all these difficult 
ways of life she is able and generously willing to 
bring help, comfort, every kind of succour to her 
beloved sons. Let us, then, go before Mary with 
alacrity and confidence, praying to her by the 

bonds of maternity that unite her to Jesus and to us; 
in lowliness and devo- tion let us invoke succour 
from her according to the manner of prayer which 
she herself has taught us and which is to her so 
accept- able; and then, with a heart secure and 
content, let us abandon our- selves within the arms 
of this good Mother. 

To the worth which the Rosary gains from the 
prayer whereof it is composed is added another 
and most noble value, which consists in the fact 
that it contains an easy manner of mastering the 
prin- cipal truths of our holy faith. It is by faith that 
man directly and surely approaches God and learns 
to recognize with heart and mind the unity and the 
majesty of His nature, His universal dominion, His 
supreme power, wisdom, and providence. "For he 
that cometh to God must believe that He is, and is a 
rewarder to them that seek Him." But since the 
Divine Word took flesh in order to make Him- self 
visibly the Way, the Truth, and the Life, our faith 
must embrace all the high mysteries of the most 
august Trinity of Divine Persons, and of the Only- 

begotten Son of God made man. "Now this is 
eternal life: that they may know Thee, the only true 
God, and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent." An 
incalculable benefit of God is this our faith 
whereby not only are we lifted up above human 
things, so as to be contemplators and participators 
of the Divine Nature, but we possess merit 
available for everlasting life: and whereby is fed 
and strengthened our hope of coming one day to 
behold unveiled and in full fruition the essence of 
that Divine goodness which now we per- ceive 
and love with difficulty in the pallid semblances of 
created things. The cares, however, and the 
distractions of life are such and 


so many that the Christian, if not constantly aided 
by instructions, easily forgets the great truths which 
it most concerns him to know, and such ignorance 
weakens when it does not destroy faith. Holy 

Church in her maternal vigilance neglects no cares 
and no labours in preserving her children from 
ignorance so fatal; and not the least of the means 
she uses is that of the Rosary of Mary. There, to the 
most beautiful and most fruitful prayers, repeated 
in order, are added the enunciation and 
consideration of the principal mysteries of our 
religion: first those that commemorate the Word 
made man for us, and Mary, virgin intact and 
mother, with holy delight ministering to Him the 
tender maternal office; next those sorrowful 
mysteries of Jesus — agonies, torments, death, the 
infinite price of our Redemption; and then His 
mysteries of glory, the triumph over death, the 
ascen- sion into Heaven, the mission of the Holy 
Spirit, the wonderful glori- fication of Mary, and 
finally the joy eternal of all the Saints with the 
Mother and the Son. And this gathering of 
mysteries ineffable is recalled daily to the memory 
of the Faithful and, as it were, unfolded before 
their eyes; so that in a right recitation of the Rosary 
the soul receives a sweet and sensible unction, 
even as though it heard the very voice of the 

celestial Mother, lovingly raised to teach Divine 
truths and to show the way of salvation. It is not 
then too much to say that there is no fear that 
ignorance or error should cast out faith from the 
midst of those places, those families, and those 
people wherein the practice of the Rosary is 
maintained in its original honour. 

Nor is there less honour or value to be attributed to 
a further advantage intended by the care of the 
Church for her children through the Rosary — that 
is, that they should be pledged to greater vigilance 
in conforming their lives to the rules of the holy 
Gospel. Indeed, if it is true, as all believe on the 
strength of the Divine Word, that "Faith without 
works is dead," seeing that faith takes her vitality 
from charity, and charity is fruitful in good works, 
faith will 


avail nothing for the giving of eternal life to the 
Christian who has not acted as a Christian. "What 
shall it profit, my brethren, if a man say he hath 
faith, but hath not works? Shall faith be able to 
save him?" It is rather to be held that in the 
judgment of God such Christians are far more 
guilty than those unfortunates who are alto- gether 
ignorant of faith; since these last, precisely 
because they lack the light of the Gospel, are not, 
like the former, in a state of contra- diction 
between belief and action, and because their 
ignorance ren- ders them in a certain degree 
excusable or less faulty. In order, therefore, that a 
fair harvest of fruit may fulfill the faith which we 
profess, let the mysteries that are contemplated by 
our spirit kindle our heart to action. And how 
resplendent with examples of every loveliest 
virtue is the work of Redemption accomplished by 
Jesus Christ our Lord! God, by an excess of charity 
toward us, stoops from His omnipotent greatness to 
the low condition of men, abides among men as 
one of them, speaks to them as a friend, persuades 
with all solicitude the individual and the multitude 

alike into the order of righteousness, the rays of 
Divine authority piercing through the excellence of 
His human mastership. He does good to all, He 
raises the sick from the pains of the body, He heals 
the sufferings of the soul, compassionate ever as a 
Father. He calls with singular lov- ing kindness the 
oppressed and the afflicted to Himself, saying, 
"Come unto Me all ye that labour and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest." And when He has 
taken us to His heart and we are there at rest, He 
inspires us with that mystic fire which He brought 
upon earth. He infuses into us the meekness and 
humility of His own heart, so that our souls, too, 
may taste of that heavenly peace which He alone 
can and will give to them. "Learn of Me, for I am 
meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest unto 
your souls." Finally, if by so bright illuminations of 
celestial wisdom, if by so many bene- fits granted 
to man. He yet cannot win their love, but rather 
receives from them hatred, injustice, cruelty, He 
will pour out His blood, He 


will die upon a Cross, He will with His whole 
heart accept death to give them back their life. 
Recalling memories so exceedingly tender as 
these, a Christian cannot but feel greatly moved 
with gratitude toward His most loving Redeemer. 
The vigour of his faith, if his faith be what it 
should be, will be greatly increased, will lighten 
his intellect and reach his heart, and will be his 
strongest incentive to walk in the traces of Christ, 
declaring in words well worthy of a St. Paul, 

"Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? 
Shall tribula- tion? or distress? or famine? or 
nakedness? or danger? or persecu- tion? or the 
sword?" "And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in 

i) me. 

In order that the weakness of our mortal nature may 
not be over- whelmed by the most high example of 
God made man, there are offered to our 
contemplation, in union with the mysteries of the 

Son, the mysteries of His most Holy Mother. Born, 
albeit, of the Royal race of David, she possesses 
no vestiges of the splendour or of the riches of her 
ancestors; she dwells obscurely in the humble 
town and in the yet humbler house, content with 
poverty and solitude, whence the better her soul 
may lift itself to God, her highest love and happi- 
ness. But the Lord is with her and fills her and 
blesses her with His grace. To her does His 
celestial message declare that of her, through the 
operation of the Holy Ghost, shall be born in 
human flesh the hoped-for Saviour of the nations. 
At the thought of such an exaltation, the more she 
marvels at the power and mercy of God, the more 
deeply withdrawn into her own heart, doth she 
humble her- self. Even as she becomes the Mother 
of God does she declare and devote herself as His 
most lowly handmaid. And according to her pious 
promise she undertakes with alacrity and 
generosity that per- petual community of life with 
her Divine Son which she is henceforth to live in 
the day of anguish as in the day of joy. And thus 
shall she reach to such a height of glory as no man 

and no Angel shall ever touch; for none shall 
compare with her in virtues and merits; she 


shall be Queen of Heaven and earth, of Angels and 
men, and the unconquered Queen of Martyrs. And 
therefore shall she sit eternally in the heavenly 
Jerusalem at the side of the Son, inasmuch as, con- 
stant always, and especially in the hour of Calvary, 
she has tasted with Him the bitter cup of a 
lingering passion. 

Behold then how in Mary the Divine mercy and 
Providence have revealed to us a model of all 
virtue — a model framed expressly for us; so that 
in looking upon her and upon her actions we might 
not be bewildered by the lightnings of the Divine 
Majesty, but, taking courage from our community of 
nature, might go forward more hope- fully in the 
work of imitation. If we will take heart and 

comfort from her, and apply ourselves eagerly to 
the study of her example, we shall assuredly 
succeed in reproducing at least the principal linea- 
ments of so great virtue and perfection; and 
copying more closely than all else that full and 
wonderful resignation of hers to the Divine will, 
we shall be well able to follow her upon the way 
to Heaven. 

For toward Heaven is our pilgrimage directed; and 
however hard and thorny be the road, let us go on 
in confidence and courage, and let us not cease, 
amid tribulation and weariness, to stretch forth our 
hands to Mary, crying to her in the words of Holy 
Church: "To thee we sigh, mourning and weeping 
in this valley of tears. Turn on us those merciful 
eyes of thine. . . . Give us to lead a pure life, open 
to us a secure way; so that in the life of Jesus we 
ma)' rejoice for ever." And Mary, who, albeit she 
has never proved them, knows yet all the 
weaknesses of our corrupt nature, and who is the 
kindest and the most solicitous of all mothers, will 
come eagerly and lovingly to our succour, restoring 

us and delivering us by her virtue. If we shall keep 
with constancy to the way that was consecrated by 
the Divine Blood of Jesus and by the tears of Mary, 
it will bring us with- out fail and without great 
pain to a participation in their blessedness. Since, 
then, the Rosary contains so closely and so 
fruitfully united an excellent method prayer, a fit 
means for the preservation of the 


Faith, and a fair sequence of examples of all virtue 
and goodness, it is meet and right that all true 
Christians should have it often in their, hands, upon 
their lips, and in their hearts. And in a particular 
manner do we commend it to that pious 
Association, recently approved by Ourself, which 
bears the title of the Holy Family. For since this 
Society has reference to the hidden life of Jesus 
Christ our Lord in Nazareth, with the intention of 
forming Christian families upon the model of that 

family divinely constituted, its special connec- tion 
with the Rosary becomes immediately apparent; 
most in the Joyful Mysteries, which close when 
Jesus, having manifested His wis- dom in the 
Temple, went with Mary and Joseph to Nazareth 
and was subject to them, deferring, as it were, the 
other mysteries until He should have completed 
His work as Master and Redeemer of the human 
family. Hence the members of that pious 
Association may learn what should be their 
diligence in fostering and in propagating the 
devotion of the Rosary. On Our side We co nf irm 
all the spirit- ual favours conferred in past years, 
with the prescribed conditions, for the fulfillment 
of the pious practices of the month of October. And 
we have confidence in your authority and in your 
zeal, Vener- able Brethren, that this year, as ever, 
the Catholics of the whole world will vie in a holy 
emulation in honouring through the Rosary that 
Blessed Virgin who is invoked as Help of 

And now we desire that this our appeal should 

close as it began, with a declaration of the 
gratitude which we ourself profess toward the 
great Mother of God, and of the living faith which 
we place in her. We have much at heart the wish 
that Christians should kneel before her altars and 
lift their prayers to her: prayers for Holy Church 
attacked by so great hatred and hostility; prayers 
for us, so much wearied with years and labours, so 
much hampered and beset, deprived of any place 
of human strength, yet standing Ruler of the Church. 
In Mary, sweet and mighty Mother, rests our hope, 
and more and more does she strengthen us and 
favour us. To her inter- 


cession we attribute the many and signal benefits 
we have had from God; and we acknowledge 
among these, with an impulse of peculiar gratitude, 
the prospect we have of entering upon the Jubilee 
year of our episcopal consecration. Great is this 

event in our eyes; it carries our memory back over 
a long space of ministry, and particularly over that 
time which we have spent in a daily solicitude for 
the universal flock of Christ. In that space of a 
human life we have not lacked occasions of joys, 
mingled, indeed, with more and bitter occasions of 
sorrow that yet bear happy fruits of glory in Christ- 
And we, ador- ing in all things, with an qual mind, 
the designs of God and blessing His loving hand, 
have had care to turn all — joys, sorrows, and 
glories — to the good and to the honour of His 
Church. And if the remainder of our life shall be 
not unlike that part of it which is spent; if new joys 
arise, if new sorrows are preparing, if perchance 
some splendour of glory is to be added to us, none 
the less with eyes and heart looking to God only 
for the Divine rewards, shall we repeat with joy 
those words of David: "Not unto us, O Lord, not 
unto us, but to Thy Name give glory." To speak 
truth, we shall welcome from our children, whose 
goodwill and piety are known to us, less praises 
and congratulations than the solemn offering-up of 
thanksgiv- ings and prayers to the Divine 

Goodness for us. Nor can anything rejoice us more 
than that our sons should by their prayers obtain for 
us that our whole remaining life and strength, 
authority and fortune, may serve the welfare of the 
Church, and principally may be the means of 
bringing back to her those enemies and those 
wanderers whom we have long and lovingly 
bidden to return. Moreover, all our most beloved 
children may at our approaching Jubilee festival 
— if God shall please to grant us that day — 
gather the abundant fruits of righteousness, of 
peace, of prosperity, of sanctification, of every 
good. With the heart of a father do we ask this for 
them of God, adding these Divine exhortations: 
"Hear me, and bud forth as the rose planted by the 
brooks of waters. Give ye a sweet odour as 


frankincense. Send forth flowers as the lily, and 
yield a smell, and bring forth leaves in grace, and 

praise with canticles, and bless the Lord in His 
works. Magnify His Name, and give glory to Him 
with the voice of your lips, and with the canticles 
of your mouths, and with harps. . . . With the whole 
heart and mouth praise ye Him and bless the Name 
of the Lord." 

May God, by the mediation of the Queen of the 
Most Holy Rosary, favour all these desires and all 
these counsels; and if the impious, who blaspheme 
what they understand not, venture to mock us, may 
He mercifully forgive them. 

And you, Venerable Brethren, receive as a sign of 
Divine favour and as a mark of our particular 
affection, the Apostolic Benediction which we 
confer upon you, your clergy, and your people, in 
the Lord. 

Given at Rome, by St. Peter's, on the 8th of 
September of the year 1892, the fifteenth of our 




IBERTY, the highest gift of nature, which belongs 
only to intel- -*■ — ’ lectual or rational beings, 
confers on man this dignity, that he is "in the hand 
of his counsel" and has power over his actions. But 
the manner in which this dignity is borne is of the 
greatest moment, inasmuch as on the use that is 
made of liberty the highest good and the greatest 
evil alike depend. Man, indeed, is free to obey his 
reason, to seek moral good, and to strive after his 
last end. Yet he is free also to turn aside to all 
other things, to follow after false dreams of 
happiness, to disturb established order, and to fall 
head- long into the destruction which he has 
voluntarily chosen. The Redeemer of mankind, 
Jesus Christ, having restored and exalted the 

original dignity of nature, vouchsafed special 
assistance to the will of man; and by the gifts of 
His grace, and the promise of heavenly bliss He 
raised it to a nobler state. In like manner this great 
gift of nature has ever been, and always will be, 
constantly cherished by the Catholic Church; for to 
her alone has been committed the charge of 
handing down to all ages the benefits purchased for 
us by Jesus Christ. Yet there are many who imagine 
that the Church is hostile to human liberty. Having 
a false and absurd notion as to what liberty is, 
either they pervert the very idea of liberty, or they 
extend it at their pleasure to many things in which 
man cannot rightly be regarded as free. 

We have on other occasions, and especially in Our 
Encyclical Letter Immortelle Dei, in treating of the 
so-called modern liberties, distinguished between 
their good and evil elements: and We have shown 
that whatsoever is good therein is as ancient as 
truth itself, 



and that the Church has always most willingly 
approved and prac- tised it; but whatsoever has 
been added is of a vitiated kind, the fruit of the 
disorders of the age and of an insatiate longing 
after novelties. Seeing, however, that many cling 
so obstinately to their own opinion in this matter as 
to imagine these modern liberties, vitiated as they 
are, to be the greatest glory of our age, and the very 
basis of civil life, without which no perfect 
government could be con- ceived, We therefore 
feel it now Our duty, for the sake of the com- mon 
good, to treat separately of this subject. 

It is with moral liberty, whether in individuals or 
in communities, that We proceed to deal. But, first 
of all, it will be well to speak briefly of natural 
liberty; for, though the two kinds are distinct and 
separate, the natural is the fountain-head of liberty 
of whatsoever kind. The unanimous consent and 

judgment of men, which is cer- tainly the voice of 
nature, recognizes this natural liberty in those only 
who are endowed with intelligence or reason; and 
it is by this that man is rightly regarded as 
responsible for his actions. For, while other 
animate creatures follow their senses, seeking 
good and avoid- ing evil only by instinct, man has 
reason to guide him in all the acts of his life. 
Reason sees the contingency of all the good things 
which are upon earth; and thus, seeing that none of 
them are of necessity for us, it leaves the will free 
to choose what it pleases. But man can judge of 
this contingency, only because he has a soul that is 
simple, spiritual, and intellectual; a soul, therefore, 
which is not produced by matter, and does not 
depend on matter for its existence; but which is 
created immediately by God, and, far surpassing 
the condition of material things, has a life and 
action of its own — so that, knowing of the 
unchangeable and necessary reasons of what is true 
and good, it can judge of the contingency of 
anything in particular. When, there- fore, it is 
established that man’s soul is immortal and 

rational, the foundation of natural liberty is at once 
most firmly laid. 

As the Catholic Church declares in the strongest 
terms the sim- 


plicity, spirituality, and immortality of the soul, so 
with unequalled constancy she asserts also its 
freedom. These truths she has always taught, and 
has sustained them as a dogma of faith; and 
whensoever heretics or innovators have attacked 
the liberty of man, the Church has defended it and 
protected it from assault. History bears witness to 
the energy with which she met the fury of the 
Manichseans and the like; and the earnestness with 
which in later years she defended human liberty in 
the Council of Trent, and against the followers of 
Jansenius, is a well-known fact. Never, and in no 
place, has she made truce with fatalism. 

Liberty, then, as We have said, belongs only to 
those who have the gift of reason or intelligence. 
Considered as to its nature, it is the faculty of 
choosing means fitted for the end proposed; for he 
only is master of his actions who can choose one 
thing out of many. Now, since everything chosen as 
a means is viewed as good or use- fill, and since 
good, as such, is the proper object of our desire, it 
fol- lows that freedom of choice is a property of 
the will, or rather is identical with the will in so 
far as it has in its action the faculty of choice. But 
the will cannot proceed to act until it is enlightened 
by the knowledge possessed by the intellect. In 
other words, the good wished by the will is 
necessarily good in so far as it is known by the 
intellect; and the more so, because in all voluntary 
acts choice is subsequent to a judgment upon the 
truth of the good presented, declaring to which 
preference should be given. No sensible man can 
doubt that judgment is an act of reason, not of the 
will. The end, or object, both of the rational will 
and of its liberty, is the good which is in 
conformity with reason. Since, however, both these 

faculties are imperfect, it is possible, as is often 
seen, that the reason should propose to the will a 
good that is not true, but apparent, and that the will 
should choose accordingly. Just as the possibility 
of error, and actual error, are defects of the mind 
and attest its imper- fection; the pursuit of an 
apparent good, though a proof of our free- 


dom, just as a disease is a proof of our vitality, 
implies defect in human liberty. The will also, 
simply because of its dependence on the reason, no 
sooner desires anything contrary thereto, than it 
abuses its freedom of choice and corrupts its very 
essence. Thus it is that the infinitely perfect God, 
although, because of the supremacy of His intellect 
and of His essential goodness, He is supremely 
tree, nevertheless cannot choose evil; neither can 
the Angels and Saints, who enjoy the Beatific 
Vision. St. Augustine and others urged most 

admirably against the Pelagians, that, if the 
possibility of deflection from good belonged to the 
essence or perfection of liberty, then God, Jesus 
Christ, and the Angels and Saints, who have not 
this power, would have no liberty at all, or would 
have less liberty than man has in his state of 
pilgrimage and imperfection. This subject is often 
discussed by the Angelic Doctor, in bis 
demonstration that the possi- bility of sinning is not 
freedom but slavery. It will suffice to quote his 
subtle commentary on the words of Our Lord: 
"Whosoever com- mitteth sin, is the slave of sin" 
(St. Johnviii. 34). "Everything," he says, "is that 
which belongs to it naturally. When, therefore, it 
acts through a power outside itself it does not act 
of itself, but through another, that is, as a slave. But 
man is by nature rational. When, therefore, he acts 
according to reason, he acts of himself and accord- 
ing to his free will; and this is liberty. Whereas, 
when he sins, he acts in opposition to reason, and 
is moved by another, and so is bound by another’s 
chain. Therefore: ’Whosoever committeth sin is the 
slave of sin.’ " Even the heathen philosophers 

clearly recognized this truth, especially those who 
held that the wise man alone is free; and by the 
term "wise man" they meant, as is well known, the 
man trained to live in accordance with his nature, 
that is, injustice and virtue. 

Such then being the condition of human liberty, it 
necessarily stands in need of light and strength to 
direct its actions to good and to restrain them from 
evil. Without this the freedom of our will 


would be our ruin. First of all there must be law; 
that is, a fixed rule of teaching what is to be done 
and what is to be left undone. This rule cannot 
affect the lower animals in any true sense, since 
they act of necessity, following their natural 
instinct, and cannot of them- selves act in any other 
way. On the other hand, as was said above, he who 
is free can either act or not act, can do this or do 

that, as he pleases, because his judgment precedes 
his choice. And his judg- ment not only decides on 
good or evil in the abstract; but also on what is 
practically good and therefore to be chosen, and 
what is prac- tically evil and therefore to be 
avoided, so that he may attain his last end to which 
all his actions must be directed as means. This 
ordina- tion of reason is called law. In man's free 
will, moreover, or in the moral necessity of our 
voluntary acts being in accordance with reason, 
lies the very root of the necessity of law. Nothing 
more foolish can be uttered or conceived than the 
notion that, because man is free by nature, he is 
therefore exempt from law. Were this the case, it 
would follow that, to become free, we must 
become irra- tional; whereas the truth is that we 
must submit to law, precisely because we are 
naturally free. Law is the guide of man's actions; it 
turns him toward good by its rewards, and deters 
him from evil by its punishments. Foremost in this 
office comes the natural law, which is written and 
engraved in the mind of every man; and this is 
noth- ing but our reason, commanding us to do 

good and forbidding evil. Nevertheless, these 
prescriptions of human reason have the force of 
law, only because they are the voice and the 
interpreters of some higher power on which our 
reason and liberty necessarily depend; For, since 
the force of law consists in the imposing of 
obligations and the granting of rights, authority is 
its one and only foundation; the power, that is, of 
imposing the former and protecting the latter, and 
of assigning to both the necessary sanctions of 
reward and chastise- ment. But all this, clearly 
cannot be found in man, if, as his own supreme 
legislator, he is to determine his own actions. It 

APPENDIX xxxiii 

therefore, that the law of nature is identical with 
the eternal law, implanted in rational creatures, 
and inclining them to their right action and end; and 
it is identical also with the eternal reason of God, 

the Creator and Ruler of the world. To this rule of 
action and restraint of evil God has vouchsafed to 
give special aids for strength- ening and ordering 
the human will. The first and most excellent of 
these is His Divine grace, whereby the mind is 
enlightened and the will wholesomely invigorated 
and set in constant pursuit of moral good, so that 
the use of liberty becomes at once less difficult and 
less dangerous. Not that the Divine assistance 
hinders in any way the freedom of our will; for 
grace is intrinsic in man and in harmony with his 
natural inclinations, since it flows from the very 
Creator of his mind and will, by Whom all things 
are ordered in conformity with their nature. As the 
Angelic Doctor points out, it is because Divine 
grace comes from the Author of nature, that it is so 
admirably adapted to be the safeguard of every 
nature, and to maintain the character, efficiency and 
operations of each. 

What has been said of the liberty of individuals is 
no less appli- cable to them when considered as 
constituting civil society. For what reason and the 

natural law do for indviduals, that, human law, 
promulgated for their good, does for society. Of the 
laws enacted by men, some are concerned with 
what is good or bad by its very nature; and the one 
they command men to follow, but the other to 
avoid, adding at the same time a suitable sanction. 
But such laws by no means derive their origin from 
civil society; because, just as civil society did not 
create human nature, so neither can it be said to be 
the author of the good which befits human nature, 
or of the evil which is contrary to it; rather they 
come before all human society, and are the 
outcome of the natural, and consequently of the 
eternal law. The precepts, therefore, of the natural 
law, incorporated in the laws of men, have not 
merely the force of human law, but they pos- sess 
that higher and more august sanction which belongs 
to the law 


of nature and the eternal law. And within the 
sphere of this kind of laws, the duty of the civil 
legislator is mainly this: to make the com- munity 
obedient, by the adoption of a common discipline, 
and by put- ting restraint upon refractory viciously 
inclined men, so that, deterred from evil, they may 
turn to what is good, or at any rate may avoid 
causing trouble and disturbance to the State. But 
there are other enactments of the civil authority, 
which follow indirectly from the natural law, and 
decide cases of which the law of nature treats only 
in a general way. For instance, though nature 
commands all to con- tribute to the public peace 
and prosperity, the manner, and circum- stances, 
and conditions under which such service is to be 
rendered are determined by the wisdom of men. It 
is in the constitution of these particular rules of 
life, suggested by reason and prudence, and put 
forth by competent authority, that human law, 
properly so called, consists, binding all citizens to 
work together for the attainment of the common end 
proposed to the community, and forbidding them to 
depart from it; and, in so far as it is in conformity 

with the dictates of nature, leading to what is good, 
and deterring from evil. From this it appears that 
the eternal law of God is alone the standard and 
rule of human liberty, and that, not only of 
individuals, but also of the community and civil 
society which they constitute. Therefore, the true 
liberty of human society does not consist in every 
man doing what he pleases, for this would simply 
end in turmoil and confusion, and the overthrow of 
the State; but rather in this, that through the 
directions of the civil law he may more easily 
conform to the pre- scriptions of the eternal law. 
Likewise, the liberty of those who are in authority 
does not consist in the power to lay unreasonable 
and capricious commands upon their subjects, 
which would moreover be criminal and would 
lead to the ruin of the commonwealth; but the 
binding force of human laws is in this, that they are 
to be regarded as applications of the eternal law, 
and incapable of sanctioning any- thing which is 
not contained in that law, as in the principle of all 


Thus, St. Augustine most wisely says: "I think that 
you can see, at the same time, that there is nothing 
just and lawful in that temporal law, unless what 
men have gathered from this eternal law." If, then, 
by any power, there be sanctioned anything out of 
conformity with the principles of right reason, and 
which is consequently hurtful to the 
commonwealth, such an enactment can have no 
authority, as not being even a law of justice, but 
likely to lead men away from that good which is 
the only end of civil society. 

Therefore, the nature of human liberty, however it 
be considered, whether in individuals or in 
society, whether in those who command or in those 
who obey, supposes the necessity of obedience to 
some supreme and eternal law, which is no other 
than the authority of God, commanding good and 
forbidding evil. And, so far from this most 

equitable authority of God over men diminishing or 
destroying their liberty, it protects it and perfects 
it; for the prosecution and attainment of their 
respective ends are the real perfection of all 
creatures; and the supreme end to which human 
liberty can aspire is God. 

These precepts of the truest and highest teaching 
known to us by the very light of reason, the Church, 
instructed by the example and doctrine of her 
Divine Author, has ever propagated and asserted; 
for she has ever made them the measure of her 
office and of her teaching to the Christian nations. 
As to morals, the laws of the Gospel not only far 
surpass the wisdom of the heathen, but are an 
invitation and an introduction to a state of holiness 
unknown to the ancients; and, bringing man nearer 
to God, they make him at once the possessor of a 
more perfect liberty. Thus, the powerful influence 
of the Church has ever been manifested in the 
custody and protec- tion of the civil and political 
liberty of the people. The enumeration of its merits 
in this respect does not belong to our purpose. It is 

sufficient to recall the fact that slavery, that old 
reproach of the heathen nations, was mainly 
abolished by the beneficial efforts of the 


Church. The impartiality of law and the true 
brotherhood of man were first asserted by Jesus 
Christ; and His Apostles re-echoed His voice, 
when they declared that there was neither Jew nor 
Gentile, nor barbarian, nor Scythian, but all were 
brothers in Christ. So powerful, so conspicuous in 
this respect, is the influence of the Church, that 
experience abundantly testifies that savage customs 
are no longer possible in any land where she has 
once set her foot; but that gentleness speedily takes 
the place of cruelty, and the light of truth quickly 
dispels the darkness of barbarism. Nor has the 
Church been less lavish in the benefits she has 
conferred on civilized nations in every age, either 
by resisting the tyranny of the wicked, or by pro- 

tecting the innocent and helpless from injury; or, 
finally, by using her i nf luence in the support of any 
form of government which com- mended itself to 
the citizens at home because of its justice, or was 
feared by enemies without, because of its power. 

Moreover, the highest duty is to respect authority, 
and obediently to submit to just law; and by this the 
members of a community are effectually protected 
from the wrongdoing of evil men. Lawful power is 
from God, "and whosoever resisteth authority 
resisteth the ordinance of God." Wherefore, 
obedience is greatly ennobled, when subjected to 
an authority which is most just and supreme. But 
where the power to command is wanting, or where 
a law is enacted contrary to reason, or to the 
eternal law or the ordinance of God, obedience is 
unlawful, lest, while obeying man, we fail in 
obedience to God. Thus, by an effectual barrier 
being opposed to tyranny, the authority in the State 
will not have all its own way; but the interests and 
rights of all will be safeguarded — the rights of 
individuals, of domestic society, and of all the 

members of the commonwealth; so that all may be 
free to live according to law and right reason, in 
which, as We have shown, true liberty really 

If, when men discuss the question of liberty, they 
only grasp its true meaning, such as We have now 
drawn it out, they would never 



venture to affix such a calumny on the Church as to 
assert that she is the foe to individual and public 
liberty. But there are many who follow in the 
footsteps of Lucifer and adopt as their own his 
rebel- lious cry, "I will not serve"; and 

consequently substitute for true lib- erty what is 
sheer license. Such, for instance, are the men, 
belong- ing to that widely spread and powerful 
organization, who, usurping the name of liberty, 
style themselves Liberals. 

What Rationalists aim at in philosophy, that the 
supporters of Liberalism are attempting in the 
domain of morality and politics. The chief doctrine 
of Rationalism is the supremacy of the human 
reason, which, refusing due submission to the 
Divine and eternal reason, proclaims its own 
independence, and constitutes itself the supreme 
principle, and source, and judge of truth. So these 
follow- ers of Liberalism deny the existence of any 
Divine authority to which obedience is due, and 
proclaim that every man makes his own law; 
whence arises that ethical system which they style 
independent morality, and which, under the guise 
of liberty, exonerates man from any obedience to 
the commands of God, and substitutes a boundless 
license. The end of all this it is not difficult to 
foresee. For, once granted that man is firmly 

persuaded of his own supremacy, it fol- lows that 
the efficient cause of the unity of civil society is to 
be sought, not in any principle exterior or superior 
to man, but simply in the free will of individuals; 
that the power of the State is from the people only; 
and that, just as every man's individual reason is 
his only rule of life, so the collective reason of the 
community should be the supreme guide in the 
management of all public affairs. Hence the 
doctrine of the supremacy of the majority, and that 
the majority is the source of all law and authority. 
But, from what has been said, it is clear that all 
this is in contradiction to reason. To dissolve the 
bond of union between man and civil society, on 
the one hand, and God and the Creator, and 
consequently the supreme Legislator, on the other, 
is plainly repugnant to the nature, not only of man, 
but of 

xxxviii APPENDIX 

all created things; for, of necessity, all effects must 
in some way be connected with their cause; and it 
belongs to the perfection of every nature to contain 
itself within that sphere which the rational order 
has assigned to it; namely, that the inferior should 
be subject and obedient to the superior. But, 
besides this, a doctrine of this charac- ter is most 
hurtful both to individuals and to the State. For, 
once ascribe to human reason the only authority to 
decide what is true and what is good, and the real 
distinction between good and evil is destroyed; 
honor and dishonor become a matter of private 
opinion; pleasure is the measure of what is lawful; 
and, given a code of morality which can have little 
or no power to restrain the unruly propensities of 
man, a way is then opened to universal corruption. 
To turn to public affairs: authority is severed from 
the true and nat- ural principle whence it derives 
all its efficacy for the common good; and the law 
determining right and wrong is at the mercy of a 
majority — which is simply a downward path to 
tyranny. The empire of God over man and civil 
society once repudiated, it follows that religion, as 

a public institution, ceases to exist and with it 
everything that belongs to religion. Likewise, with 
ambitious designs on sover- eignty, tumult and 
sedition will be common among the people; and 
when duty and conscience cease to appeal to them, 
there will be nothing to hold them back but force, 
which is an inefficient restraint upon their 
covetousness. Of this we have almost daily 
evidence in the conflict with Socialists and other 
seditious societies, whose one object is revolution. 
It is for those, then, who are capable of form- ing a 
just estimate of things, to decide whether such 
doctrines pro- mote that true liberty which alone is 
worthy of man, or rather pervert and destroy it. 

There are, indeed, some adherents of Liberalism 
who do not sub- scribe to these opinions, which 
we have seen to be so fearful in their enormity, and 
tending to produce the most terrible evils. Indeed, 
many, compelled by the force of truth, do not 
hesitate to admit that 


such a liberty is vicious and simple license, when 
it is intemperate in its claims to the neglect of truth 
and justice; and therefore they would have liberty 
ruled and directed by right reason, and conse- 
quently subject to the natural law and to the Divine 
eternal law. And here they think they may stop, and 
hold that no man is bound by any law of God, 
except such as can be known by natural reason. In 
this they are plainly inconsistent; for if, as they 
must admit, and as no one can rightly deny, the will 
of the Divine Legislator is to be obeyed, because 
every man is under the power of God, and tends 
toward Him as his end, it follows that no one can 
assign limits to His legislative authority without 
failing in the obedience which is due. Indeed, if the 
human mind be so presumptuous as to define what 
are God's rights and its own duties, its reverence 
for the Divine law will be apparent rather than 
real, and its own judgment will prevail over the 
authority and providence of God. Man must, 
therefore, take his rule of life from the eternal law; 

and from every one of those laws which God, in 
His infinite wisdom and power, has been pleased 
to enact, and to make known to us in a manner so 
sure as to leave no room for doubt. And the more 
so, because laws of this kind have the same origin 
and author as the eternal law, and are absolutely in 
accordance with right reason, and perfect the 
natural law; and they constitute the government of 
God, Who graciously guides and directs both the 
intellect and the will of man lest they fall into 
error. Let, then, a holy and inviolable union prevail 
where disunion is neither seemly nor possible; and 
in all things, according to the dictates of right 
reason, let God be dutifully and obediently served. 

There are others, somewhat more moderate, though 
not more consistent, who affirm that the morality of 
individuals is to be guided by the Divine law, but 
not the morality of the State, so in public affairs the 
commands of God may be passed over, and may be 
disre- garded in the framing of laws. Hence 
follows that fatal theory of the separation of 
Church and State. But the absurdity of such a 



position is manifest. Nature herself proclaims the 
necessity of pro- viding in the State the means and 
opportunities whereby the com- munity may be 
enabled to live, as it should, according to the laws 
of God; for He is the source of all goodness and 
justice, and it is abso- lutely repugnant to maintain 
that such laws can be totally disre- garded, or 
rendered abortive by contrary enactments. Besides, 
those who are in authority owe it to the 
commonwealth not only to provide for the external 
well-being and administration of the State, but still 
more to consult for the welfare of men’s souls by 
the wisdom of their legislation. But for the 

increase of such benefits, nothing more suit- able 
can be conceived than the laws which have God 
for their author; and, therefore, they who in their 
government take no account of these laws abuse 
political power by causing it to deviate from its 
proper end and from what nature prescribes. And, 
what is of more importance, and what We have 
more than once pointed out, although the civil 
authority has not the same approximate end as the 
spiritual, nor proceeds on the same lines, 
nevertheless in the exercise of their separate 
powers they must occasionally meet. For their 
subjects are the same; and not unfrequently they 
deal with the same objects, though in different 
ways. Whenever this occurs, since a state of 
conflict is absurd and manifestly repugnant to the 
most wise ordi- nance of God, there must 
necessarily exist some order or mode of procedure 
to remove the occasions of difference and 
"contention, and to secure harmony in all things. 
This harmony has been not inaptly compared to that 
which exists between the body and the soul, for the 
well-being of both; the separation of which brings 

harm chiefly to the body, since it extinguishes its 
very life. 

To make this more evident, the growth of liberty 
ascribed to our age must be considered in its 
various details. And, first, let us examine that 
liberty in individuals which is so opposed to the 
virtue of religion, namely, the liberty of worship, 
as it is called, which rests on this principle, that 
every man is free to profess as he chooses any 


religion or none. But, assuredly, of all the duties 
which man has to fulfill, that, without doubt, is the 
chief and the holiest whereby he is bid to worship 
God with devotion and piety; which follows of 
neces- sity from the truth, that we are ever in the 
power of God, and are ever guided by His will 
and providence, and, having come forth from Him, 
must return to Him. Add to this, that no true virtue 

can exist without religion; for moral virtue is 
concerned with those things which lead to God, as 
man’s supreme and ultimate good; and there- fore 
religion, which (as St. Thomas says) "performs 
those actions which are directly and immediately 
ordered to the Divine honor," rules and governs all 
virtues. And if it be asked which of the many 
conflicting religions it is necessary to embrace, 
reason and the nat- ural law unhesitatingly answer 
that one which God commands and which men can 
without difficulty recognize for themselves by 
certain exterior signs whereby Divine Providence 
has ordered that it should be distinguished, 
because, in a matter of such moment, the most ter- 
rible loss would be the consequence of any error. 
Wherefore, with a freedom such as we have 
described, to man is given the power to pervert or 
abandon with impunity the most sacred of duties, 
and to exchange the unchangeable good for evil; 
which, as we have said, is not liberty, but the 
degradation of liberty, and the abject subjection of 
the soul to sin. 

This same liberty, if it be considered in relation to 
the State, clearly implies that there is no reason 
why the State should offer any homage to God, or 
should desire any public recognition of Him; that 
no form of worship is to be preferred to another, 
but that all stand on an equal footing; no account 
being taken of the religion of the people, even if 
they profess the Catholic faith. But, to justify this, 
it must needs be true that the State has no duties 
toward God, or that such duties, if they exist, may 
be abandoned with impunity; both of which 
assertions are manifestly false. For, it cannot be 
doubted that, by the will of God, men are united in 
civil society; whether its 


elements be considered; or its form, which is 
authority; or the object of its existence; or the 
abundance of the services which it renders to man. 
God it is Who has made man for society, and has 

placed him in the company of others like himself, 
so that what was wanting to his nature, and beyond 
his attainment if left to his own resources, he might 
obtain by association with others. Wherefore civil 
society must acknowledge God as its Founder and 
Parent, and must believe and worship His power 
and authority. Justice there- fore forbids, and 
reason forbids, the State to be godless; or to adopt 
a line of action which would end in godlessness, 
namely, to treat the various religions, as they call 

them, alike, and to bestow upon them 
promiscuously equal rights and privileges. Since, 

then, the profes- sion of one religion is necessary 
in the State, that one must be pro- fessed which 
alone is true, and which can be recognized without 
difficulty, especially in Catholic States, because 
the marks of truth are, as it were, engraven upon it. 
This religion, therefore, the rulers of the State must 
preserve and protect, if they would provide, as 
they should do, with prudence and usefulness, for 
the good of the com- munity. For the public power 
exists for the welfare of those whom it governs; 
and although its proximate end is to lead men to the 

prosperity which is found in this life, yet, in so 
doing, it ought not to diminish, but rather to 
increase, man's capability of attaining to the 
supreme good in which his everlasting happiness 
consists, and which never can be attained except 
through religion. 

But this We have explained more fully elsewhere. 
We now only wish to observe that liberty of such a 
kind is greatly hurtful to the true liberty both of 
rulers and of their subjects. Religion, moreover, is 
of wonderful advantage. For, deriving the first 
origin of power directly from God Himself, with 
grave authority it commands rulers to be mindful of 
their duty, to govern without injustice or severity, 
and to rule their people kindly and with an almost 
paternal charity; it admonishes subjects to be 
obedient to lawful authority, as to the 


ministers of God; and it binds them to their rulers, 
not merely by obedience, but by reverence and 
affection, forbidding all seditions and attempts that 
would disturb public order and tranquillity, and 
cause greater restrictions to be put upon the liberty 
of the people. We need not mention how greatly 
religion conduces to pure morals, and pure morals 
conduce to liberty; for reason shows, and history 
confirms the fact, that the better the morality of 
States, the greater liberty and wealth and power do 
they enjoy. 

We must now consider a little the liberty of speech, 
and the lib- erty of the Press. It is hardly necessary 
to say that there can be no such right as this, if it is 
not used in moderation, and if it passes beyond the 
bounds and end of all true liberty. For right is a 
moral power which, as We have said, and must 
again repeat, it is absurb to suppose that nature has 
given differently to truth and falsehood, to justice 
and injustice. Men have a right freely and 
prudently to propagate throughout the State 
whatsoever things are true and honorable, so that 

as many as possible may possess them; but false 
doctrines, than which no mental plague is greater, 
and vices which corrupt the heart, should be 
diligently repressed by public authority lest they 
insidiously work the ruin of the State. The excesses 
of an unbridled intellect, which really end in the 
oppression of the ignorant multitude, are not less 
rightly restrained by the authority of the law than 
are the injuries inflicted by force upon the weak; 
and even more so because by far the greater part of 
the community either absolutely cannot, or can only 
with great difficulty, avoid their illu- sions and 
subtleties, especially such as flatter their own 
passions. If unbridled license of speech and of 
writing be granted to all, nothing will remain 
sacred and inviolate; even the highest and truest 
judg- ments of nature, the common and noblest 
heritage of the human race, will not be spared. 
Thus, truth being obscured by darkness, pernicious 
and manifold error, as often happens, will easily 
prevail; and license will gain what liberty loses; 
for liberty will be more free 


and secure, in proportion as license is more 
restrained. In regard, however, to such matters of 
opinion as God leaves to man’s free dis- cussion, 
full' liberty of thought and of speech is naturally 
within the right of everyone; for this liberty never 
leads men to suppress the truth, but leads often to 
its discovery and manifestation. 

A like judgment must be passed upon what is 
called liberty of teaching. There can be no doubt 
that truth alone should imbue the minds of men; for 
in truth are found the well-being, and end, and 
perfection of intelligent nature; and therefore truth 
alone should be taught both to the ignorant and to 
the educated, so as to bring knowledge to the 
former and to preserve it in the latter. For this 
reason it is plainly the duty of those who teach to 
banish error from the mind, and by sure safeguards 
to exclude all false opinions. From this it follows, 

that, greatly opposed to reason, and tending 
absolutely to pervert men’s minds, is that liberty of 
which We speak, in so far as it claims for itself the 
right of teaching what it pleases — a liberty which 
the State cannot grant without failing in its duty. 

And the more so, because the authority of the 
teacher has great weight with his hearers, who can 
rarely decide for themselves as to the truth or 
falsehood of the instruction given to them. 

Wherefore, this liberty also, that it may be just, 
must be kept within certain limits, lest the art of 
teaching be turned with impunity into an instrument 
of corruption. Now truth, which should be the sole 
object of those who teach, is of two kinds, natural 
and supernat- ural. Of natural truths, such as the 
principles of nature and what is deduced from them 
immediately by reason, there is a kind of com- mon 
patrimony in the human race. On this, as on a firm 
basis, morality, and justice, and religion, and the 
very bonds of human society rest; and to allow it to 
be with impunity violated or destroyed would be 
impious, and foolish, and inhuman. But with no 

less relig- ious care must we preserve that great 
and sacred treasure, of the truths which God has 
taught us. By many convincing arguments 


which the defenders of Christianity have often 
used, certain leading truths have been laid down; 
namely, that some things have been revealed by 
God; that the Only Begotten Son of God was made 
Flesh, to bear witness to the truth; that a perfect 
society was founded by Him, that is, the Church, of 
which He is the head, and with which He has 
promised to abide till the end of the world. To this 
society He entrusted all the truths which He had 
taught, that it might keep and guard them, and with 
lawful authority explain them; and at the same time 
He commanded all nations to hear the voice of the 
Church, as if it were His own, threatening those 
who would not with everlasting perdition. Thus it 
is manifest that man’s best and surest teacher is 

God, the source and principle of all truth; and the 
Only Begotten Son, Who is in the bosom of the 
Father, the way, the truth, and the life, the true light 
which enlightens every man, and to Whose 
teaching all must submit: "And they shall all be 
taught of God" (St. John vi. 45). In faith and in the 
teaching of morality, God made the Church a 
partaker of His Divine authority, and through His 
Divine help she cannot be deceived. She is, 
therefore, the greatest and most safe teacher of 
mankind, with inviolable right to teach them. 
Sustained by the truth received from her Divine 
Founder, the Church has ever sought, above all 
things, to fulfill the mission entrusted to her by 
God; undeterred by the difficulties sur- rounding 
her, she has never ceased to assert her liberty of 
teaching; and in this way, the superstition of 
Paganism being dispelled, the world was renewed 
unto Christian wisdom. Now, reason itself teaches 
that the truths of revelation and those of nature 
cannot really be opposed to one another, and that 
whatever is at variance with them must necessarily 
be false. Therefore, the Divine teaching of the 

Church, so far from being an obstacle to the pursuit 
of learn- ing and the progress of science, or from 
retarding in any way the advance of civilization, in 
reality brings to them the guidance of a shining 
light. And for the same reason it is of great 
advantage for 


the perfecting of human liberty, since Our Saviour 
Jesus Christ has said that by truth is man made 
free: 'You shall know the truth and the truth shall 
make you free" (St. Johnviii. 32). Therefore, there 
is no reason why genuine liberty should be 
displeased, or true science feel aggrieved, in 
having to bear that just and necessary restraint by 
which, in the judgment of the Church and of reason 
itself, man's teaching has to be controlled. The 
Church, as facts have every- where proved, while 
she chiefly and above all looks to the defence of 
the Christian faith, is at the same time careful to 

foster and promote every kind of human learning. 
Learning is in itself good, and praiseworthy, and 
desirable; and all erudition which is the fruit of 
sound reason, and in conformity with the truth of 
things, serves not a little to illustrate what God has 
taught us. The Church, indeed, to our great benefit, 
has carefully preserved the monuments of ancient 
wisdom; has opened everywhere homes